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Les Enragés

Les Enragés

Natalya Dundovich

on 30 April 2010

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Transcript of Les Enragés

Les Enragés The Enraged Ones The Enraged The Mad Dogs The Enragés The Rabids Most radical of the Parisian extremist clubs

Stormed the streets and Convention demanding bread
Created public disturbances by addressing the public from soapboxes
Encouraged violence, food riots and pillaging of shops

Les Enragés Opposed to 'commercial aristocracy'

Suspicious of the Bourgeoisie
Encouraged death penalty for hoarders

Originated from the Jacobins and Cordelier Clubs

Jacques Roux The Red Priest One of the earliest to accept the Civil Constitution of the Clergy

Originally a priest - known as the 'Red Priest' because of his last name
A Consitutional Priest Advocated Communism before Communism existed Popular with the sans-culottes

Elected to the Paris Commune (1791) "Freedom is but an empty illusion when one class of men can starve another with impunity. Equality is but an empty illusion when the rich, through monopolies, have the decision of life or death over their own kind. The Republic is but an empty illusion when the counterrevolution takes place daily because three-quarters of the citizenry cannot afford the price of basic foodstuffs and no one sheds a tear." Other Leaders Pauline Leon Théophile LeClerc
Jean Varlet

Postal worker
Member of the influential and troublesome "Insurrectionary Committee" Claire Lacombe Open to, and supportive of women

Affiliated with the Revolutionary Republic Women

Leaders of the Revolutionary Republic Women Supported poor relief Ultra radical 'mob movement'

Relatively small minority
Supported by the sans-culottes *BONUS KNOWLEDGE* Ideology Liberty means more than Constitutional rights Social and economic reforms of benefit to the worker's of France

Equality within buisnesses
Price controls on grain
Assignat as the only legal tender Wanted direct Democracy run by the sans-culottes Total repression of counter-revolutionary activities/views

Achieved by violence
This desire went as far as murdering those who appeared monarchistic Exemplified the frustrations that many people felt A 'mob movement', as opposed to a Political Party By 1793, the leading Engrages were arrested by September Strong ideologies and demands that never significantly altered however, became more intense as time progressed Addressed large audiences, primarily sans-culottes from his open air rostrum at the gates of the Assembly "...intent on exploiting the discontent (in Paris) to impose a more radical program including, the fixing of food prices and the requisition of food supplies". - Christopher Hibbert "If these extremists are allowed to have their way, Paris will be annihilated". - Maximin Isnard (Girondin) Role of Les Enrages in society "To purge the Assembly of the Girondin leaders" - George Rude "...had given the Jacobins the opportunity to assume control of Paris and vigorously prosecute the war which the Girondins had provoked". - Hibbert "Why have you not climbed from the 3rd to the 9th floor of the houses of this revolutionary city? You would have been moved by the tears and sighs of an immense population without food and clothing". - Jacques Roux
Spreading the ideology Hebert affiliated with Les Enrages and also ran the Journal (newspaper) "Le Pere Duschesne" which expressed left-wing sentiments Rene Hebert

Commited suicide in prison Deeply concerned with the plight of the poor, especially Parisian urban workers To be achieved through civil disobedience/ disturbance and violence Enemies of Girondins

Girondins wanted Marat tried by Revolutionary Tribunal
Didn't want to pass law to set corn prices
Attempted to overthrow Commune by arresting leaders from Enrages and Hebert On the 28th May 1793, Varlet leads the Insurrectionary Commitee with a militia of 30,000 sans-culottes to petition the National Convention to remove the leading Commission of Twelve (Girondin leaders) and to arrest them. Commission is removed from National Convention but they are not arrested.
This leads to further Enrages protests Eventually, Enrages and sans-culottes protests end rule of Girondins, which gave the Jacobins the opportunity to seize power.
Although allied with Enrages due to being further left than Girondins, Jacobins were not radical enough to have total support or control of Enrages, nor to escape public opposition by Roux and Varlet. Due to radicalisation of sans culottes, Revolutionary Tribunal (March 1793) set up and death penalty given to hoarders. "Let us be terrible so that we can prevent the people from being terrible"- Danton Love/hate relationship with theJacobins

Jacobins, whilst left-wing, did not always agree with the Enrages
Jacobins refused to give the death penalty to hoarders, which was a key concern of the Enrages Champions of the Sans-Culottes

Popular with the workers, particularly because Roux was a member of the Paris Commune and Varlet of the Insurrectionary Committee
Roux and Varlet encouraged action such as riots, looting of shops for essential items and general disturbance
Strong alliance with the Herbertistes, whose newspaper often supported the Enrages To stop vigilante justice from the Enrages and sans-culottes (September Massacres) "Encouraged by the Enrages, crowds of people took the law into their own hands"- Hibbert "Taxation Populaire" To prevent the increasing riots, Jacobin newspapers began ruining the reputation of Roux, he was expelled from the Cordeliers Club and eventually disowned by his section.
Other Enrages continued his work. Murder of Marat brings support back to Enrages, who proclaim him their patron saint. Death penalty for hoarders Jacques Roux
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