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Unit 3: Exploration, Colonization, and Revolution in America

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Joyce Pevler

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Transcript of Unit 3: Exploration, Colonization, and Revolution in America

Exploration, Colonization, & Revolution in America
Unit 3
1629: Puritan leader John Winthrop, and some of his well-connected friends, obtained a royal charter for a joint-stock enterprise, the Massachusetts Bay Company.
September 1630: Winthrop and the other colonists established the Massachusetts Bay Colony. The port town of Boston became their capital. Soon other towns were founded to accommodate the large number of settlers flocking to join the colony.
In the first year, about 1,000 English Puritan and non-Puritan, arrived. Eventually, Plymouth Colony was incorporated into the Massachusetts Bay Colony.
Early 1600s: Tobacco served as currency in Virginia
1,000 pounds bought an indentured servant
A slave might cost double or triple that amount

Late 1600s: Indentured servant population declining, along with an increase in the colonies’ overall wealth, spurred the colonists to begin importing slaves in huge numbers. While the life of indentured servants was difficult, slaves endured far worse conditions. Servants could eventually become full members of society, but slaves were condemned to a life of harsh labor.
spring 1609: The Powhatan (native tribe) began to kill the colonists’ livestock and destroy their farms (which weren't much).

Winter 1609: Jamestown had deteriorated to the point of famine. In what became known as the “starving time,” the colonists ate roots, rats, snakes, and even boiled shoe leather. Only
60 survived
.
Located on a narrow peninsula bordered by the James River. 
Site was chosen because the harbor was deep (ships to dock). 
It was also believed the site had plenty of fresh water and could be defended from attack by Indians in the region and by the Spanish. 
 
European settlements in America in the 16th and 17th centuries
By the late 1620s, the colonists exported more than 1.5 million pounds of “brown gold" to England each year.
In order to grow tobacco, the Virginia Company needed a key ingredient that was missing from the colony—field laborers. In an effort to lure settlers to Jamestown, the Virginia Company introduced the headright system.
Disaster struck early in the Jamestown settlement.
Disease from contaminated river water struck first.
Hunger soon followed.
The colonists, many of whom were unaccustomed to a life of labor, had refused to clear fields, plant crops, or even gather shellfish from the river’s edge.
In 1534, France sent Jacques Cartier to explore the Atlantic coastline of America to find a Northwest Passage, an all-water route through North America to the Pacific Ocean. Such a passage would provide a shortcut for ships sailing west to Asia. Cartier did not find the passage, but he claimed the land we know today as Canada for France. Cartier also discovered something almost as valuable as Spanish gold—beaver fur. Beaver hats were a hot fashion item in Europe, and French hat makers were willing to pay high prices for beaver pelts.
Spanish explorer Juan Ponce de Leon, named and explored Florida after hearing about Indian rumors of a “fountain of youth.”
European Settlements
Plymouth's Thanksgiving began with a few colonists going out “fowling,” since they “in one day killed as much as…served the company almost a week.” 90 or so Wampanoag made a surprise appearance at the settlement's gate and contributed venison to the feast.
Upon his return to Roanoke in 1590, White found the settlement empty, the colonists vanished, and the word “CROATOAN” carved into a tree.
Leader of the 2nd group of colonists to NC; could not plant well

