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IOC Knowledge Management

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Terence Chan

on 27 March 2014

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Transcript of IOC Knowledge Management

Definition of Knowledge


There is no definitive definition of knowledge.

“Knowledge is a mix of experience, values, expert insight and contextual information.
It’s
what you know
and
how you use what you know
to increase an entity’s capacity for taking effective actions.” (Davenport and Prusak, 1998; Huber, 1991; Prusak, 1997)



Definition of Knowledge Management

“…a conscious strategy to get the
right knowledge
to the
right people
, at the
right time
,
through helping to share and put information into action to improve the organisation’s performance.” (Van-Ewyk, 2000)


The IOC and The Olympics


Staging the Olympic Games is extremely complex:

- 2 years bidding
- 7 years preparation
- 16 days of competition
- 1 year of dissolution

The
International Olympic Committee
is the organisation responsible for organising the Games.

Swiss
non-profit
,
non-governmental
organisation, founded in 1894.

100 active members, 33 honorary members, and 1 honour member. (International Olympic Committee, 2012)





Organising Committees for the Olympic Games (OCOGs)

IOC Membership

International Sport Federations (IF)

IOC President

Executive Board

International Olympic Committee (IOC)

(Joseph, 2010)

IOC Organisation Structure

2000 - Establishment of the Transfer of Knowledge (TOK)

2002 - Olympic Games Knowledge Services (OGKS)

2005 - Olympic Games Knowledge Management (OGKM)

(International Olympic Committee, 2012)

The evolution of the IOC’s Transfer of Knowledge

IOC Knowledge Processes

Knowledge Integration

Integration is attained from one country to another when the mentioned processes are achieved.

Knowledge Storage/Retrieval

Knowledge database accessed on the IOC Extranet

Knowledge Creation

Guidelines, systems, processes, regulations, manuals and etc created over the years.

Knowledge Processes

Knowledge Transfer & Sharing

2010 Vancouver
Observer Programme
, workshops and seminars.

Legacies are the lasting outcomes of our efforts

Building a legacy is important to ensure the continuity of a
unique
and
universal
event.

The Olympics are a catalyst for
change
– they provide a great opportunity to create environmental, social and economic legacies that can change a nation forever (Rogge, 2008)


Legacy

Creating sustainable legacies is a
fundamental commitment
of the Olympic Movement.

‘The IOC is firmly committed to guaranteeing legacy is as positive as it can possibly be’ (Rogge, 2002).

Knowledge Management Problem
: The IOC understands the importance and benefits of legacy, however, this does not reflect in their actions.

PROBLEM: Failure to create a legacy

The responsibility of the IOC is to do a
feasibility study

Greece was economically unstable

Buildings are meant to be a source of national pride (Chaffin and Hope, 2011).

Sports facilities are meant to be
centres of excellence
(Smith, 2012).

Several of the buildings built for the games now sit idle or underused (Lowen, 2012)

The IOC failed to consider whether Greece could afford to create a sustained legacy (Malkoutzis, 2012).

Examples of failed legacy creation: Greece

Facilities are expensive to maintain and draining public funds – Water Cube built for
2008 Beijing Olympics
made a loss of 11 million Yuan in 2012 (Blanchard and Fan, 2012).

Aspects of the
London 2012
legacy are in danger of faltering.

Examples of failed legacy creation

OCOGs fail to leave host countries with an effective legacy.

IOC need to internalise the responsibility of creating a legacy via a
Legacy Division.


Purpose: work with host country in establishing legacy plans and encourage country-to-country legacy knowledge transfer.



SOLUTION


Need to
mobilise knowledge
from within the IOC to the new division

Need a
Knowledge Management System
(KMS) to extrapolate this implicit and explicit knowledge

Done through a
socio-technical
paradigm

E.g. Implement a
Group Support System
(GSS)

Transition Phase

Internalising the Legacy-Function rather than create an external Legacy-Committee will make it efficient.

The OGKM have already internalised the KM system previously, making this a suitable direction to follow.

The success of the OGKM in organising the Games demonstrates there is a culture and passion for sharing.

Officials feel an enduring sense of pride creating the Games.



Evaluation

Evaluation

Dynamic Capabilities

In order to create a effective solution, the IOC needs to take into account their dynamic capabilities, inherent in the OGKM’s current strengths in information, services and personal experiences.

Utilising these capabilities, the IOC can effectively share inherent knowledge both internally and externally, in order to yield positive legacy outcomes.

The Legacy-Function will work with the existing partnerships built by the OCOGs when organising the Games.

Partners have already established Knowledge Capacity through the running of the Games.

Knowledge Capacity will be outlined prior in the Olympic Charter and a pre-requisite for a successful Host-Bid






3 main sources: Information, Services and Personal Experience

Information
: Official Games Report, technical manuals, knowledge reports

Services
: workshops, seminars and a network of experts

Personal Experience
: Preparations, operations and Observer Programmes for the Olympic Games (Olympic.org, 2012)

Strengths of Current Internal KM System


Explicit
– Data and documentation of the games; ticket sales
Tacit
- Learning experience transferred during Observer Programmes

Double Loop Learning
requires learning multiple perspectives and to learn from failures. (Argyris, 1991)

Professionals are usually very good at what they do and rarely experience failure. (Argyris, 1991).

The OGKM are very good at organising the Games.

Legacy is a major emerging issue.



Theoretical Perspective

Conclusion

The OGKM will use the existing codifying Knowledge Systems such as 'The Source' to build a database of Legacy data.





