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Time Line Prezi

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Ashley Pabon

on 18 July 2015

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Transcript of Time Line Prezi

Before 10,000 BC
Time Line Prezi
How and Why Humans Dress
Prehistoric: Stone Age Tool
How and Why Humans Dress
How and Why Humans Dress
Dress Motivations
Flint Burins , 12,500 B.C, The British Museum, London, England.


These tools were found in the rockshelter of La Madeleine, Dordogne, France. A burin is a common tool that has a narrow working edge. this one in particular has a scraper at the other end. It was used for drawing but also cutting out pieces of bone and antler. These materials would be used to make items such as needles or jewelry.
Flint Burins
60,000 BC
Prehistoric: Rock Art
Ubirr, 40,000–6000 B.C, The Metropolitan Museum of Arts, New York.
Ubirr Rock Art
The site of Ubirr is located in Arnhem Land, northern Australia. The paintings are done in red ocher pigments on Aboriginal rock. The artist(s) most likely used brushes made from bark, feathers, or the chewed ends of sticks. The stick figures are partaking in traditional hunting activities. The figure here appears to be adorned with some kind of
garment
whether for the purpose of
utility
or
protection
. There is also evidence of an accessory or jewelery on his ankles. Jewelry could also be a sign of
status
or even a
ritual
process to help protect or strengthen the hunter.
Ocher Pigment
Adornment
Tailored:
Coat
(Protection)
Tailored: Bifurcated
(Self Expression, seduction, protection)
This image shows motivations of:
protection
,
utility
,
personal expression
and
seduction
. A
coat
is a T-shaped garment that is open down the front. In this case, it acts as protection against the cold weather because it is tightly fitted and has a zipper to keep me warm. The Jeans are examples of
bifurcated
attire because they cover the legs and allow for movement. These jeans were worn as protection, personal expression and seduction. They flatter and draw attention to my figure which boosts my self esteem and appeals to the opposite sex. Lastly, the tan bag acts as a utility. It helped carry my wallet and phone.
Bag (Utility)
How and Why Humans Dress
Dress Motivations
Bindi
(Personal expression,
status)
This image shows motivations of:
Devotional
,
personal

expression
,
group identification
and
status of hierarchy
. My friend is from the west indian culture. The sari, which is wrapped and folded onto the body, is worn for important ceremonies and religious events. It also acts a group identifier for her culture and for the event she is attending. My friend is performing an act of
Appearance Management
, because she knows what she wears will be perceived a certain way (
Appearance perception
) by those familiar to her culture. She also wears a facial accessory called a Bindi. This is purely decorative and acts a ego boost and shows her status. Jewels stand for wealth and comfortable living.
Non sewn: Drapery Sari
(Devotional,
Group Identification)
New York, Personal photograph,
Ashley Pabon. 2013.
New York, Personal photograph,
Ashley Pabon. 2014.
How and Why Humans Dress
Body Art & Color Symbolism
This image shows my friend Ria's hands after attending an Indian wedding ceremony. In her culture it is a part of a
ritual
for woman and girls to get
Henna
on the front and backs of their hands before a wedding. The bride will often get it on her hands and up to her elbows. Henna is a
dye
, or a pigment that is used to create ornate designs that stain the skin
temporarily
. In India and even in American henna is seen as a beautiful decoration of the skin.
Dye
(Henna)
New York, Personal photograph, Ashley Pabon. 2014.
How and Why Humans Dress
Body Modification
Chris Rainier, "Mentawai Tribe," " Looking at the World's Tattoos" Smithsonian Magazine, October, 2010.


The Mentawai tribe lives on the remote island Siberut in Indonesia. They alter their appearance permanently with
tattooing
, the art of filling layers of skin with dye by using a sharp tool. The man on the far left has spiderweb-like tattoos, while the man on the right has shapes that mimic the mythological creatures of the forest. These are examples of beauty for
ritual
and
totemic
purposes. They want to imitate animals with their own body. By doing so they believe they can attract benevolent spirits to anchor to their soul.






Mentawai Tribe
2010
Tattoos
Henna 2014
2013
How and Why Humans Dress
Body Modification
William Clark, Chinookan Head Flattening Manuscript, 1806. 27 Mar. 2015 <www.ohs.org>.


This is an illustration from the journal of explorer William Clark. He depicts what he considers a strange practice of, head flattening, done by the Chinookan people. Head flattening, a relatively common practice of
reshaping
, in which the people use a contraption (depicted on the left) in order to force the forehead to change over time. For these people it was a mark of
status or hierarchy
. The process began at birth and continued for another eight to twelve months until the reshape was complete. It was not harmful or painful for children and it was
permanent modification.


Chinookan Head Flattening
1806
Reshaping Device
2000
1900
1800
1700
1600
2014
Modification.
Considered beautiful and important.
How and Why Humans Dress
Body Art
Tracey Taylor, "A traditional geisha in Japan", "Smithsonian Journeys", August 2010.
Geisha
1800
Body Paint
Kimono
(considered a Coat but has some draping and folding qualities.)
Mask
The geisha tradition gained prominence in the mid-18th century when women worked as skilled entertainers, dancing, singing and playing music. They are most known for their elaborate
body paint
, a pigment applied to the body (face) temporarily. The thick, white foundation, red lips, and red and black highlights around the eyes are three notable features. The foundation stops at the hairline to give the illusion of a
mask
. It also highlights and accentuates the neck (
erogenous zone
) to allure and
seduce
viewers. The eyes are outlined with black. The Red cosmetic holds a
color symbolism
dependent on the location. Red on the eyes shows the youthful status of the geisha. However, the fuller the red lips of the geisha are, the more experienced she is. The red lips are suppose to symbolize a flower bud.
How and Why Humans Dress
Body Art
Kenneth Garrett, “ National Geographic News,”
National Geographic
, January 15, 2010, http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2010/01/100114-cleopatra-eye-makeup-ancient-egyptians/
Egyptians makeup
50 BC
Body Paint
Cosmetics
Egyptians are known for wearing
cosmetics
for both
seduction
and
utility
. Their heavily painted eyelids certainly enhanced their features and allured admirers. However, it also served a magical purpose. Egyptians believed the
color symbolism
of the green and black powders would call upon the gods Horus and Ra, protecting them from illnesses.
Cross-culturally,
green stands for growth and prosperity. Egyptians were seeking a long life which is very similar to this idea. Recent studies show that the makeup egyptians wore actually had chemicals such as lead salts in it. When these salts came into contact with the skin it would actually boost their immune system. Despite this fact, Horus and Ra took all the credit!
How and Why Humans Dress
Body Modification


In this image you can see my
body modification
in the form of a
piercing
. I got a ring pierced through my nose with the motivation of
self expression
. I really like how they look and they have become very popular in American culture. Unlike other cultures this style is just for looks. Some people may get them for seduction.





Nose Ring
2015
Piercing
New York, Personal photograph, Ashley Pabon. 2015.
(40,000–6000 B.C)
12,500 B.C
The Ancient World
Ancient Egypt: Male
Kneeling statuette of King Amasis, 570–526 B.C, The Metropolitan Museum, New York, New York.