Sailed back to England to get supplies
Beginnings of America
1. Why did Europeans come to the Americas?
2. What was the headright system and who did it benefit?
3. Compare and contrast Jamestown and Plymouth
(at least 15 items).
All of Europe looking to Asia - SPICES
Spanish -- St. Augustine, Florida 1565
Oldest continuously occupied city in the US
Europeans in search of gold, to protect land, convert natives to Christianity
Spices = $$$$
French -- Canada & Mississippi River
Sent to find water route to Pacific, opened fur trade, claimed Canada
English -- East Coast
Roanoke, NC (1585)
First Attempt
Natives friendly, taught fishing
Ran low on supplies, went home
Sir Walter Raleigh
Sent first expedition to Roanoke
Lost Colony
Colonists disappeared
John White
Jamestown
Virginia Company
Joint Stock Company
Investors pooled wealth to begin a colony FOR A PROFIT
Make money by colonists' shipping back goods
Jamestown, 1607
First permanent (English) colony founded by Virginia Company
Wanted to look for gold like Spanish
John Smith
Leader of Jamestown
1608: with only 38 colonists left
John Smith took control of colony.
"You see that power rests wholly with me. You must now obey this law,...he that will not work shall not eat."
Smith's Rule: Too harsh??
"starving Time"
Winter 1609, John Smith left
No food, only 60 lived;
Injured with a gunpowder burn & had to return to England.
Attempted to leave but was met by a supply ship
First democratic government
Lord De La Ware (new gov) brought men & supplies
Need government "HERE"
Jamestown
Tobacco -- cash crop (raised to make money)
John Rolfe
brought tobacco to Jamestown
Pocahontas
kidnapped, learned English & Christianity
Married Rolfe & brought peace to Jamestown
Headright System
50 Acres to each colonist
Given to the person who PAID for the trip to America.
Indentured Servants
(New group- laborers)
Promised labor (3-6 years) in exchange for passage
1619: First Africans come to Jamestown
Exchanged for food for crew
Were indentured servants
Slavery does not emerge until the mid 1600s
1661: Slavery is legalized in Virginia
1670s: Many free white men in Virginia were former indentured servants
Little money to buy land
Because they did not own land, they could not vote
Lived in the western portion of Virginia = fights with Native Americans
Settlers demanded to know where their tax money going to -- why not forts for protection??
First Rebellion
Indian dispute on the frontier
Freemen look for unclaimed land; natives attack them
Colonists ask for protection -- were denied
Virginia fur trading with natives
Bacon's Rebellion
Nathaniel Bacon led westerners in rebellion
Killed natives
Chased government out
Burned Jamestown
Anarchy
Governor & planters fled by ship
Bacon dies one month later
Government returned to power
Puritans in England
Henry VIII splits from Catholic Church -- wants heir & divorce
Anglican Church formed under Elizabeth I
Monarch in charge of church
Anglican Church kept Catholic ritual and tradition
Puritans want to PURIFY Anglican Church
(get rid of Catholic traces)
Puritans were not popular with the monarchs and found they needed to leave England
Pilgrims = Separatists
Arrested in England for failure to comply with religion.
1620: Sailed on Mayflower
ALL men signed Mayflower Compact before disembarking
Sailed for Virginia -- ended at Cape Cod
Compact signed by Pilgrims & non-Pilgrims
Like Jamestown, struggled at first
Natives helped Plymouth settlement survive
Helped settlers grow crops
Introduced them to native foods
Overall, maintained friendly relations with natives
Pilgrims came as FAMILIES and were prepared to WORK for survival.
Massachusetts Bay
John Winthrop
Founder/governor
City on a Hill
Be an example to the world
Build a community based on the Bible
HUGE connection between church and state
Strict adherence to Puritan rules
The government WAS the church, everyone was to worship the same way
