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Chapter 11: Plague, War, and Schism
Transcript of Chapter 11: Plague, War, and Schism
The Black Sea England France Domremy in Champagne , France St. Catherine of Siena Siena, Italy Consecrated her virginity to God at age 7
Became Dominican Tertiary at age 16
In 1366, underwent “Spiritual Espousal”
Despite constant pain of only living on Eucharist, appeared radiant
1375 - Received stigmata (wounds hidden during life)
Attempted to make peace after war erupted between Florence & the Holy See.
Escaped death and wrote book "Dialogue"
Died on April 29, 1380 and canonized by Pope Pius II in 1461
Made a Doctor of the Church by Pope Paul VI in 1970 Sweden Jan Hus Worked at the University of Prague and adopted many of Wycliffe’s ideas as he attempted to reform the Church in Bohemia.
Supported by many people, however lost his support when he became a heretic
Supported free interpretation of the bible and private judgement over church pronouncements, and thought that faith alone apart from good works could achieve salvation.
He denied: Sacred Tradition,the validity of venerating relics, the existence of purgatory, transubstantiation, and the need for sacraments
Imprisoned and brought to trial for heresy at the Council of Constance.
With full knowledge of the consequences, he chose not to admit his errors and he was burned at the stake on July 6, 1415. Bohemia Yorkshire, England Professor at the University of Oxford and critic of the temporal practices and material possessions of the church
Thought: the church should give up all political power and practice strict poverty; no one could hold temporal things without sin
Rejected: the Pope’s authority, scholastic theology, Sacred Tradition, the need for clergy and sacraments, and man’s free will (he believed in predestination)
One of the first pre-Protestant thinkers who helped pave the way for Protestantism in England in the sixteenth century. Pope Blessed Benedict XI succeeded Pope Boniface
Pope Bl. Benedict XI found dead and succeeded by Bertrand de Got, the Archbishop of Bordeaux, who took the name Clement V
Established papal court in town of Avignon under watch of French king - area later called Babylonian captivity
Popes remained in Avignon for the next 70 years (1305-1377)
By staying at Avignon, the popes lost independence of Church to the French king
Were not able to remain above national interests, and the prestige and authority of the papacy declined
Gallicanism – idea that the French Roman Catholic clergy favored the restriction of papal control and the achievement by each nation of individual administrative autonomy
Became widespread as papacy resided at Avignon Avignon, France Marsiglio of Padua at the University of Paris 1324 - most damaging attack from proponents of Gallicanism came from Marsiglio of Padua at University of Paris
In Defensor Pacis (Defender of Peace), Marsiglio made first clear assertion of supremacy of secular rulers over Church – declared that faithful were true authority of Church
•Pope derived his faith not from Christ, but from General Council
•Maintained that the emperor, as representative of people, had right to depose and punish Church officials and dispose of ecclesiastical property as he saw fit Paris, France St. Joan of Arc St. Joan of Arc was captured by the English and no one tried to help her
Tried for heresy and witchcraft by Pierre Cauchon (Bishop of Beauvais) Before leading her assaults, King Charles had Joan examined by doctors and bishops who found nothing wrong with her, however their documents, proving her innocence, were now allowed to be used in her trial. St. Joan of Ark was burned at the stake on May 30, 1431. Born at Domremy in Champagne, possibly on Jan. 6, 1412
Age 13 - had a vision of light in which St. Michael the Archangel, St. Margaret, & St. Catherine of Alexandria appeared to her
Elected liberator of France by them and was instructed by the saints to inform Charles VII that she would make possible his coronation
Dressed as a man, Joan led small attacks and when she was injured did not stop Received urgent message from Mary that the Pope (helping w/ Hundred Year's War) must return to Rome or he will die.