This statue of a male reveals motivation of
hierarchy and status
. The first clue is in his a royal headdress called a
nemes
. This was common attire worn by Kings. He is also wearing a short wrapped
linen
skirt called a
schenti
. A schenti was worn by all classes, but they were elaborated with belts by the elites to show status. In this case the belt was decorated with an inscription of the Kings name. If you look very closely on the front of schenti, you can see the symbol
Ankh
which stands for eternal life.
Kneeling statuette of King Amasis
570–526 B.C
Nemes
Elaborate
Belt
Linen
Schenti
Drapery
Ankh
The Ancient World
Ancient Egypt: Female
Statuette, Neith, 664–380 B.C, The Metropolitan Museum, New York, New York.

This statue of a female reveals the motivation of
hierarchy and status.
Her
crown
resembles the lower Egypt style. She is also wearing a gender specific dress called a
kalasiris
. A Kalasiris is a tight fitting rectangular tube that had removable sleeves. Sometimes woman would layer a beaded kalasiris over it to enhance how it fit the body. Egyptians loved color but linen was too difficult to dye, so it remained cream or white. All egyptians, except slaves, wore jewelry to add color. The higher the status the more precious the materials. The
superhumeral
was a broad collar necklace. It could be made of
gold
,
precious stones
or a fine enamel-work called
faience
.
Statuette, Neith
664–380 B.C.
Lower Egypt Crown
Superhumeral

Linen Kalasiris
The Ancient World
Ancient Egypt: Lower Class/Slaves
Brickmakers, Tomb of Rekhmire, 1479–1425 B.C, The Metropolitan Museum, New York, New York.

These figures are most likely slaves building a pyramid. Like all other male Egyptians they are wearing a
schenti
. The skirt is short due to
status
but it acts as a
utility
because it keeps them cool in the hot sun. Based on the harsh outline on their eyes, there may be some evidence of
kohl makeup
. This is also utlity based because it minimizes the amount of glare from the sun.
Brickmakers, Tomb of Rekhmire
1479–1425 B.C.
Schenti
Drapery
Kohl
Makeup

The Ancient World
Ancient Greece : Female
Standing Maiden with Kerchief, 300-275 B.C,
The Walters Art Museum, Baltimore, Maryland.
Standing Maiden with Kerchief
300-275 BC
Fillet
Chiton

Himation
This sculpture shows a young Hellenistic woman in
drapery
. Her attire is motivated by
modesty
, a big part of the ancient greek culture. Her attire is simple and refined with no jewelery and her hair is in a bun with only a single fillet. A
fillet
is band of fabric wrapped around the hair. She is wearing a
chiton
, a voluminous draped dress that came floor length. She is using a
girdle
wrapped around her chest to create a cinched style with the chiton.
Girlde
The Ancient World
Ancient Greece : Male Soldier
Soldier, 332-30 B.C,
The Walters Art Museum, Baltimore, Maryland.
Soldier
332-30 BC
Helmet
Greaves
This sculpture shows a soldier dressed with the motivation to
protect
himself. He is wearing a leather and metal
armor
in preparation for war. Uniforms like this were common in places like Sparta. He is wearing a breast plate called a
cuirass
and shin guards called
greaves
.
Cuirass
The Ancient World
Ancient Greece : Male
Black-Figure "Pinax" (Plaque), 6th century B.C,
The Walters Art Museum, Baltimore, Maryland.
Black-Figure "Pinax" (Plaque)
6th century BC
Chlamys with pattern
Himation
Greeks took pride in the simplicity of
drapery
and avoided
cut and sewn
attire. Here we see men wearing
himations
, large pieces of fabric worn as a wrap. The
cowl drapery
, horizontal folds of fabric, show they had some skill with draping the fabric. They also appear to have some
border patterns
on the bottoms of their garments. These are textiles woven into the edge of a himation. One of the most popular patterns was the
greek key design.
It symbolized the continuing of nature in this life and beyond.
Cowl drapery
border pattern
The Ancient World
Ancient Rome: Female
Sarcophagus or large urn with cover, Late 3rd century B.C,
The Museum of Fine Arts Boston, Boston, MA.
Sarcophagus or large urn with cover
Late 3rd century B.C
Tunic
Jewelry
This sarcophagus cover shows a woman who is dressed in an attire motivated by
personal expression
and
status
. During the
Roman Etruscan
period woman did not have to dress
modestly
, in fact they often wore elaborate jewelry, hair pieces and wigs. This woman is wearing a necklace and a sleeveless
tunic.
A tunic
is a
cut and sewn t-shaped garment
. They could be decorated with dyes or a clavi. A
clavi
is a patterned edge border which usually stood for status. Around her head she is wearing a cloth which resembles a shawl or wrap, this is called a
tebenna.
Tebenna
The Ancient World
Ancient Rome: Male
Bronze statuette of a philosopher on a lamp stand, late 1st century B.C.
The Metropolitan Museum, New York, NY.
Bronze statuette of a philosopher on a lamp stand
late 1st century B.C.
Toga
Calceus
This bronze statue reveals a philosopher who is wearing an attire that shows
status and hierarchy
. His
drapery
garment called a
toga
is

a half circle garment that was wrapped on the body's of only free males born in Rome. There is evidence that there could have been a border pattern on the edge of the toga called a
clavi
. This is very possible because elites wore these. On his feet he also wears sandals made of leather called
calceus
.
Clavi
1500
1400
1300
1200
1100
1000
0
Medieval Europe
Medieval Europe: Group
Antiphonary for Abbess of Sainte-Marie of Beaupré, 1290 AD, The Walters Art Museum, Baltimore, Maryland.

This Flemish ink drawing contains both men and woman who show a certain
hierarchy
and
modesty
. The woman at the top are seen dressed in
long tunic gowns.
The figure in the center is wearing a
mantle/cloak
with a
border stripe
to show her wealth. The woman on the far left shows modesty through her rams horn hairstyle. It was common for woman to braid or wrap hair over their ears because the church believed ears to be distasteful. The men at the bottom of the illustration are also wearing cut and sewn tunics probably made of
wool,
since it was a primary fiber in Europe. On their legs they wear stockings called
breeches
.
Antiphonary for Abbess of Sainte-Marie of Beaupré
1290 AD
Rams horn
hairstyle
T-shaped Tunic
Mantle
Breeches
Medieval Europe
Medieval Europe: Female
Virgin, 1250 AD, The Metropolitan Museum, New York, New York.

This german statue of a female reveals motivation of
hierarchy and status
. The first clue is in the crown worn over the
veil
-like hood. Veils were inspired by styles of the middle east and often conveyed
modesty
. Woman covered their ears because they were seen as sexual organs. This woman also wears a
cloak/mantle
with decorative
border stripes
. Peaking through her mantle is a cut and sewn
T-shaped tunic
or a
bliaut.
Advances in weaving and tailoring caused tunics to become more gender specific in their cut and shape. A woman's
gown
would taper at the waste and flare out into a full long skirt, once again for modesty purposes.
Virgin
1250 AD
Veil
Tunic, bliaut, gown
Border stripes
Mantle/cloak
Medieval Europe
Gothic: Male
Caspar of the Three Kings from an Adoration Group, before 1489 AD, The Metropolitan Museum, New York, New York.
Caspar of the Three Kings from an Adoration Group
before 1489 AD
Pourpoint
Poulaines
Hose
Medieval Europe
Gothic: Group
The Flagellation, 1400 AD, The Metropolitan Museum, New York, New York.
The Flagellation
1400 AD
Chaperone
Tippets
hose
Cote hardie
Medieval Europe
Gothic: Group
The Devonshire Hunting Tapestries; Boar and Bear Hunt, 1425-1430 AD, Victoria and Albert Museum, London, England.