Isn't this the idea they were fleeing??
Against Puritan Law:
Drunkenness
Swearing
Theft
Idleness
England’s Thirteen American Colonies
Types of Colonies
Pennsylvania
Carolina
Maryland
Connecticut
New Netherlands
Rhode Island
Massachusetts
Colonies in America
Proprietary Colonies
Owned by a joint-stock company or an individual
Virginia, Carolina, Massachusetts Bay
Royal Colony
Owned and controlled by the King
Most start as proprietary and end up royal
Need PROTECTION from King's army
Tight community controls
Dissenting opinions
Not everyone liked Puritan rules
Roger Williams
Believed in separation of Church and state
Exiled from colony
Founded Providence, RI
Anne Hutchinson
Believed in individual worship
Challenged Puritan leaders
Banished from colony -- fled to RI
"The Holy Spirit illumines the heart of every true believer."
Henry Hudson: Englishman sailing for Dutch
Looking for NW passage
Explored Hudson River and Hudson Bay -- claimed for Dutch
Dutch founded New Amsterdam
Many immigrants, religious freedom
English take colony in 1664
Renamed New York
Did not recognize Dutch claims, English king gave land away
Founded by Roger Williams
Land peaceably acquired from Indians
Bought from natives who helped him survive winter
Based on religious freedoms that Williams promoted
Taught church & government should be separate
Promoted individual worship
Became large slave-trading center
Founded by Thomas Hooker
Wanted more religious freedom than Massachusetts allowed
Disliked the requirement of citizens to be church members.
Fundamental Orders
First constitution in the nation
Written plan for government
Guaranteed right to vote to men who were members of the church
Eventually received charter from king
William Penn (founder) - Got charter from king to get rid of Quakers
Quakers: religious group that practiced worship without ministers and were pacifists
Refused to bow to king, pay taxes to Church, fight in wars
Fair treatment of ALL people including Indians & slaves (will be abolitionists)
Attracted settlers from all over the world
Penn gains land due to king's debt to his father
Every adult male settler guaranteed 50 acres of land & the right to vote.
Representative assembly
Freedom of religion
"City of Brotherly Love"
Regulated trade
Natives had voice in court
No Indian conflicts for 50 years
George Calvert, Lord Baltimore
Catholic granted charter from king for religious freedom
Maryland = Religious freedom
Established as safe haven for English Catholics
Catholics & Protestants arrive
Catholics soon outnumbered --
fear intolerance
Toleration Act: Law that created religious freedom in Maryland (only for Christians)
Carolina
Royal colony named after King Charles
Eventually split into two colonies
Founded by Eight Lords' Proprietors
Charles Town major port city
Georgia
Founder: James Oglethorpe
Haven for debtors and criminals
Second chance for the "industrious yet unfortunate poor"
Buffer from Spanish areas
Florida natives continuously attacking settlers.
Founded to make MONEY
Settlers pay for their way, harvest items for proprietors to sell & buy ALL items from them
Triangular Trade
Seeds of Independence
Three Regions
Enlightenment
Witch Trials
Slavery In America
Agricultural South
Industrial North
Colonial Society
English Control
Mercantilism
Great
Awakening
Philosophy
Colonial Life
6. What were the Navigation Acts and what were the result of these acts?
7. What is salutary neglect? How will is impact the American colonies?
8. What are natural rights and who supported this idea?
New England: subsistence farming and trade -- shipbuilding
Middle Colonies: staple food production -- wheat and timber harvesting
Southern Colonies: Agricultural; cash crops (first tobacco then cotton)
System of nations increasing their wealth and power through trade with colonies
Money makes empire strong
English wanted favorable balance of trade
Export more than import -- sell more than you buy
Wealth