Evaluation

Argyris, C. 1991. Teaching smart people how to learn. Harvard business review, 69(3).
Blanchard, B. and Fan, H. 2012. Olympics – Beijing grapples with Games legacy four years on. Reuters. Available at: http://uk.reuters.com/article/2012/04/09/olympics-beijing-legacy-idUSL3E8F929Q20120409 Accessed on: 24/03/14
Chaffin, J. and Hope, K. 2011. Decline and fall of Greece’s Olympic legacy. Financial Times. Available at: http://www.ft.com/cms/s/0/23b8602e-2c90-11e1-8cca-00144feabdc0.html#axzz2wVuutDvm Accessed: 20/03/14
Davenport, T. H., and Prusak, L. 1998. ‘Working knowledge: Managing what your organization knows’, Harvard Business School Press, Boston, MA
Eurosport. 2014. Thousands of tickets remain unsold for Sochi Winter Olympics. Available at: http://uk.eurosport.yahoo.com/blogs/thesochinetwork/thousands-tickets-remain-unsold-sochi-olympic-games-100923133.html Accessed: 23/03/14
Fang, S.-C., Lok, P., Rhodes, J., & Yu-Yuan Hung, R. (2008). An integrative model of organisational learning and social capital on effective knowledge transfer and perceived organisational performance. Journal of Workplace Learning, 20(4), 245-258.
Girginov, V., & Gold, J. 2013. London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic. PODIUM.
Goh, S. 2002. Managing Effective Knowledge Transfer: An integrative framework and some practice implications. Journal of Knowledge Management, 6(1), 22-30.
Goodman, P., & Darr, E. 1996. Exchanging best practices through computer aided systems. Academy of Management Executive, 10(2), 7-19.
Halbwirth, S., & Toohey, K. 2001. The Olympic Games and knowledge management: A case study of the Sydney organising committee of the Olympic Games. European Sport Management Quarterly, 1(2), 91-111.
Huber, G. P. 1991. ‘Organisational learning: The contributing processes and the literatures’, Organisation Science, 2, 88-115
International Olympic Committee. 2012. ‘OGKM & the London 2012 Debriefing’, Factsheet
Joseph, K. 2010. ‘The Governing Structure of International Olympic Committee (IOC)’ [Online]. Available from: http://voices.yahoo.com/the-governing-structure-international-olympic-committee-5809886.html (Accessed on: 24 March 2013)
Lam, A. 2000. “Tacit knowledge, organizational learning and societal institutions: an integrated framework”, Organization Studies, Vol. 21 No. 3, pp. 487-513.
Lord Harris of Haringey in Conway, R. 2013. London 2012: Lords report warns of faltering Olympic legacy. BBC. Available at: http://www.bbc.co.uk/sport/0/olympics/24981550 Accessed: 20/03/14
Lowen, M. 2012. Greek athletes strive for London as Athens legacy fades. BBC News. Available at: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-europe-18899247 Accessed: 20/03/14
Malkoutzis, N. 2012. How the 2004 Olympics Triggered Greece’s Decline. Business Week. Available at: http://www.businessweek.com/articles/2012-08-02/how-the-2004-olympics-triggered-greeces-decline Accessed: 24/03/14
Nonaka, I. 1994. A dynamic Theory of Organisational Knowledge Creation. Organisational Science, 5(1), 14-37.
Olympic.org. 2014. IOC: Learning from the past, getting ready for the future. Available at: http://www.olympic.org/news/learning-from-the-past-getting-ready-for-the-future/143493 Accessed: 22/03/14
Olympic.org. 2014. Olympic Games Knowledge Management programme provides “essential” resource for Games organisers. Available at: http://www.olympic.org/news/olympic-games-knowledge-management-programme-provides-essential-resource-for-games-organisers/225618 Accessed: 23/03/14
Olympic.org. 2014. Olympic Games Knowledge Management programme supports organisation of the Games. Available at: http://www.olympic.org/news/ogkm-programme-supports-organisation-of-the-games/222725 Accessed: 22/03/14
Prusak, L. 1997. Knowledge in organizations. Elsevier.
Rogge, J. 2002. Speech given at the International Symposium on the Legacy of the Olympic Games at the Olympic Museum, Lausanne. Bidding for the Games - Beyond 2022. http://www.olympic.org/content/the-ioc/bidding-for-the-games/bidding-for-the-games---beyond-2020/?tab=legacy Accessed: 20/03/14
Rogge, J. 2008. Speech about 2010 Legacies Now in Vancouver. Bidding for the Games - Beyond 2022. Available at: http://www.olympic.org/content/the-ioc/bidding-for-the-games/bidding-for-the-games---beyond-2020/?tab=legacy Accessed: 20/03/14
Rogge, J. 2012. "Early legacy planning key to producing long-term benefits". Available at: http://www.olympic.org/news/hosting-the-olympic-games-early-legacy-planning-key-to-producing-long-term-benefits/183159 Accessed: 20/03/14
Smith, H. 2012. London 2012: Lords report warns of faltering Olympic legacy. Available at: http://www.theguardian.com/sport/2012/may/09/athens-2004-olympics-athletes-home Accessed: 20/03/14
Szulanski, G. 1996. Exploring internal stickness: Impediments to the transfer of best practice within the firm. Strategic Management Journal 17: 27-43.
Van Ewyk, O. 2000. ‘Knowledge Management 10 Point Checklist’, Hci Services

References

International Olympic Committee
Knowledge Management Problem: Legacy
(Jones et al, 2014)
The KM system of the IOC; the OGKM is very effective in organising the Games.

However, after the main event of the Games, the IOC has often failed to establish a long lasting legacy in the host nation.

Following the success of the internalisation of the OGKM department, replicating this strategy through establishing an internal Legacy Division will provide the IOC with a winning solution to overcome the problem of failed legacy creation.

Full transcript