Bridget sent word to Urban to return, but he did not comply and died once he reached Avignon, and the prophecy was fulfilled. St. Bridget of Sweden St. Bridget received another vision from Mary urging the Pope Gregory to return to Rome,and through letters inspired him to go to Rome Founded the Order of Most Holy Savior also known as the Brigettines Founded hospices for the poor and needy The Cause of the Black Death The Black Death 1347-1351 - the greatest demographic catastrophe to hit Western Europe - cause unknown
Approximately 25,000,000 people died (1/3 of European population)
Originated in sea trading post, Kaffa, on the Crimean Peninsula
Swelling of the lymph glands in groin,neck & armpit areas
Black patches, severe bleeding
Forms of plague
Pneumonic form- spread directly through coughs, sneezes, etc. ; 95% DR
Septicemic (infection of the blood) form- caused death before any evident symptoms could develop; 95% DR
Feudal Hierarchy: King --- Lord --- Knight --- Small Landlord --- Local peasant The Western Schism Rome wanted an Italian pope after 70 years of French Domination.
A mob of angry Romans invaded the conclave and demanded an Italian pope. The cardinals told the people of Avignon they said they voted “freely and unanimously," but they were forced to elect the Italian candidate
The cardinals of Avignon thought that Pope Urban VI would be an agreeable pope, but he was actually an inflexible, aggressive reformer.
Although he fought against every moral abuse, he did not teach forgiveness and peaceful reform as he should have done. 6 months after Urban’s election, the French cardinals returned to Avignon because of the illegitimacy of Urban VI’s papacy and elected antipope Clement VII in place of Urban VI . So began the Great Western Schism...
Each country chose who they would believe was pope, so the Western Christendom was split in two.
When the Church needed to unite, it caused even more chaos - Church weakened, heresies arose
The schism lasted 22 years until 1400 Conciliarism/Conciliar Movement - belief that only the general Church could resolve the schism
Pisa, 1409 - Neither Pope Gregory XII, the real pope, nor Benedict XIII, the antipope would abdicate, so they chose Alexander V to replace them both.
Holy Roman Emperor Sigismund forced Pisan Pope John XXIII to call Council of Constance.
Pope Gregory XII sent a representative to Constance to say he would resign if they recognized him as pope, and Benedict XIII refused to cooperate, so he lost support.
Council results: 3 popes removed, election of Pope Martin V, end to schism The Council of Constance The Hundred Year's War The English in France Relationship between France & England English gained upper hand b/c of invention of long bows - defeated French knights in Crecy in 1346
War forced many peasants to live in walled cities where plague spread rapidly
Truce was signed between England and France but only lasted 4 years; war breaking out in 1360
This time French learned to not face English in full scale battles so skirmished with the English; no one gained upper hand for 20 years By 1380 both King Edward III and his son the Black Prince (aka Edward) were dead
End of war was in sight but civil war between the major noble house of France broke out
Infighting left France vulnerable and England’s King Henry V took his chance
King Henry V destroyed the elite of the French aristocracy & overwhelmed the king of France at Agincourt in 1415
Henry V claimed the throne of France The Hundred Years War = series of short battles interrupted by long periods of relative peace (1337-1453)
The Peace and Truce of God= European kings recognized a common unity of Faith, keeping peace between European peoples who otherwise did not share nationality or custom
Through this principle, the Church managed to prevent and avoid major confrontations between the various kings of Christendom
Ultimately, conflict between England and France changed entire political make up of Europe English and French thrones have been linked through a number of matrimonial alliances since the 11th century
Through marriages England inherited large portions of French land
Henry II’s marriage brought the largest portion, acquiring the huge Duchy of Aquitaine in SW France
French kings aspired to drive the English from the feudal estates in France France supported the rebellious nobles of Scotland & encouraged piracy along the English Channel (chief trade route w/ Europe)
France had long sought to regain control over the Flanders region (modern day Belgium)
King Edward III of England proclaimed Flanders under the protection of the English crown enraged French End to War? Cause of the War Hostilities exploded when French king Charles IV died w/out and heir in 1328
King Philip IV’s nephew and King Edward II of England both claimed the right of succession
Started the long series of armed conflicts between England and France a.k.a. Hundred Years War The War Begins... Franciscan friar & early critic of the old scholastic tradition
Separated what could be known only by reason from what had to be accepted only on faith.