This Netherlands tapestry shows motivation of
hierarchy and status
. The woman in the center wears a
gown with a pregnant silhouette
. This cut and sewn garment has a higher waist line with more fabric on the center to give an allusion of pregnancy. To accent this look woman would make themselves appear pale while also plucking their hair line and brows. Under this woman's
padded headdress
, she shows no visible hairline. The men around her are also wearing similar padded headdresses. The one directly next to her is wearing
hose
with
parti-coloring
. This was a result of the
heraldic tradition
, where clothing was divided into color blocks to show the traits of a persons personality or background.
The Devonshire Hunting Tapestries; Boar and Bear Hunt
1425-1430 AD
Padded
headress
Gown with
pregnant silhouette
hose
Parti-coloring
belt girdles
This german painting shows men from the Gothic period, a time of great plague. Due to the loss of life, children were needed, so seduction through
erogenous zones
became necessary
to
attract partners. Here we see men who are revealing their legs and groin. They wear a
cote hardie
, a very short and tight fitting cut and sewn garment. Paired with this are
hose
or tights that emphasized the groin area. The tights had laces attached to them that would tie to the holes in a
pourpoint
, or short jacket. This was most common in working class men. The man on the left wears
poulaines
, leather or velvet slippers with a slight point. The man on the right is wearing a
chaperone
, a shorter cloak with a hood attached.
Tippets
hang from his sleeves.

Poulaines
Cote Hardie
This german statue shows a man who is wearing a seductively motivated
cote hardie
and
hose
. He also appears to be wearing a
pourpoint
(j
acket) over it. This would be worn for utility. The hoes would be tied to holes in the inside of the jacket to keep them tight and from falling down. His
poulaines
are not very pointy which shows he is not from a high status. According to the
Sumptuary

laws
only the royal and elite classes could wear really pointy shoes.
Medieval Europe
Gothic: Group
Book of Hours, 1300-1400 AD, The Walters Art Museum, Baltimore, Maryland.

This ink illustration shows a male and a female dressed for
hierarchy and seduction
. The man wears strips of hanging decorative fabric on his cote hardie called
tippets
to show flamboyance and personality. The woman also wears
long hanging sleeves
on her
cote,
which shows she was wealthy enough to afford extra fabric on her gown. For
modesty purposes
she wears a hairnet but she chooses to reveal her neck and chest for seduction. This was an
erogenous zone
in the Gothic period. Some woman would even wear deep v-necks with only a
modesty piece
to cover cleavage.
Book of Hours
1300-1400 AD
Tippets
Hanging sleeves
crespine hairnet
belt girdles
cote
Medieval Europe
Middle Ages: Group
The Andrews Diptych, 800 AD, The Victoria and Albert Museum, London, England.
The Andrews Diptych
800 AD
Cloak/Mantle
slipper like shoes
Brooch/Fibula
Tunic
This carved diptych shows men dressed for
protection and utility
. The common attire of this period was a
tunic
and
cloak/mantle
. Elaborate clothing disappeared during this time. These roman inspired garments were used for protection against the elements. Mantles could also act as blankets. Men would easily attach and remove these mantles with a
brooch
also known as a
fibula.
Their shoes were very simple, usually made of leather or fabric serving only to protect the feet.
Medieval Europe
Middle Ages: Male
Ivory front cover of the Lorsch Gospels, 810 AD, The Victoria and Albert Museum, London, England.
Ivory front cover of the Lorsch Gospels
810 AD
Border Stripe/Clavi
slipper like shoes
Brooch/Fibula
Tunic
This carving shows a man dressed for
status and utility
. The
border stripe
on the
tunic's
neckline shows a decorative design only the elite wore. He also wears a
brooch
which could have been made with
skilled enamel work.
However, although decorative, its primary purpose was to attach the
mantle
to the body. For utility, he also wears a
girdle
around his waist to hold bags or pouches as he travels. His shoes are slipper-like and simple made for
protection
.
Cloak/Mantle
Girdle
Renaissance World
Tudor: Male
Portrait of a Man, possibly Girolamo Rosati,1533-1534, The Cleveland Museum od Art, Cleveland, OH.

This man wears clothing that motivates
status
,
vanity
and
utility
. As a part of the fashion trends he sports a
flat cap
, a
beard
and a
gold chain
. His status is shown through the gold of the jewelery and the velvet and silk fabrics of his attire. His vanity and flamboyance is enhanced by his large puffy attire. He wears a
chemise
which peaks through his collar and wrists. Over that, is a
doublet
with an elaborate pattern on it. The
short gown
is worn over the doublet and has wide puffed sleeves. The
over padded style
was very popular because it added bulk and curves to a mans figure. He wears a new kind of garment on his lower half called the
trunk hose
. These were short puffy pants to which the
hose
could be laced to. As the years progressed the trend of puffiness increased. His
sword belt
serves utility purposes.
Portrait of a Man, possibly Girolamo Rosati
1533-1534
Flat cap
Chemise
Tunk Hose
Gold chain
Renaissance World
Elizabethan: Male
Portrait of Don Pedro de Barberana,1631-1633, The Kimbell Art Museum, Fort Worth, TX .

This man reveals motivation of
status
and
vanity
in his attire. The black and red dyes in his garments were expensive to produce. The symbol on his
doublet
also may signify status. His
short cloak
rests on one shoulder and features a similar symbol found on the doublet. For utility he wears a
sword belt
around his waist. Maintaining true to the fashions of the time he wears
pumpkin hose
, a padded bifurcated garment over his thighs. His
hose
were more closely fitted because knitting techniques improved and silk was utilized. To help hold up the stockings men would also wear a
garter
above their knee. His is decorated with a floral design. His accessories are also revealing of vanity. His hair is cut short and his facial hair is styled. In his hand he holds a
tall hat
and his shoes are natural shaped. No longer did men wear
duckbill shoes
.
Portrait of Don Pedro de Barberana
1631-1633
Version of the ruff
Garter
pumpkin hose
Renaissance World
Tudor: Male
Portrait of Jean de Carondelet, 1530, Brooklyn Museum, Brooklyn, NY .

This man shows
status
and
vanity
in his attire. His undershirt,
chemise
, is revealed beneath his
doublet.
He has a
fur lining
which was very common amongst the wealthy classes. On his head he wears the predecessor to the graduation cap called the
square cap
.
Portrait of Jean de Carondelet
1530
Square cap
Chemise
Fur lining
Renaissance World
Elizabethan: Female
Esther before Ahasuerus, 1593–1651, Metroplitan Museum, NY, NY .

