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Medieval Knights

A presentation on medieval knights.
by

Suraj Srinivasan

on 15 May 2014

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Transcript of Medieval Knights

By: Tommy Makovec, Austin Riddle, Suraj Srinivasan, and Brian Sun
Knights
Why were Knights Important
to the Lords and Kings?

Armor and Weaponry
THE CRUSADES
The Fourth Crusade
The Seventh Crusade
1
4
7
2
3
6
8
LOL
The Steps to Becoming a Knight
First You must
Armor
Knight with Armor = 10 Ordinary Soldiers
9
Armor Components:
Chainmail
Sabatons
Poleyns
Greaves
Cuisses
Spurs
Pauldrons
Rerebrace
Vambrace
Couter
Gauntlet
Breastplate and Backplate(Cuirass)
Faulds
Helmet
Gorget
What were the crusades?
Series of Christian Holy Wars to retake Jerusalem and the Holy Land
Leather Armor
Chain Mail Armor
Plate Armor with Chain Mail
Early Middle Ages
Latter Mid-Medieval to High Middle Ages
The Knight Armor Progression of Social Studies
Mid-Medieval Ages
The Second Crusade
The Third Crusade
The Sixth Crusade
The Fifth Crusade
The Eighth Crusade
The Ninth Crusade
They were a series of Christian Holy Wars
Chrisitans wanted to take Jerusalem from the Muslims
Many people were enthusiastic to fight
Everyone, even children and old people wanted to fight
These fighters were known as Crusaders
Primarily between 1096 and 1291
They wanted the Holy Sepulcher from the Muslims
The name "Crusades" came from the French word "crois" meaning "cross"
There were a total of 9 crusades
The crusades also helped chrisitanize Europe
The First Crusade
Initiated by Pope Clermont at the Council of Clermont
Massacre of 3000 Christians encourage people to fight
1096
1099
1097
Step Two
Step Four
Step Five
2
4
5
1098
Crusaders gather at Constantinople to ready for attack
People's Crusade starts and gets destroyed by the Turks
Siege of Nicaea
Battle of Dorylaeum
Siege of Antioch
Crusaders capture Anticoh
Emir Kerboga of Mosul attacks the Crusaderes but loses in the Battle of Orontes
The Crusaders capture Jerusalem and kick the Muslims out
Turks capture the city of Edessa, an important Christian outpost in the east
That encouraged the Second Crusade
Announced by Pope Eugene III
Led by Louis VII of France and Conrad III of Germany
Crusade crushed by Turks in Asia Minor
1
1096 - 1099
1145–1149
3
1189 - 1192
Step One
In 1187, Saladin, the Sultan of Egypt and Syria, took over Jerusalem from the Christians
This ignited yet another Crusade in order to take back Jerusalem
Led by King Philip Augustus of France, King Richard I of England, and Frederick Barbarossa of Germany
The Siege of Acre
Truce between King Richard and Saladin
Crusaders do not end up capturing Jerusalem
Step Three
Born a Star
Winning from the Beginning
1202 - 1261
Mostly knights fought
The crusades after the first three didn't affect the Holy Lands
They sacked Constantinople and raided it of all of its goods
The objective of the Fifth Crusade was to take over the Holy Land and Egypt along the way
The Crusaders took over Damietta, and advanced to take over Cairo next
They forgot about the Nile's flooding and got trapped
The Sultan captured the army, and forced the Crusaders to give back Damietta
The Fifth Crusade was yet another failure
1213–1221
1228-1229
Led by Fredrick II of the Holy Roman Empire
Pope excommunicates Fredrick because of his power
Fredrick goes on Crusade anyways
Recaptures Jerusalem
Little Vassal Duties
Squire in attire
The Egyptians, or Muslims, end up taking control of Jerusalem form the Chrisitans again
In order to retake Jerusalem, another crusade was ordered
Led by Louis IX of France, their army got captured, and a ransom had to be paid in order to free the king and the soldiers
This was another unseccessful crusade
1248 - 1254
A knight was most commonly born into nobility.
Expensive to own a horse and to train to be a knight in battle
Very few men who weren't born in a situation where they are set for life money wise, could become knights.
Technically anyone in the kingdom could become knights (there are exceptions), but only the greatest and richest would make it.
1270
Led by King Louis IX of France
They wanted to conquer Egypt
Troops get hit by a disease
Louis's brother, Charles, carries on the attack
Not very successful
1271–1272
Dressing a Knight in
His Suit of Armor
Sabatons
Greaves
Poleyns
Cuisses
Spurs
Rerebrace
Vambrace
Couter
Gauntlet
Pauldron
Breastplate
Backplate
Chainmail
Faulds
Helmet
Gorget
Buckler
Fettered in solid metal with solid metal helmet
Armor became more and more towards perfection
Knights eventually became living forts
Continuation of the Eighth Crusade
Led by Edward I of England
Allied with Mongols
Peace treaty with Sultan
Last crusade
Extremely Expensive
Had to be tailor fit
Condition=Status Symbol
Weighed about 50 pounds
Weaponry
Knights were trained to use:
Daggers
Lances
Maces
Flails
Variety of Swords
Knights were armed warriors on horseback
Knights were proficient and professional killers
They kept serfs in check
And they were defenders of their kingdom
From a king's perspective, his enemy has knights
Those knights want to kill your kingdom and take it's land
So, he also needs knights to defend his kingdom
As a knight you are a sworn protector of your king
King expects you to serve him in times of conflict
He also expects you to come armed and prepared to fight with others
Those others would be your fellow knights of your kingdom
What made a knight in medieval times was a fighting man able to fight proficiently and was able to handle a horse
Calvary were the best types of knights for battle
These knights were warriors who were able to fight on horseback which was a skill not every knight had
Knights were upper - classmen
