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Middle East Timeline, 600 CE- 1450 CE (AP World Project) By: Chris Darner, and Michael Hicks
Transcript of Middle East Timeline, 600 CE- 1450 CE (AP World Project) By: Chris Darner, and Michael Hicks
The ultimate victory for Muhammad and his followers was signaled by a treaty with the Quraysh in this year, which included a provision granting all the Mulsims permission to visit the shrine at Ka'ba in Mecca.
Muhammad begins to preach new faith to various Bedouin tribes around the Arabian peninsula. Khadijah begins to write down the revelations he recieved from the Angel Gabriel in the hill tops of Mecca
Muhammad's flight (hijra) from Mecca
to Medina. Muhammad is not alone as he has dubious followers that come with him. The hijra marks the first year in the Islamic calendar. In Medina he was given a hero's welcome.
Wars between the followers of Muhammad and
the Quraysh of Mecca. Muhammad proved to be an able leader and courageous fighter in these clashes between the Umayyad nobilitty and the faithfuls to Muhammad's cause.
Muhammad enters Mecca in triumph with a great amount of newly converted Bedouin allies, and more than 10,000 other converts accompaned him as well. After proving the power of Allah and smashing the idols of the shrine during this triumphant return, Muhammad gradually won over the Umayyads as well.
Muhammad falls ill and dies in this year after returing to Medina from the Farewell Pilgrimage .
Abu Bakr succedes Muhammad and becomes the first caliph of Islamic community after his death. Abu Bakr was a gentle, wise, and courageous man who was well versed in the genealogical histories of the bedouin tribes, which meant he knew how to make ties between clans of bedouin tribes .
Ridda Wars in Arabia following Muhammad's death. These wars resulted in the defeat of rival prophets and some larger clans. After these wars, the Islamic umma was restored and succession was not as big of an issue.
Early Muslim conquests in the Byzantine Empire. Muslim conquests were driven not by a desire for mass conversions but a lust for rich farmland and booty.
Arab invasion and destruction of Sasanian Empire. The Islamic empire was able to do this because of a weak emperor who was manipulated by a landed, aristocratic class and Zoroastrianism was fading as a sufficient unifying religion.
Rule of Caliph Uthman. Uthman was the third caliph and membr of the Umayyad clan, however he was mudered by mutinous warriors returning from Egypt. His death set off a civil war in Islam between followers of Ali and the Umay.
Rule of Caliph Ali; first civil war. His assassination and his sons death gave rise to the faction of Shi'a Islam.
Mu'awiya comes into power. Leader of Umayyad clan; first Umayyad claiph following civil war with
Islam splits into rival Sunni and Shiite factions
after the assassination of Caliph Ali; the Umayyad dynasty comes to power and makes Damascus capital of the Islamic world.
Death of Ali's son Husayn at Karbala. From
this point on, the Shi'a mounted sustained
resistance to the Umayyad calpihate .
Second civil war fueld by split between
Sunnis and Shiites.
Third civil war commences. Abbasid
Abbasid caliphate begins. Umayyad declines due to an ever-increasing size of the royal harem which drains the empires monetary funds. The Abbasid party came from the frontiers of the Merv border and commenced in the Battle of the River Zab which resulted in conquest of Syria and the capture of the Umayyad capital
Wars etween the Byzantine and Sasanian empires
occur during this time period. The conflict involved several small campaigns and various peace treaties were instigated in this brief stint. The Byzantine and Sasanian empires struggled to assert control over the vast majority of the bedouin tribes in the Arabian peninusla (Stearns 142).
Muslim forces overrun and conquer Spain, which they name Al-Andalus. The great city of Cordoba is set up and the majority is Muslim, however numerous other religions are allowed to practice freely.
Beginning of the Fatimid caliphate in North Africa
The Fatimid dynasty conquers Egypt and transfers its seat to the new city of Cairo in 973.
The First Crusade is launched to recover the Holy Land from the Muslims.
Beginning of the Mongol conquests. The Seljuk Turking kindom of Rum collapses in eastern Anatolia in Asian Minor .
Spanish Christians conquer Cordoba
Muhammad receives his first revelations from the Angel Gabriel. Allah's teachings conveyed through Gabriel form the basis of the holy teachings of the Quran
Founding of Ottoman dynasty. They were unified under Mehmed I and gained numerous amounts of land from the Balkans
Large-scake recruitment of Janissary troops begins. Janissaries were Ottoman infantry divisions that were forciply conscripted as boys in conquered areas of the Balkans.
Ottomans capture Constantinople. Useful weaponry such as the siege cannon and various military guns as well as a surplus of 100,000 soldiers resulted in this victory over the Byzantines.
Middle East Timeline
600 - 1750 CE