This female reveals motivation of
hierarchy and status
. The first clue is in the
silky or velvet
material of her
gown
. Her gown has a
low square neckline
and has an
over padded style
especially in the shoulders. Her sleeves reveal an intricately
laced chemise
. She may be wearing a
corset
beneath her gown to help push up her breasts and keep her waist thin. This was a
seductive
trend during the time. Woman would also wear an undergarment called a
bum roll
or
bolster.
This was

a padding tied around the hips to make them appear bigger and the waist look smaller. Her skin is pale most likely due to the use of
makeup
. Woman would use lemon, sulfur, borax and
white lead
to keep a fair complexion.
Esther before Ahasuerus
1593–1651
Over padded
style
Square neckline
Laced Chemise
Silk gown
Renaissance World
Italian Renaissance: Female
The Martyrdom of Saint Barbara, 1510, Metroplitan Museum, NY, NY .

This woman shows
status
and
vanity
through her
gown
. The high waistline and plunged neckline are motivations of
seduction
.The
red
dye suggests the woman is royal or wealthy because it was so expensive to produce. The color was made from the dried blood of a small cochineal beetle. Another sign of status is in the
silk
quality and
embroidered
ornamentation around the

shoulders and wrists. Embroidery was a time consuming needle work process often made with
gold
thread. She follows some popular trends as well. Her chemise peaks through
decorative slashes
in her elbows. Her hair is mostly likely bleached blond, a common hair color in the renaissance.
The Martyrdom of Saint Barbara
1510
Chemise
Bleached blond hair
Red Gown
Slashes
Renaissance World
Tudor: Female
Portrait of Countess Livia da Porto Thiene and her Daughter Deidamia ,1552, The Walters Art Museum, Baltimore, MD.

This female reveals motivation of
hierarchy
and
vanity
. The first clue is in the
fur lining
and silk quality of her long
open robe
. A robe would be worn open or closed over a skirt and bodice. Her daughter is seen wearing only a silk
skirt and bodice
, with no robe. There is some
gold
trimming which also indicates wealth. Her jewelry is made of
pearls
symbolizing purity and
modesty
. Her bodice has a
horizontal neckline
which became popular during the Tudor era. She also appears to be wearing some kind of
french hood
, showing off her hairline and forehead.
Portrait of Countess Livia da Porto Thiene and her Daughter Deidamia
1552
Fur lining
Open robe
gown
bodice and skirt
Jewelry
Renaissance World
Italian Renaissance: Male
Portrait of a Young Man, 1530, The Cleveland Museum of Art, Cleveland, OH.

This portrait of a man shows
status
and
vanity
. He wears three layers of tight fitting cut and sewn clothing. The first layer is a white undershirt called a
chemise
. This garment was kept tightly fitted and ruffled around the neck and wrist areas by a
drawstring
. It was very popular and
seductive
to reveal the chemise through other layers such as the doublet. The
doublet
is the dark burgundy layer shown in the sleeves. The material appears shiny, so it could have been made out of
silk
. This new and expensive material was introduced by Asia through the
Silk Road
. The final layer is most likely a
jerkin
, a tight fitting jacket that usually had no sleeves, in this case it does. It was dyed
black
to show status. Black was a hard color to make so not everyone could wear it.
Portrait of a Young Man
1530
Jerkin
Border stripes
Chemise
Renaissance World
Elizabethan: Female
Portrait of Ginevra Aldrovandi Hercolani,1595, The Walters Art Museum, Baltimore, MD .

This woman shows
hierarchy and vanity
through her garments. She wears a removable
closed ruff
around the neck trimmed with delicate lace. Her
chemise
sleeves also have a similar
lace
design. She wears a
ropa
or a coat styled gown over her green/gold
gown
. It is open down the front and decorated with
pearls
, symbolizing purity. She may have been wearing a
hooped farthingale
if she were dressed for a formal occasion. These undergarments held skirts in a shape that was large and hoop-like. Her complexion is pale due to the use of
white lead makeup
.
Portrait of Ginevra Aldrovandi Hercolani
1595
Ruff
Ropa
Jewelry
Gown
Doublet
necklace
Embroidery
Hose
Doublet
Short gown
Sword belt
Horizontal neckline
French hood
Hose
Natural shaped shoes
Tall hat
sword belt
Doublet with peplum
Short cloak
White lead Makeup
White lead Makeup
Pearls
Laced Chemise
Baroque Splendor
Cavalier: Male
Rembrandt, The Standard Bearer, 1654, The Metropolitan Museum, New York.

This male's attire shows motivation of
personal expression
,
status
and
utility
. Starting from the top, he wears his hair in
locks
beneath a wide
brimmed felt hat
ornamented with an ostrich feather. Hanging over his shoulder is a utility garment called a
baldrick
. This was a wide slash of leather that held his court sword. His high waistlined
doublet
fits tightly and has long
tabs
extending over his hips. The doublet is decorated with rows of buttons, a common lavish decor, although not very expensive.
Cuffs
are seen peaking through his sleeves and his hands are covered in gauntlet
gloves
. The
gauntlet
was a wide tube of fabric that extended over the wrist. It was a symbol of status because it was expensive to make. His
breeches
are a slim cut and reach below the knees. He would have been wearing hose,
boots
or
squared toed shoes.

The Standard Bearer
1654
Wide brimmed
felt hat
Baldrick
Court sword
Gloves with gauntlet
Doublet
Baroque Splendor
Cavalier: Male
Georges de La Tour, The Fortune Teller, 1630, The Metropolitan Museum, New York.

This gentlemen is dressed for personal expression, status and utility. He wears his long wavy
locks
beneath a hat. His
doublet
and
breeches
are slim fitting and contrasting in colors. Instead of a ruff he wears a
wide falling collar
around his neck. This type of collar was usually made of fine linen and bordered with a design, most commonly lace. His garment serves
utility
because they were made for comfort and ease of movement. He wears a gold chain to show his
status
and wealth.
The Fortune Teller,
1630
Locks
Wide falling
collar
breeches
doublet
Baroque Splendor
Georgian: Female
Élisabeth-Louise Vigée Le Brun, The Marquise de Pezay, and the Marquise de Rougé with Her Sons Alexis and Adrien, 1787 National gallery of art, Washington DC.

This woman dresses in a style motivated by status and the need to evoke emotion. On her head she wears a silk
mob cap
with a
ribbon trimming
commonly worn with the
hedgehog
hair style. This less formal hairdo was characterized by its voluminous sides and shoulder length ringlet curls. This style along with the
chemise a la reine
were worn to evoke emotion. Nobility followed Marie Antoinette's lead, wanting to show empathy toward the poor and romanticizing their fashion by dressing less lavishly. A chemise a la reine was designed with the intention to use less fabric. This gown was a light weight tube of fabric that gathered at the neckline into a ruffle. It was tightened at the waist with a
silk sash
. Underneath woman would wear a
chemise
, seen peaking though the neckline and sleeves, and a
petticoat
to give fullness to the skirt. A
corset
would also be worn to tighten the waist and push up the breasts for seduction.
VirginThe Marquise de Pezay, and the Marquise de Rougé with Her Sons Alexis and Adrien
1787
Mob cap

Chemise a la Reine
Petticoat
Silk Sash
Baroque Splendor
Baroque: Male
Nicolas de Largillierre, Portrait of a Young Man and His Tutor, 1685, National gallery of art, Washington DC.

