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Pneumonia

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by

Tangela Hales

on 20 March 2014

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Transcript of Pneumonia

Images
Images
The approach in treatment of patients usually involves the decision of:
Who
needs to be hospitalized and who can be treated at home.
Whether or not the patient requires antibiotics and which one(s).
What follow up and preventive care is needed after the primary treatment.
Listen to the sound of the lungs during inhalation.
Crackling, rumbling, bubbling, and wheezing may be heard
If suspected, one or more of the following tests will be performed:
Chest x-ray:
best for diagnosing pneumonia
Blood tests/Blood Cultures:
check the white blood cell count and helps determine if a bacterial infection.
Chest computed tomography:
detailed image to see function of lungs
Sputum tests (spit):
look for the organism causing symptoms
Pleural fluid culture:
fluid is in the space surrounding lungs
Pulse oximetry:
measure how much oxygen is moving through bloodstream
Bronchoscopy:
look into the lungs' airways, if antibiotics were not working

Nursing Care
MedicalTreatment
Treatment varies by what type of pneumonia the patient has.
Viral pneumonia requires a prescription of antiviral medication from a doctor.
Aggressive antibiotics.
Rest, an air humidifier, and plenty of fluids will also hasten the recovery time for a person with pneumonia.
Etiology
Bacteria
In adults bacteria such as:
Streptococcus
Staphylococcus
Pneumococus
Haemophilus influenzae
Pneumocystis carinii, a fungal infection may also cause the disease especially in immunodepressed patients.
Mycoplasma Pneumophila
A bacteria-like organism is commonly known for Pneumonia in adolescents and young adults.
Viruses
Viral pathogens are most common in infants and children however they may also cause pneumonia in adults.
Definition:
Pneumonia is an inflammation of the lung parenchyma caused by various microorganisms, including bacteria, mycobacteria, fungi, and viruses. Pneumonias are classified as community-acquired or hospital acquired.
Pneumonia is caused by several infectious agents such as
viruses,bacteria and fungi.
Transmission occurs when airborne microbes from an infected individual are inhaled by someone else (via air-borne droplets). Frequency increases in immunodeficient individuals.

* According to the World Health Organization
Respiratory syncytial virus:
is the most common viral cause of pneumonia.
Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib):
the second most common cause of bacterial pneumonia.
Streptococcus pneumoniae:
the most common cause of bacterial pneumonia in children
Respiratory syncytial virus:
is the most common virus




Pathophysiology
Air sacs alveoli become inflamed
The lungs become filled with fluid or pus
Pneumonia restricts oxygen from reaching the blood causing cells in the body to stop working properly and give the infectious bacteria an opportunity to spread
How Pneumonia is Diagnosed
Pneumonia
Right Lower and Left Upper Lobe
Right middle lobe
Right upper lobe
Images
Healthy
Right upper lobe
Clinical Manifestations
Pneumonia

headache
low-grade fever
pleuritic pain
myalgia
rash
pharyngitis
purulent sputum
symptoms are gradual and non-specific:
Improving airway patency.
Promote rest and conserve energy.
Promote fluid intake.
Maintain nutrition.
Complications
Pleural effusion
Confusion
Shock and respiratory failure
Teaching
Teach client about the proper administration of antibiotics and potential side effects.
Encourage client to stop smoking.
Encourage client to take Influenza and Pneumonia vaccine.
Full transcript