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WWI First Battle of Marne 1914
Transcript of WWI First Battle of Marne 1914
September 8, 1914
The French Make A Comeback
September 9, 1914
The Germans Retreat
September 10, 1914
The French Overthrow the Germans
September 11-12, 1914
The French Are Victorious
September 5/6, 1914
The War Begins
September 7, 1914
The War Rages On
WWI: First Battle of the Marne 1914
By: Pooja Pandya, Saketh Lattupally, Amelia Chuisano, and Jordan Tinitigan
Overview of the First Battle of Marne
In the end, the French have won this battle against the Germans. The war became a stalemate after the Allies' victory. The German defeat and retreat, ended any hopes for a quick war in the west with a German victory. The German's Schlieffen Plan had failed as a result of the German retreat. Britain had joined the war, and the Western front was in a stalemate. On the Eastern Front, the Russians have mobilized quickly resulting in pressure on the East too. Thus, the Germans now had to fight a two front war. Over two million men fought in the First Battle of the Marne and 500,000 were killed or wounded. French casualties totalled 250,000 men, 80,000 killed. British casualties were 13,000 men, 1,700 killed. The Germans suffered 250,000 casualties.
The French used taxis in Paris to help move troops quickly around the battlefield. These taxis became known as the "taxis of the Marne" and became a symbol of France's will to win the war.
This was the first major battle where reconnaissance planes were used to discover enemy military positions. This played a key role in helping the allies position troops and win the battle.
The battle only lasted 7 days.
A part of Kluck’s First Army reached the Villiers-St. Georges area, the furthest-south German penetration into France of World War I.
The Germans wanted to quickly defeat the Western front so they can focus on the Eastern front against Russia. The main fighting occurred near the River of Marne.
River of Marne
This is the Western front Schiefflen Plan. Germany will mainly attack France through neutral Belgium
Battle along the River of Marne
The First Battle of the Marne began on September 5th 1914. The battle was fought by France, and Great Britain vs Germany. The German 1st Army reaches Claye, ten miles from Paris. Kluck(German general) receives orders to halt and face toward Paris, but most of 1st Army continues advancing south. Advancing to its attack positions on the Ourcq, French 6th Army unexpectedly collides with Kluck’s right flank east of Paris Kluck is alerted to the danger to his right wing, Kluck is told to withdraw north of the Marne. On the 6th , the advancing I Corps on the right of the BEF begins to engage Kluck’s 1st Army British II Corps begins to advance. In response to pressure from the French 6th Army, Kluck skillfully transfers two of the four corps advancing southeast of Paris to his right flank; Bülow weakens his right- a dangerous gap is developing between the German 1st and 2nd Armies
The 6th Army’s northern flank temporarily collapses, but Gallieni restores it by transporting troops from Paris in 600 commandeered taxi cabs. Joffre takes over direct command of 6th Army from Gallieni. Kluck receives Moltke’s warning of a general French counteroffensive so he transfers two more corps northwards against the French 6th Army on the Ourcq, opening the gap between the German 1st and 2nd Armies still wider. The French 6th Army is to redirect its attack against German 1st Army’s northern flank, while the BEF and the left wing of the French 5th Army are to push north.
The French finally become aware of the dangerous gap that’s developed between the German 1st and 2nd Armies and calls in troops from Antwerp and Maubeuge to fill it. The left flank of French 5th Army advances slowly toward Montmirail. After clashing with the German 1st Army at the Petit Morin, the BEF begins to cross the river, reaching the south bank of the Marne after a cautious advance. Bülow recommends that 1st and 2nd Armies retreat before it’s too late. French 5th Army’s left wing takes Marchais-en-Brie in hard fighting , turning the right flank of the German 2nd Army: the German right wing is temporarily in grave danger.
The BEF crosses the Marne River. The French 5th Army moves right, losing the opportunity to strengthen the BEF’s advance. Bülow orders the 2nd Army to retreat by midday, so the German right wing begins to fall back. General Chief of Staff Helmoth von Moltke realizes that the battle was lost for the Germans, losing all hope for a quick victory. Kluck orders the 1st Army’s center and left to pull back until they’re facing south. The 1st Army begins to retreat which causes the counter-attack against the weakened French 6th Army near Paris to be broken off. The BEF and French 5th Army come to a standstill, losing the opportunity to break the German line.
As per Joffre’s orders, the Allied left slowly pursues the retreating Germans, advancing only a few miles against little or no resistance. As the German 5th Army delays the attack, other Germans continue to retreat. Joffre realizes the Germans are retreating, so he issues a stronger effort to chase the Germans. Meanwhile, Moltke finalizes German withdrawal from the battle.
The entire German right and center is falling back. Despite virtually no German resistance, the exhausted troops of the Allied left and center are unable to advance more than a few miles through a countryside that is littered with corpses and abandoned equipment. Joffre formally announces the Allied victory. German troops begin to occupy prepared positions behind the Aisne.