The man on the right dresses for
status and hierarchy
. His hair appears to be in naturally long
locks
, although men would often wear
full bottomed wigs
if they couldn't grow out their own hair. Wrapped around his neck is a cravat and a jabot. A
cravat
was a band of fabric worn around the collar of a shirt tied in a bow. The
lace jabot
would be paired with this fabric, hanging in long ruffles at the front of the neckband. It filled the neckline of the
waistcoat.
A common ornamentation worn by nobility were gold details such as buttons. We see this detail on the young mans waistcoat. His top coat, called a
persian coat
, replaced the doublet. It extended past the knee, had slim long sleeves and a high neckline. It often had turned backed cuffs and buttoned up the front.
Portrait of a Young Man and His Tutor
1685
Jabot
Locks
Persian coat
Cravat
Baroque Splendor
Georgian: Male
Martin van Meytens the Younger, Count Giacomo Durazzo, 1760, The Metropolitan Museum, New York.

During this time, fashion became more uniform and less decorative for men. The motivation was mostly
utility
and
status
. The
ditto suit
was the most popular three piece ensemble worn by men. It was either made one unified color or a contrasting waistcoat. It was comprised of breeches, a waistcoat and a cutaway coat. The tight knee high
breeches
were usually made of a practical fabric like wool. The
cutaway coat
was a short fitted wool jacket cut to curve away from chest and become longer in the back. It revealed the tightly fitted
waistcoat
through the front opening. Around his neck this man wears a
lace jabot
that matches his
cuffs.
Lace was a delicate fabric worn by nobility. His
powdered periwig
is styled in a ponytail called a
queue
.
Count Giacomo Durazzo
1760
Powdered wig
queue
Lace jabot
Cutaway coat
Baroque Splendor
Georgian: Male
Aimee Duvivier, Le Marquis D'Acqueville, 1791, The Metropolitan Museum, New York.

This gentleman is dressed for
utility
and
status
. His
ditto suit
, comprised of a short
waistcoat
,
cutaway coat
and
knee high breeches
is made of either wool or leather. These materials were chosen because they were water resistant, comfortable and warm. In this image the waistcoat is a contrasting color against the cutaway coat. To show status it is decorated with an elaborate pattern. The
lace jabot
is ruffled and peaking through the front opening. The mans hair is in a
powdered queue
, a popular hairstyle among Georgian men.
Le Marquis D'Acqueville
1791
Periwig
queue
Lace jabot
Waistcoat
Cutaway coat
Cuffs
Breeches
Locks
Chemise
hedgehog hairstyle
Waistcoat
breeches
Breeches
Shirt
Waistcoat
Baroque Splendor
Rococo: Female
Pietro Longhi, Visit to a Library, 1760 Worcester Art Museum, MA.

This woman dresses to show status, youthfulness and seduction. She fashions only pastels and floral patterns, popular traits of the Rococo time. Her gown is called a
robe a la francaise
. It is tight across the front bodice and made looser in the back with square pleats. At the elbows of her sleeves are
engageants
, decorated frills and ruffles of lace. Underneath the skirt are
paniers
, oval hoops, used to keep the shape of the skirt full on the sides and flat on the front and back. Her
stomacher
is decorated elaborately and she holds a fashionable
fan
in her hand. Fans were seen as a social necessity for nobility, because they could communicate messages to gentleman from across the room during social events. On her feet she wears
Mules
, a shoe that was seen as very seductive because it could be easily kicked off.
Visit to a Library
1760
Engageants
Filled stomacher
Paniers
Robe a la
Francaise
Mule
Baroque Splendor
Cavalier: Female
Dordrecht, Portrait of a Woman, 1645, Louvre Museum, France.

This woman dresses for
status
and
seduction
.
Her
two piece gown
is black, a color reserved for nobility. It is comprised of a skirt and bodice. The
skirt
falls long to the floor and the
bodice
is tight and high waisted. It is decorated with a
wide lace collar
also called a Bertha and it lays over the top of her skirt. Her neckline is cut deeply to show cleavage, a form of seduction. Her
3/4 sleeves
are also very revealing, showing the forearm, a new erogenous zone for woman. She fashions
full puffed sleeves
sewn onto the bodice. Around her neck is a simple
pearl
necklace. Her hair is pulled back in bun while sides of her hair and bangs softly curl loose onto the face. This style is called the
spaniel ears hairstyle
.
Portrait of a Woman
1645
Spaniel Ears Hairstyle
Pearls
Wide Collar
Chemise
3/4 Sleeves
Baroque Splendor
Baroque: Female
Abraham van den Tempel,Portrait of a Distinguished Young Woman Holding a Piece of Fruit , 1662, Louvre Museum, France.

This woman is dressed for
status and hierarchy
. During this time period nobility was highly dependent on French textiles like gold thread and embroidery. This young woman is drenched in rich silks, a sign of her wealth. She wears a new style of gown called a
mantua
. This dress was comprised of a stiff corseted bodice attached to an
overskirt
with a long train in the back. It could be pulled up on the sides to reveal an
underskirt
, that matched or contrasted in material. Even her
chemise
, undershirt, is made of a fine silk. It peaks through her neckline and
3/4 sleeves
with delicate ruffling. Her hair accessory and jewelery are also richly decorated to show her status.
Portrait of a Distinguished Young Woman Holding a Piece of Fruit
1662
Jewelry
Mantua gown
Silk Chemise
Overskirt
Underskirt

Baroque Splendor
Cavalier: Female
Anthony Van Dyke Thimbelby and her Sister, 1637,The National Gallery, London.

This woman on the right is dressed for
status
and
seduction
. Starting at the top, she wears a
spaniel ears hairstyle
comprised of a bun and loose falling hairs. Around her neck she fashions a simple yet lavish
pearl necklace
to show her wealth. Her two piece gown is cut low to reveal the
cleavage
, a seductive trait. Her
skirt and bodice
appear to be made of a fine silk and her
full puffed sleeves
were most likely attached to this garment. Underneath her gown she would have worn a
chemise
or undershirt, seen peaking through the neckline and
3/4 sleeves
. A
petticoat
, or an underskirt was also sported along with
long drawers or breeches
so that
hose
could be attached.
Lady Elizabeth Thimbelby and her Sister
1637
Spaniel
ears
hairstyle
Pearl
neckalce
Full puffed
sleeves
two piece
gown
Chemise
Baroque Splendor
Baroque: Female
Gonzales Coques, A Family Group, 1664, The National Gallery, London.

This woman is dressed lavishly to show
hierarchy and status
. Her clothing is mostly likely made of very expensive french textiles and fabrics. She wears a
mantua
gown that fits tight around the waist like a
corset
. Her
overskirt
is pulled up on the sides to reveal a bright red and gold detailed
underskirt
. Red was often attributed to royalty and nobility. An embroidered or laced
chemise
shows through her sleeves and matches the detail of her neckline. We can not see her shoes in this image but she is most likely wearing a Louis heel or mule. A
louis heel
was an elaborate high heeled shoe that fit to the ankle, it was motivated by status. Whereas a
mule
was a slip on heel that could be used for
seductive
appeal.
A Family Group
1664
Periwig
queue
Mantua
Overskirt
and Bodice
Underskirt
Chemise
Baroque Splendor
Rococo: Male
Pietro Longhi, A Lady receiving a Cavalier, 1745-55, The National Gallery, London,

This gentleman is dressed in a style called
Deshabille
, meaning shabby chic. It was intended to look casual while also revealing
status and hierarchy
. He wears a combination of garments called a
three piece suit,
showing a neat well tailored look. It is comprised of a coat, waistcoat and breeches. The
coat
is cut and curved away from the front of body, losing fullness at the sides. Underneath is a short
waistcoat
worn tight around the torso. His
breeches
are also tight and cut in an elegant manner. They were buttoned at the sides of the knee. Most of the ornamentation of this suit was focused on the edges and borders of fabrics. Here we see a gold trim, a color of nobility. His hair is worn in a
powdered queue
, ponytail. If a man had money he would buy a
powdered periwig,
otherwise he would just grow out his own hair.

