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NEW TECHNOLOGY IN WW1
Transcript of NEW TECHNOLOGY IN WW1
Air traffic control
In the beginning when a plane went in the air it was isolated from every one on the ground
This changed thanks to the efforts of the U.S. Army, which installed the first operational two-way radios in planes during the Great War Development began in 1915 at San Diego, and by 1916 technicians could send a radio telegraph over a distance of 140 miles; radio telegraph messages were also exchanged between planes in flight.
With machine guns reinforcing massed rifle fire from the defending trenches, attackers were mowed down by the thousands before they could even get to the other side of “no-man’s-land.”
A solution presented itself, however, in the form of the automobile, which took the world by storm after 1900. Powered by a small internal combustion engine burning diesel or gas, a heavily-armored vehicle could advance even in the face of overwhelming small arms fire. Add some guns and replace the wheels with armored treads to handle rough terrain, and the tank was born.
The first design for a modern flamethrower was submitted to the German Army by Richard Fiedler in 1901, and the devices were tested by the Germans with an experimental detachment in 1911.
Their true potential was only realized during trench warfare, however. Unlike grenades, flamethrowers could “neutralize” enemy soldiers in these confined spaces without inflicting structural damage
Poison gas was used by both sides with devastating results during the Great War. The Germans pioneered the large-scale use of chemical weapons with a gas attack on Russian positions during the Battle of Bolimov, but low temperatures froze the poison in the shells.
The first successful use of chemical weapons occurred on April 22, 1915, near Ypres, when the Germans sprayed chlorine gas from large cylinders towards trenches held by French colonial troops. of course, the Allies were using poison gas too, and over the course of the war both sides resorted to increasingly insidious compounds to beat gas masks, another new invention
The German U-boat campaign against Allied shipping sank millions of tons of cargo and killed tens of thousands of sailors and civilians, forcing the Allies to figure out a way to combat the submarine menace.
The solution was the depth charge, basically an underwater bomb that could be lobbed from the deck of a ship using a catapult or chute. Depth charges were set to go off at a certain depth by a hydrostatic pistol that measured water pressure, insuring the depth charge wouldn’t damage surface vessels, including the launch ship.
The first German U-boat sunk by depth charge was the U-68, destroyed on March 22, 1916.
The first time an airplane was launched from a moving ship was in May 1912, when commander Charles Rumney Samson piloted a Short S.27 pontoon biplane from a ramp on the deck of the HMS Hibernia in Weymouth Bay.
However, the Hibernia wasn’t a true aircraft carrier, since planes couldn’t land on its deck; they had to set down on the water and then be retrieved, slowing the whole process considerably.
The first real aircraft carrier was the HMS Furious, which began life as a 786-foot-long battle cruiser British naval didn’t want.
Looking for another use for the vessel, they built a long platform capable of both launching and landing airplanes.
To make more room for takeoffs and landings, the airplanes were stored in hangars under the runway, as they still are in modern aircraft carriers
The first pilotless drone was developed for the U.S. Navy in 1916 and 1917 by two inventors, Elmer Sperry and Peter Hewitt. Measuring just 18.5 feet across, with a 12-horsepower motor, the Hewitt-Sperry Automatic Aircraft weighed 175 pounds and was stabilized and directed with gyroscopes and a barometer to determine altitude.
The first unmanned flight in history occurred on Long Island on March 6, 1918. In the end, the targeting technique—point and fly—was too imprecise for it to be useful against ships during the war.
Further development, by attempting to integrate remote radio control, continued for several years after the war, until the Navy lost interest in 1925.
Mobile X-Ray Machines
With millions of soldiers suffering grievous, life-threatening injuries, there was obviously a huge need during the Great War for the new wonder weapon of medical diagnostics, the X-ray—but these required very large machines that were both too bulky and too delicate to move.
Enter Marie Curie, who set to work creating mobile X-ray stations for the French military immediately after the outbreak of war; by October 1914, she had installed X-ray machines in several cars and small trucks which toured smaller surgical stations at the front.