Very religious person, but confused philosophy and theology
Said God is almighty and therefore must be one and only reason why things are true or false.
Nominalism - theory that taught that human mind can only know individual, sensible objects, and that universal ideas, like truth, goodness, and humanity are only names
Ockham’s philosophy = root of skeptical crisis in metaphysics that erupted in 17th century
Believed church should be subordinate to the state since church deals with mysteries of faith and state deals with known facts. Plague, war, and church divisions caused major swings between religious idealism and skeptical realism.
While some turned to superstitions, Satanic cults, or witchcraft, some became Flagellants, who thought by scourging themselves could escape divine punishment.
The Black Death caused economic breakdown, changing the traditional relationship between lord and peasant.
Peasants could leave their manor and search for better opportunities, and laborers could work for higher wages in high demand.
Scholasticism became increasingly technical and people began to argue over insignificant details. William of Ockham John Wycliffe Decline of Scholastic Philosophy and Theology and the Rise of Heresy Rome, Italy •The 100 Years war, famine, and depression forced peasants into the city where they were more perceptible to contagious diseases. Chapter 11: A Century of Suffering: Plague, War, and Schism Trivia Game Part 1 Part 2 Part 3 Part 4 Part 5 Who was one of the first pre-Protestant thinkers who helped to open the door for Protestantism in England in the 16th century?
3 things that Jan Hus denied? Which pope first established the papal court in Avignon where the papacy would remain for the next 70 years?
According to Marsiglio's Defensor Pacis, who did the Pope derive his faith from? Thank you! How did England gain large portions of French land?
Name two ways the relationship between England and France became strained. 1. Clement V 2. General Council 1. Through various matrimonial alliances since the 11th century
2. French supported rebellious nobles, French supported piracy in English Channel, French wanted to regain Flanders region, English kept inheriting French land, French King Charles IV died with no heir 1. John Wycliffe
2. Sacred Tradition, the validity of venerating relics, the existence of purgatory, transubstantiation, and the need for sacraments Bibliography http://s196.photobucket.com/user/holymusic55/media/Saints/St%20Bridget%20of%20Sweden/OurLadyofSevenSorrowsrevealedtoStBr.jpg.html#/user/holymusic55/media/Saints/St%20Bridget%20of%20Sweden/OurLadyofSevenSorrowsrevealedtoStBr.jpg.html?&_suid=1365362638326047628401146205584
Gardner, Edmund. "St. Catherine of Siena." The Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 3. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1908. 7 Apr. 2013. Web.
http://www.catholic.org/saints/doctors.php What is a Spiritual Espousal?
Consists of: an almost constant sense of God’s presence, the soul feels its participation in God’s nature, & visions of the Trinity or some other Divine element What is a Third Order Dominican?
One who wishes to deepen Christian life and become more holy without retreating from world like monks or nuns. Fun Fact: Did you know that along with Catherine of Siena, St. Teresa of Avila & St. Therese of Lisieux are also Doctors of the Church? List in order the titles that make up the feudal hierarchy.
What is the mortality rate of the pneumonic form of the plague? 1. King ---Lord --- Knight --- Small Landlord --- Local Peasant
2. 95% What is the name of the book of meditations and revelations written by a third order dominican?
List three things necessary for an official Church council. 1. Dialogue
2. Called by the pope, presided over by the pope or his legate, and the dogmatic decrees are only doctrine if approved by the pope. Bonus Question:
What is the name of the main character of Ratatouille and the rat who gave us our lesson on the black plague today? Remy 1. We will ask both teams the same question.
2. Both teams will be given 30 seconds to answer.
3. We will call on each team individually and alternate.
4. If both teams cannot find the answer, textbooks can be used and the first team to say "Ratatouille" gets to answer.
5. Winning team receives bottles of nail polish and everyone receives a lollipop.