A Lady receiving a Cavalier
1745-1755
Powdered queue/periwig
Coat
Breeches
Waist coat
Chemise
Bodice
Skirt
Fans
Louis heel/
Mule
Baroque Splendor
Unknown, A Painter and Visitors in a Studio, 1835, National Gallery of Art, Washington D.C.

Here we see woman dressed for
modesty
and
vanity
. During the romantic period undergarments were used to achieve an ideal body shape. Woman used corsets to give the illusion of a narrow
natural waistline. Corsets
were often so tight woman would have a trouble moving and eating, causing frequent swooning. Along with a corset woman wore a
chemise
,
petticoat
and
sleeve supports
. These supports were pillow-like or hoop made, worn on the upper arm. Large puffy sleeves called
Leg O'Mutton
, were inflated at the shoulder, near the support, and narrow toward the wrist. Modesty was also very important for a woman during this time. To cover the skin woman would wear
cashmere shawls
,
gloves
and
bonnets
. The bonnet along with a
parasol,
umbrella
,
was used for
protection
against the sun. Fair, non freckled skin was fashionable. It was better a woman looked sickly than glowing. To help with modesty and the angelic image, woman would wear light ladylike colors and patterns.
Bows
and ribbons would ornament gowns, bonnets and even the hair.
A Painter and Visitors in a Studio
Revolution to Frivolity
Romantic: Female
Men's Three-piece Ensemble, 1830, The Kyoto Costume Institute, Japan.

During the romantic period people turned to clothing to
evoke emotion
instead of reason. It was a dashing style that expressed vanity for the middle class. Here we see a
three piece suit
comprised of a tailcoat, waistcoat and pantaloons. The
tailcoat
was cut shorter in the front and had two long tails of fabric in the back. Underneath is a patterned purple
waistcoat
, cut low to show a
white shirt
and a
cravat
around the neck. The
pantaloons
had slight pleating at the waist and tapered to the ankle with stirrups to keep them straight. Men would also carry around accessories such as
pocket watches
, gloves and
walking sticks
.
Men's Three-piece Ensemble
1835
Revolution to Frivolity
Romantic: Male
Day Dress, 1855, Kyoto Costume Institute, Japan.
This dress reveals a woman's motivation to show wealth and vanity. During this time wealth was plentiful and people could afford many gowns made of
patterned fabrics
and many layers. Gowns were decorated with strong dyes, embroidery, ribbons, lace and fringes. This gown is called a
ruffle flounce skirt
. It has 2 layers of ruffles to create volume that made the waist appear smaller. The sleeves of the gown also are layered with gold fringes. No longer were colors, such as gold, a symbol of status because
aniline dyes,
artificial dyes, produced bright colors at a cheaper cost. Underneath their gowns woman would wear a
hooped crinoline
to help maintain the shape of the dress and minimize the amount of petticoats needed. A
corset
was also worn at all times except once a week for bathing.
Day Dress
1830
Shawl
Leg O'Mutton
Tailcoat
Revolution to Frivolity
Crinoline: Female
1855
Cravat
Shirt
Waistcoat
Jacques-Louis David, Portrait of a Young Woman in White, 1798,National Gallery of Art, Washington D.C.

This woman's attire is motivated by
seduction
,
vanity
and
comfort
. After the excavations in Pompeii and Herculaneum,
Neoclassical
styles became a fashionable trend for woman. Clothing became loose, freeing and more comfortable when woman lost heavy undergarments and adopted a simple
chemise slip
. Over her slip this woman wears a
chemise dress
. This gown had short sleeves, a low neckline for seduction, and a waistline right below the bust, called a
empire waist
. The empire waist would also help emphasize the breasts by making them appear fuller. The dress would fall long to the floor in simple cream and white fabrics. Little ornamentation was added except on the
cashmere shawl
. Here we see the rectangular piece of
kashmiri wool
lined with fur and dyed a bright red. This would be the only garment colored on a neoclassical styled woman. Her hair was the finishing touch, a
Grecian style
. Usually in a bun with loose hairs falling to the face. A hair band would also be worn, in this case we see a braid right above the bangs.
Portrait of a Young Woman in White
Revolution to Frivolity
Revolution/Directoire/Empire: Female
1798
Chemise Dress
Grecian
Hairstyle
Empire Waist
Cashmere Shawl
Jacques Louis David, General Étienne-Maurice Gérard, 1816, The Metropolitan Museum, New York, New York.

Military styles
became really popular as France began engaging in wars across Europe under Napoleon Bonaparte's leadership. Styles like this man here were motivated by
vanity
,
status
and
group identification
. Using clothing to identify yourself with the military was a way to show hierarchy and status. The
bicorne hat
was a very popular accessory. It was a wide brimmed hat with the sides turned up to create two points. It could be worn with points facing front/back or side/side. Another identifier is his
uniform
. He wears
pantaloons
, tight fitting pants buttoned at the ankle, paired with a matching colored tailcoat. A
tailcoat
was cut high in the front and left long in the back with two tails that reached the back of knees. The
lapel
of tailcoat is tall, covering the neck and back of hairline. Dark conservative dyes and
tricolors
were very popular in men's fashion.
General Étienne-Maurice Gérard
Revolution to Frivolity
Revolution/Directoire/Empire: Male
1816
Bicorne hat
Lapel
Tailcoat
Pantaloons
ballet slipper
Miguel Cervantes, full-length portrait, standing, facing front, 1850-64, Library of Congress.

This man is dressed for
status
and
vanity
. His attire is clean cut and conservative with an all black suit. He wears a frock coat, a long coat opened at the front to reveal a matching
waistcoat
underneath. Ornamentation such as pattern and stripes are left out, reserved only for sporting and country attire. Around his neck he wears a loosely tied
cravat
although during this time the
bow tie
did become more popular. On his head he would wear a top hat. The
top hat
was a tall hat that could be worn during the day more formally in the evening events. His
trousers
also match his other garments. They are tailored narrowly to the leg. During this time men often wore their hair short and would grow large side burns called
mutton chops.
Miguel Cervantes, full-length portrait, standing
Revolution to Frivolity
Crinoline: Male
1850-64
pantaloons
Ruffle flounce
skirt
Patterned
fabric
Hooped crinoline
fringe
cravat
top hat
Frock coat
mutton chops
Trousers

Walking Dress, 1884, Kyoto Costume Institute, Japan.