These knights were usually younger sons of noblemen who had already one son to the church and kept one other son to inherit his title
As their job, knight were sworn to uphold the values of faith, loyalty, courage, honor, and were sworn protectors of their city/king
Knights protected other things/ people other than the king
Others included his city or town
The castle
The queen
The lord
The lady
And anyone else living in his kingdom including the peoples family, friends, peasants, and more.
Daggers
2-Edged Blade
5-10 inches long
Close contact
Used to Stab
Very Light
Little Training Needed
Lances
Made of wood with metal tip
Delivered Extreme Force
9-14 Feet Long
Not for Close combat
Trained using Quintain
Skill developed over many years
Vamplate and Lance-rest
Maces
Used for Close Contact as well as Horseback
Shaft made from Wood or Metal
Head made from Steel, Iron, Bronze, or Steel
Head mounted on long(5 ft.) or short(1 ft.) staff
Cheap and Simple to make
Could cause serious damage to armor
Flails
Steel Ball on Wooden Handle
Short Shaft
Multiple Chains Attached
Momentum Build Up
Good Offense, Bad Defence
Close Contact
Could Apply Significant Injury
Used Target for Practice
Used Target for Practice
Broadsword
Swords
Longsword
Falchion Sword
Earliest sword
2-Edged Blade
30-45 inches
3-5 pounds
Close Contact
Mass-Produced
Iron with Steel Edges
Single Edged with a Cusped Edge
37-40 inches
1-2 pounds
Close contact
Greatsword
Large, 2-Handed Sword
2-
2-Edged Sword
50-72 Inch Blade + 18-21 Inch Handle
6-10 pounds
Close Contact
Massive Blows
2-Edged Blade
Handle Long Enough for 2 Hands
40-48 Inch Blade + 10-15 Inch Handle
5-8 pounds
Close Contact
Massive Blow
Broad Blade
Quintains and Pell Training
Dummy on rotating arm
Sandbag on other side
Used for Lance Training
Wooden Pole Planted in to the Ground
Knights would use the sword on the wooden post
When practicing, knights would double the weight of the sword to build muscle
5
Padded Garments
A child, at the ages as low as from birth to seven years old, will be decided his possible future occupation as maybe a knight.
This child's early life would be studied by his elder's to see if his ambition (or want/desire) for knighthood was great enough.
(Usually) Must learn good manners, understand role of knights, chivalry, and loyalty to his lord.
Some gameplaying may show inner ambition.
These children visit tournaments and other events and anticipate competing in them themselves.
Most games mimic role of knight.
The toys included a wooden sword and shield.
THE END
What are These Steps and Why are They here?
These are the
steps that a young man
born in the middle ages
must endure to become
a knight.
At age of seven a young boy begins his education in home or the castle of that of a noble.
The boy's newest duty is to be a "page"
"Page means the word 'varlet', which means 'little vassal.
It is Page's job to wait at a table, care for lord's clothes, and to be a servant to the ladies of court.
Page was given a uniform of colors of the specific lord he is under.
Every noble had pages, the nobles with more wealth had more pages.
There are many pages in a manor who are in order based on age
Ages include that of seven to fourteen years of age, up until they receive their squire duties.
Pages are taught manners, religion, hunting, riding, and games that require strategy like chess and backgammon.
Pages practice the use of a lance and watch the technique of their elders.
Pages also competed in tournaments with the greater people, this was very major for pages throughout.
This is the most crucial step to becoming a knight.
Begins when a young man working for knighthood reaches fourteen years of age.
The duty to a squire is to serve (aka be a servant) another knight.
Squire duties are the final stretch of learning, one must study and learn of the rules of heraldry, understand chivalry, the use of different weapons and the ability to ride a horse into battle.
Squires had to fit in at a castle so they were expected to learn of many forms of respectuful etiquette, dancing, and jousting for a few.
Squires occasionally were let into battle along with their knight.
Most Squires must wait seven years to be a knight, while a few get to become knights early for showing courage while fighting the enemy.
The Likelihood of Knighthood
Once all the other steps have been conquered successfully, knighthood is nearly assured.
After every step there is a knighthood ceremony.
The closing of this ceremony would be following the words spoken "Arise, Sir Knight."
If a mature squire was lucky, when he is commenced into knighthood, the words will be spoken by someone of great importance (i.e a king or greater lord).
Most often these ceremonial occasions had someone of an average to little amount of importance speak the final words.
To fear God and maintain His Church
To serve the liege lord in valour and faith
To protect the weak and defenceless
To give succour to widows and orphans
To refrain from the wanton giving of offence
To live by honour and for glory
To despise pecuniary reward
To fight for the welfare of all
To obey those placed in authority
To guard the honour of fellow knights
To eschew unfairness, meanness and deceit
To keep faith
At all times to speak the truth
To persevere to the end in any enterprise begun
To respect the honour of women
Never to refuse a challenge from an equal
Never to turn the back upon a foe
Handout Answers
1)Being born of Noble Birth
2)A boy from the ages of 7 to 14 who served the lord
3)To serve a knight, to go into battle is necessary, Answers May Vary
4)Armed Warriors on Horseback
5)Answers may Vary
6)Answers May Vary
7)10
8)tailor fit, 50
9)Answers May Vary
10)Christian
11)9
12)Jerusalem
Full transcript