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Transcript of Joseph Wolpe
Joseph Wolpe Born on April 20, 1915 at Johannesburg, South Africa
Son of Michael Salmon Wolpe and Sarah Millner
Obtained his M.D. from the University of Witwatersrand
Married in 1948 to Stella Ettman and had 2 children
He enlisted himself as a medical officer in the South African Army
Worked in a military psychiatric hospital full of soldiers suffering from "war neurosis" (Post Traumatic Disorder)
Migrated to the United States and started to teach at the University of Virginia in 1960
Became the Professor of Pyschiatry at Temple University Medical School in 1965
Became the Director of the Behavior Therapy Unit at the Eastern Pennsylvania Psychiatric Institute
Founder and became the second president of the Association for Advancement of Behavior Therapy and the Journal of Behavioral Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
Retired from Temple in 1988 and moved to California
Continued to teach at Pepperdine University for 9 years Wife died in 1990
Remarried to Eva Gyarmati in 1996
He died on December 4, 1997 due to Lung Cancer Systematic Desensitization
Assertiveness Training Systematic Desensitization
is a form of Behavioral Therapy which is Classical Conditioning in Nature Behavior therapists assume that maladaptive behaviours are learned ways of coping with stress and that some of the techniques developed in experimental work on learning can be used to substitute new and more appropriate responses for maladaptive ones.
If maladaptive behaviour has been learned, it can be unlearned. But how is it done? In behaviour therapy, the focus is on the behaviour.
It deals directly with the maladaptive behaviour. Procedures:
1. Identify the symptoms or the problems and determine what elements in the present life situation are contributing to the pains of the patient.
2. The behaviourist takes the patient’s complaints without any attempt to contribute more deeply to it.
3. The therapist helps the patient overcome the symptoms as efficiently as possible. He reinforces the patient’s control over the symptoms. Systematic Desensitization
(Imagination Orientation System) It is a deconditioning or counter conditioning process that is good in eliminating fears, phobias and compulsion.
Systematic Desensitization is a therapeutic intervention that reduces the learned link between anxiety and objects or situations that are typically fear producing. It aims to reduce or eliminate fears or phobias that sufferers find distressing or that impairs their ability to manage daily life. By substituting a new response to a feared situation (a trained contradictory response of relaxation which is irreconcilable with an anxious response), phobic reactions are diminished or eradicated Wolpe also believe that Relaxation is antagonistic to Anxiety, which proves that Relaxation is an essential part of the therapy. How is it Applied? 1. The therapist questions the patient closely about his or her symptoms and list down dreaded objects and situations. The items are graded from mild fear to terrifying (Hierarchy Construction). 2. The therapist teaches the patient to become totally relaxed.
(Edmund Jacobson- deep muscle relaxation technique) 3. Once the patient has become deeply relaxed, the therapist and patient address themselves to every object singly on the anxiety-hierarchal way. 4. The patients, with eyes closed, sits in a comfortable chair. The therapist describes the least producing anxiety then proceeds to the next item on the list. 5. The patient is instructed to eliminate tension in various parts of the body. 6. The therapist will ask the client to imagine a neural or control scene (eg. lying on a beach on a warm summer day). The scene serves as a non anxiety provoking image to the client. 7. The therapist starts desensitization by describing in detail the scene lowest in the patient's hierarchy, the item that causes him the least anxiety or fears. 8. The not fully relaxed, can imagine that scene in detail without experiencing anxiety. The therapist moves up the hierarchy by one consequent scene. The therapist ask the patient to control the scene like the scene in the beach if the anxiety increases. 9. Desensitization continues until the patient can imagine the entire hierarchy without anxiety. 10. The patient is told to practice these excercises at home. This procedure continues through a series of sessions until the situation that originally provoked the anxiety elicits relaxation. Precautions:
Because of the potential for extreme panic reactions to occur, which can increase the phobia, this technique should be conducted by a well qualified, trained professional. Also, the relaxation response should be thoroughly learned before confronting the anxiety provoking hierarchy. What is assertiveness training?
It is a form of behavioral therapy designed to help people stand up for themselves. Assertive responses promote fairness and equality in human interactions based on a positive sense of respect for self and for others. The therapy helps people to stand their ground and is designed to build confidence.
Its purpose is to teach persons appropriate strategies for identifying and acting on their desires, needs and opinions while remaining respectful of others. Generally, the therapist engages in considerable role playing and rehearsal. Methods:
1. Assessment of behavioral situations that could be rehearsed.
*These situations should be related to the disturbance experienced by the client 2. Give your observation or feedback to the client. 3. Modeling the assertive response. 4. Rehearsal to be done by the client. 5. Feedback and additional assessment. 6. Additional Assessment End of Report:
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