Woman dressed in this period primarily to show
vanity
. The bustle era was said to be the period when fashion seasons first began. It was up to woman to keep up with the trends in order to be noticed for their attire. This woman is dressed in a beautifully vibrant blue gown, most likely made with
aniline dyes
. A
jacket bodice
was kept separate from the skirt of the gown because it allowed for more fullness in the rear. The rear was exaggerated in size with an undergarment called a bustle. A
bustle
was an under structure made made of small hoops or padded roles tied to the waist. To give more volume to the gown
swags
and drapery were placed around and near the bustle. To remain
modest
woman would wear
hats
and
gloves
. Their hats became beautiful focal points often called
picture hats
. They were small sculpted creations, in this case flowers were placed on top of tall curly hair.
Walking Dress
Revolution to Frivolity
Bustle: Female
1884
small hats
bustle
swagging
Jacket bodice
gloves

“Ordinary Americans and Fashion,” University of Vermont. accessed July 6, 2015, http://www.uvm.edu/landscape/dating/clothing_and_hair/1870s_clothing_men.php,

Mens fashion remained relatively similar to the era before, motivated by
vanity
and
status
. Men would aim to look well put together and business like in their suits. Here we see a man wearing the
morning coat
. This was a jacket that had the front edges sloped away from the chest in order to show the vest through the bottom. It was a more casual, sporty variation of the suit. The
vest
seen here is the same color as the jacket and lacks any embellishment. Simple dark colors was the primary fashion. This mans
trousers
are cut with a
central buttoned front fly
rather than a side panel. This new style was more convenient and considered controversial with some religious leaders. As always, this man wear a neck garment. The
bow tie
was still relatively popular but the
ascot
and
four n'hand
ties were gaining attention as well. The ascot had a scarf look while the four n'hand tie resembled the modern day tie.
Miguel Cervantes, full-length portrait, standing
Revolution to Frivolity
Bustle: Male
1888
bow tie
vest
morning coat
Trousers

Day Dress, 1895, Kyoto Costume.Institute, Japan.
This time period is characterized by a new confident and educated woman called the
Gibson Girl
. Styles were now motivated by
utility
and
personal expression
. Woman aimed to look stylish while also dressing comfortably for their active lifestyles. Sportswear started becoming a fashionable style for the everyday woman. They would wear a man's styled shirt called a
shirtwaist
. It was often made of cotton, with detachable cuffs and collar. It featured the large
Leg O'Mutton
puffed sleeves that narrowed at the wrists. This top was paired with a
tailored made jacket
and a
Gored skirt
. The gored skirt hugged tightly at the waist and flared out at the floor to help ease movement. This outfit here is accessorized with a
belt
cinched at the waist. Woman would have also worn a
boater hat
with this style. It was another garment inspired from men's fashion.
Day Dress
Revolution to Frivolity
Turn of the Century: Female
1895
Leg O'Mutton
Belt
Gored Skirt
shirtwaist
Triplets, Katie, Annie and Francis Cleveland Brennan, 1896, Library of Congress.

This man is dressed for
personal expression
and
group identification
. He is seen wearing a casual country style fit for leisurely activities.
Light colored
cottons and linens, seen on his suit jacket, were often worn for activities like these such as sporting events and hunting trips.
Darker conservative

three piece suits
remained popular during all other occasions. Suit jackets,
vests
and
trousers
were made slimmer, with narrower pants and trimmed jackets. The new
derby hat
, had a rounder shape and was worn for day wear and business attire. The
top hat
was left for formal events. This man also accessorizes with a
bow tie
and a
pocket watch
attached to a gold chain. These were signs of vanity and expression.
Triplets, Katie, Annie and Francis Cleveland Brennan
Revolution to Frivolity
Turn of the Century: Male
1896
Derby hat
Pocket watch and chain
Waistcoat
Bow tie
Trousers

Phil Gowan, “ Titanic Sinking 100th Anniversary: Rare photos of Titanic passengers & crew,”� NY Daily News, http://www.nydailynews.com/news/rare-photos-titanic-passengers-crew-gallery-1.1059998

This man is dressed for
utility
and
vanity
. Most men were inspired by the style of Edward VII. Casual looks such as
tweed
,
Norfolk sporting jackets
and
short knickerbockers
became very popular for sporting events. For classier occasions men would wear fashionable
three piece suits.
Suits were stylish and practical because they had many
pockets
to store and hold items. We can see this man putting his hand in the pocket in his trousers. His three piece suit is a
dark conservative color
. It is comprised of a
waistcoat, jacket and trousers
. He wears his hair short and fashions a mustache, common for the era.
Unknown Title
The Twentieth Century
Edwardian: Male
1912
Trousers
waistcoat
Jacket
Day Dress, 1910, Kyoto Costume Institute, Japan.

Due to
Dress Reforms
woman began to dress less restrictively and more comfortably while still focusing on
vanity
. The goal was to give clothing a function of
utility
, easing woman's movements during their active lifestyles. The
tubular styled corset
was one innovation that made undergarments more comfortable. It allowed more movement because it had less bones and slimmed the body rather than distort it. The
gown
was also a simple tube shape cinched at he waist with a belt. In this period fabric colors were often soft shades but here we see a vibrant purple dye. Her accessories are however very common for the era. She wears a
peach basket hat
, a nick name that poked fun at the large diameter of the brim. These hats were often accessorized with flowers, pearls and feathers. This woman also seems to be wearing
boots
, popular for day wear.
Delicate satin shoes
also gained popularity during this time. Ruffles, lace and gloves were fashionable accessories that would be paired with garments such as this one.
General Étienne-Maurice Gérard
The Twentieth Century
Edwardian: Female
1910
boots/ satin shoes
Peach basket
hat
tubular styled
gown
Gloves
Unkown, Photograph, July 1918, National WWI Museum and Memorial, Missouri.

During WWI over 10 million men signed up for the draft and were sent to war in Europe. During their service clothing was highly motivated by
protection
,
utility
and
group identification
. Here we see men wearing uniforms to show their allegiance to their country. During battle men would also wear protective gear like
helmets
to keep harm away from their body. The
boots
would have also made walking in terrain easier. Badges and pins would have been worn to show
status and rank
depending on each soldiers own achievements.
The Twentieth Century
WWI: Male
1918
Hat
Uniform
jacket and trousers
During the war woman dressed for
utility
. Not only were men partaking in the war but woman were carrying out patriotic duties on the home front. Woman's attire usually kept to somber colors, and
plain understated fabrics
and patterns.
Black
became the color of mourning, usually for a fallen soldier. This high fashion utility suit is an exception to the rule as it is designed in a bright green dye. It also falls to the mid calf in a
narrow pleated skirt
. The
utility suit
became the modest and practical garment worn by working class woman. It was boxy and angular, inspired by
Cubism
and the lack of undergarments. Woman were no longer motivated by vanity but by the comfort and function of clothing.
Boots
were often paired with shorter suits like this one. In order to keep the sun out of the face a woman would wear a
small brimmed hat
.
Day Dress
The Twentieth Century
WWI: Female
1915
Utility suit
American Theatre Guild production, 1932, Library of Congress.