=

Gold

&

Silver
Mother country (England) buys raw materials from colony . . . cheap . . . sells finished product back . . . high . . . making money
Colonies successful traders
Made British lots of money
British want full control
1649: Parliament passes the Navigation Acts
Series of laws regulating trade between the colonies & Britain
Restricted how colonists could do business
Could only trade with England and only use English ships
Kept money going only to England
Colonists angry
1688: Glorious Revolution

1689: English Bill of Rights
People have more power, king less

Colonists English citizens
Salutary Neglect: Loose supervision of colonies
Colonies successful -- English focus elsewhere
Lack of British control led to self-government
Colonial governor paid by colonists
Easily influenced into colonial view
John Peter Zenger: Put on trial over freedom of the press
Zenger: newspaper publisher in New York
Published opposition to colonial governor
New governor fought over salary
Unable to control the court
Removed officials
Replaced them with others
Cosby condemned the newspaper's "scandalous, virulent, false, and seditious reflections." Zenger arrested & charged with seditious libel.
Zenger went to trail after sitting in prison for 8 months.
Jury found Zenger not guilty -- upholding freedom of the press.
Plantations develop instead of towns in South
Plantation owners were top
Rich
Socially & politically powerful
Small farmers were most of the population
90% of population
Hard work, not rich
Second class role of women
No legal or social rights
Little education
Indentured servants
Endured hard times once contract over
Economy diversified (many types of industry)
More cities & urban areas
Less slavery than south
Harsher weather (shorter growing season)
Subsistence farming mainly
Ship-building & iron-making
Major money makers
By 1760: Colonists had built 1/3 of all British ships & producing more iron than England
But it did exist
Due to trade needs major port cities grow
Grow cash crops: tobacco, rice, indigo
NC/VA - tobacco
SC/GA - rice & indigo
Large plantations dominate economy,

but more small farms exist
Need more slaves
Few towns & cities
Long & deep rivers allowed planters to ship goods directly to the north & Europe
Plantations (& even farms) produced most of needs on the property
South develops as a self-sufficient society
Slaves replace Indians & indentured servants as labor
Every colony in North & South has slavery, but more in South
Triangular Trade
Europe -- Africa -- Americas
Middle Passage
Second "leg" of trade
Slaves transported to Americas
Europe - Finished goods
Africa - Slaves
Americas - Raw materials
1690: 13,000 slaves in South
1750: 200,000
Disease,
cruel treatment, suicide . . .
result in about 20% death rate
during the Middle Passage
Movement begun in France

Stresses the use of reason and scientific inquiry
God is no longer an acceptable answer
Benjamin Franklin: Most famous early American scientist
Franklin inventions: Lightning rods, bifocals, heating system
Enlightenment also led to increasing educational levels
Challenged Puritan ideals
Led to the founding of colleges -- many for religious training.
John Locke
Natural Rights: life, liberty, property
God-given rights
Social Contract
Government makes laws, people follow them
If government cannot protect natural rights, your DUTY to overthrow the government.
Baron Montesquieu
Separation of powers in government
Limits the power of the government
Checks & balances
Revival of Puritan faith
Preachers hosted revivals
Fire & brimstone
Jonathan Edwards - Leader of the movement
New religious denominations emerge
More minorities participate
Increased education
1692: Salem Massachusetts
Social tension
Religious fanaticism
Young girls accused people of being witches
Tituba, a West Indian slave woman was first target.
Many accusers poor, accused rich
Accused received lesser sentences if they could locate another "witch."
Accusations even were thrown at governor's wife
Court realized evidence was false & closed the court
Results: 19 hanged, 5 die in jail, & 150 imprisoned
10. What is this picture showing??? Identify the people in the picture.
Stirrings of Rebellion
British Taxation
Colonies debate forming central government because of possible defeat in the war

Idea was proposed by Ben Franklin but never adopted

First thought of uniting colonies as one
French and Indian War
Boston Massacre
Townshend Act
Resistance Begins
Rivalry: France & England
Goal: Domination
1754: Conflict begins . . .
French building forts near Virginia border
British mad -- George Washington (22) leads militia against French & lose
Allies - French & Indians
Won many early battles
War will last 7 years
First battles: French and Indians stage ambushes
British march/fight in orderly rows.
Flee when shots fired from trees.
Colonists' Reaction:
Surprised by weakness of British army
Debate forming one central government to fight French
Albany Plan of Union
Victory @ Quebec --
turning point of the conflict
British take over Canada
Treaty of Paris, 1763
Gave England French territory
Ends the war
France is OUT -- lost ALL lands in America
Post-War PROBLEMS
Ohio Territory:
Indians: fear settlers drive off game
Indians: Capture 8 British forts
British: Gave smallpox-infected blankets
Proclamation of 1763
Law: NO Colonists over Appalachians
Natives attacking, colonists angry
Colonists ignore law - provoke Indians
King sends troops to enforce law
Standing army in colonies AND debt from war
How will Britain pay these debts??
From the Colonists --

a WHOLE group of people who pay NO TAXES in England!!!
Taxes (duties) will be established on certain goods to help pay for British expenses
(war & troops)

