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Timeline: Iraq and Isis

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Tammy Denomme

on 25 March 2015

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Transcript of Timeline: Iraq and Isis

1917-1920
Timeline: Iraq and the Formation of ISIS
1917--Britain Seizes Baghdad
Before World War 1, the region that is now known as Iraq was ruled by the Ottoman Empire (headquartered in what today is Istanbul, Turkey).
Turkey was part of the Triple Alliance in WW1.
During WW1, a group of Arabs allied with the British and helped to bring down the Ottoman Empire.
During this scuffle in the Middle East, in 1917, Britain seized Iraq and then reneged on their promise to turn it over to the Arabs who helped them defeat the Turks.
In 1920, Britain created the state of Iraq with a League of Nations mandate called the British mandate of Mesopotamia.
Iraq becomes independent from Britain
1920--rebellion and revolution against British rule
1932--Iraq becomes an independent state, but with a pro-British monarchy (from the Hashemite family)
1939-1945--Britain re-occupies Iraq during WW2
1958--pro-British monarchy is overthrown by the Arab Socialist Baath Party; Iraq is declared a republic; the Baath party is secular in nature
one of the junior members of the Baath Party at this time was Saddam Hussein
Saddam Hussein to First Gulf War
1979 Saddam Hussein, a Sunni Muslim, and member of the Baath Party (but not particularly religious) becomes president of Iraq
1980-1988 Iran Iraq war; some Iraqi Shia and some Kurds fought with Iran against their own country
1988 poison gas attack on Kurds living in Iraq
1990 Iraq invades Kuwait which starts the Gulf War
1991 US 'wins' Gulf War (Operation Desert Shield)
1991 during Gulf War, Shia and Kurdish populations, encouraged by Iraq's defeat in Kuwait, rebel against Saddam Hussein; they are brutally stopped when Saddam retains power in Iraq
1991 the UN sets up a safe zone for Kurds living in Iraq
The Lead Up to the Second Gulf War
Saddam remains in power after he loses the first Gulf War, but his government is heavily monitored by the US
Restrictions are placed on Iraq, their economy suffers, the world criticizes the USA for the starving Iraqi innocents, an oil-for-food program is established
1995 Saddam wins a re-election referendum
1998 Iraq ends its cooperation with a UN nuclear weapons inspection committee in Iraq
1998 US and UK launch Operation Desert Fox which is a bombing campaign to destroy Iraq's nuclear arsenal
1999 spiritual leader of Shias is murdered
2001, Britain and US continue to bomb Iraq
2002, UN weapons inspectors return to Iraq along with UN resolution and warn of consequences for non-cooperation
March 2003, UN arms inspectors evacuate
Second Gulf War
March 2003 George Bush gives Saddam Hussein and his sons 48 hours to evacuate Iraq or face war; they claim Iraq has weapons of mass destruction, but the world is doubtful.
March 2003 US led invasion topples Saddam Hussein which marks the start of years of violent conflict with different groups competing for power
July 2003 US appointed Governing Council rules Iraq
Saddam's sons are killed in gun battle in Mosul
August 2003 first suicide bomb attack wrecks UN headquarters in Baghdad; UN envoy dies
2003 Saddam Hussein captured
June 2004, pro US interim government takes power in Iraq
Nov 5, 2006, Saddam Hussein is sentenced to death by hanging
Post-Saddam
a rash of sectarian violence constantly divides Iraq (mostly Sunni versus Shia and everybody versus Kurds)
Jan 2005 8 million Iraqis vote for a Transitional National Assembly
April 2005 a Kurdish leader becomes president, a Shia is named Prime Minister
May 2005 onwards--surge of car bombings, shootings, and bomb explosions; death toll for May is 672
August 2005 draft constitution endorsed by Shia and Kurdish, but not Sunni
Dec 2005 first election for a full term government
April 2006 newly elected Sunni President asks Shia compromise candidate to form a coalition government, but sectarian bombings and death continue
Iraq Tries to Stabilize
more than 34 000 civilians killed in violence during 2006
US President George Bush decides to increase US troops in Iraq for security purposes
Feb 2007 bomb in Baghdad market kills 130+
March 2007 three trucks detonated with chlorine gas inside
April 2007 nearly 200 ppl killed in bombings in Baghdad
A new alliance is formed in government, but Sunni leaders won't join it
2007 British troops leave Iraq
2008 US hand over a Sunni controlled province of Anbar to the Shia government
1932-1958
1979-1991
1991-2003
-all information paraphrased or directly quoted from bbc.com's "Iraq Profile" http://www.bbc.com/news/world-middle-east-14546763
2003-2005
2005-2006
2006-2008
Iraq disintegrates
2008-2010
Nov 2008 Iraqi parliament approves security pact with United States under which all US troops are to leave by 2011
March 2009 US President Obama announces withdrawal of most US troops by end of August 2010; some remain to advise Iraqi forces
October 2009 two car bombs explode in Baghdad, killing 155+
December 2009 al-Qaeda-linked Islamic State of Iraq claims responsibility for suicide bombings that kill at least 127
January 2010 "Chemical" Ali Hassan, a key figure in Saddam's government and a Sunni, is executed
August 2010, the last US troops leave Iraq, 7 years after the invasion
September 2010, Syria and Iraq restore diplomatic relations
October 2010 Christian church in Baghdad is seized; 52 ppl are killed
November 2010 a new government is elected that includes all major factions
2010-2014
ISIS Emerges

Aug 2011 more than 40 coordinated nationwide attacks in 1 day, Dec 2011, complete pullout of US troops
Dec 2011 unity government faces disarray; warrant issued for Sunni vice-president; Sunni bloc boycotts parliament and cabinet
2012 bomb and gun attacks target Shia areas throughout the year; 190+ people are killed in January, more than 160 in June, 113 in a single day in July, 70+ in August, 62 in September
September 2013 fugitive vice president (a Sunni) is sentenced to death by hanging (in absentia); he flees to Turkey where he still is today
2012 Sunni Muslims stage mass rallies across Iraq protesting marginalization by Shia-led government
April 2013 troops storm a Sunni anti-government protest camp, killing 50; By July the country is in a full-blown sectarian war
July 2013 500 prisoners, mainly senior al-Qaeda members, escape from Iraqi prisons
September 2013 series of bombings hit Kurdistan capital Irbil, Al Qaeda-affiliated Islamic State of Iraq says the bombings are in response to Iraqi Kurdish support for Kurds fighting jihadists in Syria
October 2013 900 killed
January 2014 pro al-Qaeda fighters infiltrate 2 Iraqi towns; government recaptures one of them
April 2014 in Iraqi elections, Shia dominated government wins a plurality, but not a majority
June 2014 Sunni rebels led by Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIS) surge out of Sunni majority Anbar province and capture Mosul and other key towns; atrocities happen, tens of thousands flee; they seize Mosul's banks and steal $429 million from Mosul's central bank alone; rumours also say that Saudi Arabia and Qatar fund ISIS
ISIS renames itself the Islamic State, declares Islamic caliphate covering Syria and Iraq
Aug 2014 Islamic State conquers several Kurdish-held towns
US jets strike jihadist positions
Thousands from Yazidi minority flee to Mount Sinjar; US bombs Islamic State to cover their escape
Aug and Sept 2014 American journalists beheaded; posted on youtube
Thousands of Syrian rebels ally with Islamic State; Islamic State now helps them in their fight against Bashar Al Asad; Islamic state now controls western Iraq and northeastern Syria
Nouri al Maliki
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