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Faults and Earthquakes

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Jerry Wilson

on 26 February 2013

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Transcript of Faults and Earthquakes

Faults and Earthquakes Types of Faults Many people love California, despite its faults! Normal Faults are caused by forces that pull rocks apart. Normal Faults Reverse Faults are caused by rock being compressed, or squeezed. Reverse Faults Strike Slip Faults are caused by a shearing force, causing the rock to break and move sideways, not up or down. Strike Slip Fault Give an example of a strike slip fault. What kind of plate boundary would produce a reverse fault? What kind of plate boundary would produce a normal fault? What kind of plate boundary would cause a strike slip fault? A FAULT is a crack in the crust along which rock moves. The rock does not slide smoothly. It gets stuck and then releases. What happens when the rock suddenly releases after being stuck for a long time? Seismic Waves Primary Waves (P Waves) are the fastest earthquake waves. They vibrate like this.... Secondary Waves (S-Waves) are slower and they vibrate like this.... Surface Waves move across the surface of the ground, like ocean waves move over water. They travel a shorter distance than P or S waves. Which type of seismic wave causes the most damage during an earthquake? The FOCUS is the point along the fault where movement occurs. The EPICENTER is the point on the surface directly above the focus. Measuring Earthquakes A seismograph is used to measure the strength of passing seismic waves from an earthquake. Why does the P Wave arrive at the seismograph first? It takes 3 seismograph locations to locate the epicenter. Why? The RICHTER SCALE goes from 1 to 10 and is a measure of how much energy is released by an earthquake as determined by a seismograph. Every point on the scale is equal to 32 times more energy released. A TSUNAMI is an ocean wave created by an earthquake under the ocean floor. Tsunamis can travel more than 500 miles per hour. They slow down and get taller as they approach land. An earthquake of magnitude 7 on the Richter scale releases how much more energy than one that measures a 5? Movement along what kind of fault would be most likely to cause a tsunami? The distance to an earthquake can be calculated using the time difference between when the P wave arrives and when the S wave arrives. San Andreas Fault
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