Smugglers tried to avoid paying taxes

Writs of assistance: search warrants issued by British authorities to catch smugglers
"it is expedient that new provisions and regulations should be established for improving the revenue of this Kingdom ... and ... it is just and necessary that a revenue should be raised ... for defraying the expenses of defending, protecting, and securing the same."
Taxes: Passed by British Parliament
Sugar Act (tax on molasses)
Affected merchants & Traders
Expensive, angers colonists who had no say in taxation
Protests begin --

led by Samuel Adams &

James Otis:
"no taxation without representation"
Stamp Act
Required stamp on ALL legal documents, newspapers, licenses, and even playing cards
(anything made of paper)
Colonists protest (again)
Did NOT have representation in Parliament
British send more troops
Impacts ALL colonists
Sons of Liberty
(secret group of rebels)
Boston: Headquarters
Samuel Adams
John Adams
Paul Revere
Take up cause of no taxation
Did not want Parliament's taxes
Protests & boycotts organized
Stamp agents harassed

-- tarred & feathered, some killed
Law eventually repealed
Protestors prevented sale of stamps
Indirect tax placed on products as they came into the colonies from Britain.
New tax placed on imports
Glass, paper, paint, & tea
Makes colonists pay for increased troops in America
Colonists again react with protests
Boycotts: determined not to pay taxes their assemblies had not voted on
British answer . . . send more troops
(2,000 in Boston alone)
Will repeal all taxes but tea
Boston Massacre
March 1770
Colonists protesting tea tax
Mob @ Customs House -- taunting guards throwing snowballs
British troops fire on crowd
5 colonists killed & 10 injured
Crispus Attucks -- listed as first to die in American Revolution
Sam Adams & Paul Revere quickly name event: Boston Massacre
Soldiers found not guilty
(self-defense)
British response??
Lexington & Concord
After the First Continental Congress, colonists in many New England towns stepped up military preparations. Minutemen began to quietly stockpile firearms and gunpowder. General Gage (British) soon learned about these activities and prepared to strike back.
Sent message to King George asking him to respect rights
1St Continental Congress
“They muster’d…to the number of about two hundred, and proceeded…to Griffin’s wharf, where [the three ships] lay, each with 114 chests of the ill fated article…and before nine o’clock in the evening, every chest from on bound the three vessels was knock’d to pieces and flung over the sides. They say the actors were Indians. Whether they were or not,…they appear’d as such, being cloath’d in Blankets with the heads muffled, and copper color’d countenances, being each arm’d with a hatchet or axe.”
~Journals of American Independence
Boston Tea Party
Congress acts like an independent government:
authorized the printing of paper money (pay the troops)
organized a committee to deal with foreign nations.
2nd Continental Congress
“I find Common Sense is working a powerful change in the minds of many men.”
~George Washington
Common Sense
11. How has the British response to colonial protests magnified the problems?
12. Are the colonists justified in their action of rebellion?

Revolution Begins
Tea tax still in effect
(Townshend Act)
Monopoly on tea given to British company
What will the British control next??
Dec 1773: Colonists raid Boston Harbor; throw tea overboard & burned the ships
Dressed like natives to fool British
18,000 pounds of tea ruined
Boston Harbor turns BROWN
Intolerable Acts
Parliament passes Coercive Acts to punish Boston
Called Intolerable Acts by colonists
Had several parts:
Closed Boston Harbor
- until all tea paid for
Suspended basic civil rights
- courts closed in MA, colonists could be tried in other colonies or even England
Housed troops in peoples' homes
- no privacy, no protection
Committees of Correspondence created
Communication of British attacks on American freedom
GOAL: Isolate Massachusetts

