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Russian Revolution

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Naomi Wiseman

on 3 February 2014

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Transcript of Russian Revolution

Causes
Lenin Restores Order
Joseph Stalin
Russian
Revolution

The Revolution

Political
Czar's Resist Change
Economic
Nicholas II wanted to move Russia ahead to Western Europe's status
Sought foreign investors & raised taxes
Rapid steel production = growth of factories
Social
Serfdom
- Bound to their land for life (Proletariat)
Upper classes
had special privileges & controlled most of the wealth
Common People
were poor and uneducated
Road to Revolution
Nicholas I
Alexander II
Alexander III
Nicholas II
Strict censorship - published materials, private letters, and written documents
used Secret Police to repress people & ideas
Establish a Uniform Russian society = Russification
Blamed country's problems on minority groups, mostly the Jews. Used Pogroms (organized violence) to persecute the Jews
Became czar in 1824, kept Russia under an autocratic rule
Autocracy - a government
in which one individual
has all of the power
Trans-Siberian Railway
World's longest continuous railroad
Began in 1891, completed in 1916
Factories
Working Conditions
low wages
child labor
grueling conditions
Government outlawed labor unions...
organized strikes
Revolutionary movements arose and began to compete for power
INDUSTRIALIZATION
Revolutionaries
followed ideas of Karl Marx, "a dictatorship of the Proletariat"
Proletariat = working class that would overthrow the Czar
Mensheviks - moderates
"Popular party"
Bolsheviks - radicals
small group, highly committed
Vladimir Lenin
Leader of the Bolsheviks
Russia was a feudalistic society
Crisis at Home & Abroad
March Revolution, 1917
a. Petrograd:
Capital of the Russian Empire at the time
Women textile workers started a strike
The Czar troops joined the protestors = riots over shortages of bread and fuel
November Revolution, 1917
a. Russo-Japanese War
Russia and Japan competed for control over Korea and Manchuria in the early 1800s
Russia broke a series of agreements
Japan retaliated by attacking the Russians in 1904
Outcome: Russian losses sparked unrest and led to revolt
b. Bloody Sunday
January 2nd, 1905
Workers led by Priests marched to the Palace to petition working conditions
A peaceful demonstration turned violent when soldiers shot unarmed protestors
Outcome: Revolution of 1905 began and was named "Bloody Sunday," more than 1000 were wounded and hundreds were killed
Duma - Russia's first legislature; Nicholas II response to Bloody Sunday -- later ignoring its advice
c. World War 1, 1914
Russia was unprepared; financially and militarily (lacked weapons & experienced generals)
Nicholas II moved to the war front, leaving his wife Alexandra in charge
Alexandra ignored the chef advisers and followed the advice of Rasputin
Outcome: Within 1 year, 4 million soldiers were killed
"holy man" - claimed to have magical healing powers
Alexandra allowed him to make political decisions
Assassinated in 1916 by a group of nobles
Rasputin
b. Czar Nicholas II:
was abdicated from the throne and later executed
c. Provisional Government:
Temporary government set up by the Duma. Led by Alexander Kerensky who decided to keep Russia in WWI
lost support of soldiers and citizens
March Revolution
d. Soviets:
Local councils consisting of workers, peasants and soldiers competing for power
The Bolshevik Revolution
Lenin and the Bolsheviks promised the people "Peace, Land & Bread"
Peace: an end to Russia in WWI (Treaty of Brest-Litovsk with Germany)
Land: Lenin ordered that all farmland be distributed among the peasants
Bread: An end to wartime shortages
The Revolution:
The Bolsheviks Red Army (factory workers) stormed the palace and took over the provisional government
The Bolshevik Revolution
Lenin & Leon Trotsky (minister of war) = leaders of the Bolshevik Revolution
Followed the ideas of Karl Marx
wanted to eliminate political opposition
Lenin attempted to make Russia a Communist state
Communism:
an economic system in which all means of production are owned by the people and all goods and services are shared equally (Nationalized)
Civil War
a. White Army
Opponents of the Bolsheviks and Lenin
Wanted the Czar back in power
Others wanted a democratic government
Supported by Western Nations (US, Great Britain, France & Japan)
b. Red Army (Bolshevik armed forces)
Supported the Communists
Led by Leon Trotsky
Used terror & secret police
Executed the Czar and his family
Because of the nationalization, and the terms of the Brest-Litovsk treaty, peasants felt the Land and Bread promises were not kept
Red Army Wins = 14 million Russians during the Civil War and the famine that followed
New
Economic
Policy