Men's fashion did not change much in the 30's. Men continued to dress for
vanity
and
utility
.
Suits
were convenient for work attire as well as a fashion reasons.
A double breasted jacket
was considered more flashy than a
single breasted jacket
, so it was often worn for more formal events. In general,
suit pants
had a
wide leg
and a
cuff
. and jackets had wide
lapels
. A
vest
or
sweater vest
would be worn underneath the jacket. Hair was kept short and combed back, usually covered with a
fedora
to show masculinity.
American Theatre Guild production
The Twentieth Century
The Great Depression: Male
1932
wide leg
pants
short combed back hair
suit jacket
Madeleine Vionnet , Evening Dress, 1932, Kyoto Costume Institute, Japan.
During this period woman's clothing became more
modest
and conservative. The
natural waistline
and curves of the body became highly fashionable especially in long evening gowns.
Bias cut
was a technique that cut fabric diagonally to the grain in order to enable it to cling to the body while still allowing movement. Designers used fabrics like
silk
and
satin
to slim and flatter the female form. But
knock off

gowns were made with rayon because it was an affordable fabric for average woman. Surface detailing remained relatively plain, because drapery and cut was the emphasis.
Low backs
were another way gowns would provide interest and flare. This style was aimed to provide vanity and
Hollywood glamor.

Evening Dress
The Twentieth Century
The Great Depression: Female
1932
drapery and folding
Low back
Bias Cut
natural waistline
John Redfern, Day Dress, 1915, Kyoto Costume Institute, Japan.
No Title
Light colored Jacket

tailored made jacket
boots
“Men's Fashion,” University of Vermont. accessed July 15, 2015, http://www.uvm.edu/landscape/dating/clothing_and_hair/1920s_clothing_men.php

During the art deco period men gained a wider range of dapper styles motivated by
arousing emotion
and
vanity
. The most popular hat of the period was the fedora, seen on all five men in this picture. The
fedora
was associated with masculinity and authority. Both college boys and business me would wear them to arouse respect. Underneath the hat their hair was styled in a slicked down look.
Suits
and
long double breasted jackets
were also a popular attire. It became common for men to wear sports influences instead of the usual pants
trouser
. The man in the middle is wearing a college boy garment called
knickerbockers
. They reached the mid calf and were usually paired with
high kneed socks
decorated with either
plaid or argyle
. More exaggerated styles were worn for formal events. An example of this is the
raccoon coat
, it was a large puffy fur coat.
Untitled
The Twentieth Century
Art Deco: Male
1920's
Knickerbockers
double breasted jacket
Fedora
argyle knee socks
Jessie Franklin Turner,Evening Dress, 1920, The Metropolitan Museum, New York, New York.
This woman is dressed for
vanity
and
status
. The roaring 20's was a period of great economic growth, which made people feel as though they could also become rich. Even an average woman could dress lavishly with the use of imitation materials.
Rayon
, a substitute of silk, and
rhinestones
, a replacement for diamonds, were utilized on garments to give a glamorous look. The
barrel line dress
, was a shapeless simple
tunic
dress, that created a
boyish figure.
The
dropped waistline
created narrow hips and an angular straight cut, inspired by the
Art Deco
and
Cubist
movements. Simple slips and brassieres gave limited coverage and shape as well. These gowns were dressed up with
geometric surface detailing
. The hemlines was often left asymmetrical or in a handkerchief style. A
handkerchief style
was a very unevenly cut hemline. During this time woman also experimented with their features. Their hair was cut into a
bob
and styled with
marcel waves
. They also wore heavy makeup, emphasizing the eyes and created rosebud lips.
Evening Dress
The Twentieth Century
Art Deco: Female
1920
dropped waist
Barrel line dress
Tunic style
geometric surface detailing
These men are dressed for
vanity
and
utility
. Their suits are highly motivated by appearance as well as practicality. Colors remained
dark and conservative
and the
pin stripe
became fashionable. The average suit jacket had large
lapels
and the
double breasted suit
became the flashier style. Underneath the jacket men continued to wear
vests
, while younger men wore s
weater vests
. Pants remained relatively similar to the past except the legs and cuffs became wider. Men wore their hair short and combed back. The
Fedora's
remained popular giving men a look of authority.
Photograph of Luther Harris Evans examining items from the Yudin Collection
The Twentieth Century
WWII: Male
1946
Suit jacket
Short
combed back
hair
wide lapels
vest
Mainbocher, Dinner suit, 1946, The Metropolitan Museum, New York, New York.
During WWII woman became much more active in the workforce.
Slacks and utility suits
became badges of honor because they were practical and necessary for wartime efforts. Woman wore the utility suit like a uniform for positions in offices, schools and other businesses. To conserve materiel and obey rations suits were often made of old men suits.
Man tailored jackets
and matching
straight knee length skirts
would be built from these old fabrics. Since Americans were cut off from fashion trends of Europe, they depended on the military for inspiration.
Patriotic colors
and
berets
were some common finds. Accessories were very minimal and only made of materials not used for war like straw, paper and cork.
Peep toe shoes
became very fashionable for thier
seductive
and sturdy qualities. Hair was kept long, curled and pinned back with clips, while makeup focused on a red lip and mascara.
Dinner Suit
The Twentieth Century
WWII: Female
1946
Utility Suit:
man tailored jacket
Utility suit:
knee length skirt
Colin Sorensen,Man’s suit, 1950–1960, Museum of London, London.
In the 1950's the idea of the "corporation man" in a
gray flannel suit
came to full bloom. The style originated from ivy leagues college students entering the workforce. All these new business men would shop for the same exact style of suit known as the gray flannel suit. A
three piece narrow shouldered sack suit
with a
loose waist
and long jacket became the popular uniform. A white
buttoned down collared shirt
was worn underneath with a striped, bright colored
tie
around the neck.
Oxford shoes
would be worn on the feet and a
fedora
was worn on the head. This hat shows status and authority but more importantly, it was considered inappropriate to be seen outside without a hat on. Hats would only be taken off while indoors.
Man’s suit
The Twentieth Century
The New Look: Male
1950–1960
pants
narrow shoulder
loose waist
Carolyn Schnurer ,"Sitting Duck" dress, 1951, The Metropolitan Museum, New York, New York.
In the 1950s woman aimed to be the best housewife with the perfect home. Woman's clothing changed drastically to more feminine and
seductive
silhouettes, leaving the utility suits aside for a while. Naturally rounded shoulders, padded breast,
nipped waists
and wide padded hips became popular features. During the day woman wore
shirtwaist dresses
, a buttoned up top connected to a full skirt. However, during formal occasions woman wore
evening gowns
. These gowns had a tiny waist with a full skirt that was about 18- 12 inches off the floor.
Bright and cheerful patterns
were utilized in both types of garments.
Undergarments
helped to create the feminine silhouette. A
brassier
kept the breast up high and a
girdle
cinched the waist in.
Nylon
, an invention during WWII, was used to make lightweight
stockings
that were held up by
girdles
. Accessories such as hats, gloves and heeled shoes were necessities during this era.
"Sitting Duck" dress
The Twentieth Century
The New Look: Female
1951
bright cheerful patterns
evening dress
nipped waist
full skirt
narrow angular skirt
collar
asymmetrical hemline
Photograph of Luther Harris Evans examining items from the Yudin Collection, 1946, Library of Congress.
wide leg
pants
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