RESULT: Unites colonies
Committees of Correspondence communicating
Militias begin to form
Minutemen: Militia ready to fight in 60 seconds
After Intolerables CC call for a meeting
Late 1774: 1st meeting held in Philadelphia
(want peaceful solution)
Discussed rights of colonies
Agreed to meet in 1 year
April 1775: British try to seize weapons
Paul Revere, William Dawes, Samuel Prescott warn colonists
Tried a surprise attack, colonists had spies
Minutemen met British at Lexington (village on the way to Concord)
Shots fired & colonists killed
"Shot Heard 'Round the World"
British victorious at Lexington
Colonists conduct guerilla battle along road to Concord
Americans prove willing to fight & die for their rights
May 1775: Met in Philadelphia
Called for an army & appointed Washington as leader
Continental Army: Troops from all colonies
Some talk of compromise & some of independence
Loyalists vs. Patriots
Bunker Hill
June 1775: Massachusetts
Colonists take hill overlooking Boston
(Breed's Hill)
Colonists build fort
British have 2,000 fresh soldiers
British charge 3 times until colonists have no ammo
British take hill
Lots of casualties . . . deadliest battle of war
Proved colonists could compete with British
Olive Branch
July 1775: Peace pinned on King George III
2nd Continental Congress sends King George a petition to return to the peace of the past
Called "Olive Branch"
REJECTED
King declares colonies to be in "open & avowed rebellion" . . . orders the traitors to be brought to justice
Loyalists: Colonists with strong loyalty to Britain
Patriots: Loyal to America
and fighting for independence
Common Sense - pamphlet that urged independence for colonies.
Written by Thomas Paine
Americans owe NOTHING to Britain
Stresses American independence
Independence Declared
“When in the course of human events, it becomes necessary for one people to dissolve the political bands which have connected them with another, and to assume among the powers of the earth, the separate and equal station to which the Laws of Nature and Nature’s God entitle them, a decent respect to the opinions of mankind requires that they should declare the causes which impel them to the separation.”

~Declaration of Independence
Declaration of Independence
Issued July 4, 1776
“Independence Day”
Treason against England
June 1776: Congress debating independence
Early 1776: Events pushed Continental Congress toward a decision.
NC had declared itself independent
VA told delegates to form its own government
June 7, 1776: VA delegate Richard Henry Lee moved that "these United Colonies are, and of a right ought to be free and independent states."
Committee formed to begin work on formal document
Explain the reasons for independence
Mostly written by Thomas Jefferson
Congress edited final draft -
passage on slavery struck out
Expressed the common belief that free citizens were political equals.
Does NOT claim that all people had the same abilities or ought to have equal wealth.
Concepts in the Declaration
Jefferson took ideas from Enlightenment thinkers
God-given rights to "Life, Liberty, and the pursuit of Happiness"
The power to rule comes from the "consent of the governed."
When government does not uphold rights, must "alter or abolish it."
Natural Rights and Social Contract from John Locke
Not included groups: women, Native Americans, & slaves
Declaration is statement of IDEALS -- it is NOT the LAW.
The Declaration states flatly that "all men are created equal."
Listed specific reasons for our independence
Grievances against King George III and the British Parliament
Does not describe any particular form of government for the new nation.
ONLY claims independence . . .
Delegates voted unanimously that the American colonies were free.
July 4, 1776: Adopted the Declaration of Independence.
Eternal Statement
"We hold these truths to be self evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their creator with certain unalienable rights, that among these are life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. That to secure these rights governments are instituted among men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed; that whenever any form of government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the right of the people to alter or to abolish it.”
Choosing Sides
Loyalists
Patriots
Remain loyal to King
Called Tories
Supported independence
Risked everything -- could be hung
"We must all hang together...or we shall hang separately."
Undecided
Up to one-third had no idea which was better
Can you find the "sea monsters"???
First map of Jamestown
4. Identify the colonies that began as proprietary colonies.
5. What was the problem with the Dutch controlling what is now New York?
9. What is the main result of the French and Indian War?
13. From whom were many ideas in the Declaration of Independence borrowed?
14. What groups were "overlooked" in the writing of the document?
15. The Declaration of Independence is a statement of ideals and is NOT law, why is this important in the founding of the new country?
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