Small scale version of Capitalism
Allowed Peasants to sell their surplus instead of turning them over to the government
Government controlled major industries, banks & means of communication
Communism
Red = Revolutionary
Red Star = Rule of the
Communist Party
Hammer & Sickle = union of
peasants and farmers
1923

UNION OF THE SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLIC
NATIONALISM

Threatened
USSR, 1922
COMMUNIST PARTY
Bolsheviks Renamed
RIP Lenin
1924
"Man of Steel"
Totalitarianism: a government that takes total control over every aspect of public and private life
a. Command Economy:
the government makes all economic decisions
Five Year Plans
Collectivization: The government seized millions of privately owned farms, combined them into larger farms and forced families to work and grow food for the state
Collective Farms
"Kulaks" = wealthy peasants
b. Police State:
Police were used to spy on citizens, intimidate them and use brutal force to achieve their goals
Great Purge: Stalin's campaign to eliminate anyone who was a threat to power including the Communist Party
Bolsheviks stood trial, were executed or were sent to labor camps
Estimated 8-13 million deaths
"Crimes against the Soviet State"
c. Propaganda:
information used to sway the public of certain beliefs or actions
Censorship:
Control of all mass media
Stalin did not tolerate individual creativity
Gloried the achievements of communism, Stalin and his economic policies = Cult of Personality
severe shortages of housing, clothing, food and other necessary goods
d. Education:
government controlled all schools and taught the virtues of the Communist Party
anyone who questioned, risked losing their jobs or imprisonment
Lectured peasants and workers; stressed importance of hard work and sacrifice
e. Religious Persecution:
Aimed to replace religious teachings with the ideals of Communism
Spread propaganda attacking religion
League of the Militant Godless
The Russian Orthodox Church was targeted and churches and synagogues were destroyed
Religious leaders were killed or sent to labor camps
Outcome
What would Vladimir Lenin's eulogy say?
Would you praise or condemn his actions?
o How did he come to power? (Describe the causes of the Russian Revolution.)
o What was life like during his leadership from 1918-1922?
o Did he fulfill his promises to the people?
o What obstacles did Lenin have to overcome to achieve his revolution?


Radical Socialism
Predicted that workers (Proletarians) would overthrow their owners
The world was divided into classes; a few who owned the wealth, and the majority who worked for the few
The working class could seize control of everything in society we need to produce; factories, offices, schools, railways and run the world so everyone could share the wealth

Many of you will not need to be reminded, but some, the younger among you, the inheritors of his master-strokes for freedom, may be glad to be told that your country, and mine, and all the free countries of the world, stood at the very gates of destiny in 1940 and 1941 when the Nazi tyranny threatened to engulf us, and when there was no 'second front' except our own. This was the great crucial moment of modern history. What was at stake was not some theory of government but the whole and personal freedom of men, and women, and children. And the battle for them was a battle against great odds. That battle had to be won not only in the air and on the sea and in the field, but in the hearts and minds of ordinary people with a deep capacity for heroism. It was then that Winston Churchill was called, by Almighty God, as our faith makes us believe, to stand as our leader and our inspirer.

Winston Churchill
Stalin as Dictator
Had been exiled to Siberia before RR
General Secretary of the Communist party, later promoted himself to political heir (1924)
Ruthless leader & Absolute power
led with an "iron fist"
Used secret police
Marxist believer
Wanted to create a strong socialist state and a worldwide communist revolution
http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/history/mwh/russia/bolsheviksact.shtml
*Lenin believed in a classless society
Stalin's Industrialization plan

Cult of Personality
Individual uses mass media, propaganda, or other methods,
to create an idealized, heroic, and at times, god-like public image,
often through unquestioning flattery and praise.
{Communist}
Fascism: a militant political movement that emphasized loyalty to the state and obedience to its leader
ultra-nationalistic
single charismatic leader
advancement of the state becomes the driving force in everyone's lives
Masters of manipulation
Work toward military expansion
intolerance for other forms of government, especially communism
Full transcript