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Transcript of ANCIENT EGYPT
The Egyptians loved life and lived it to the fullest. Party scenes on the tomb walls, songs in papyri, and musical instruments showed how much music meant to them. They had festivals and people were entertained with dances and music.
The ancient Egyptians dressed in comfort; most of their clothing were made of linen. They wore amulets as they believed they were good luck charms and could keep away evil spirits and prevent injury. Men and women dyed their hair using henna and others wore wigs to protect themselves from the heat. Each and every ancient Egyptian wore makeup. Besides helping Egyptians look beautiful, Kohl helped fight eye infections and reduce the glare of the bright Egyptian sun.
One of the most remarkable features of the pyramids its durability. It is the only one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World that is still in existence. Although it is still standing, it no longer has the same meaning as it did back then; the ancient Egyptians built the pyramids for their queens and pharaohs but now it is a major tourist attraction that largely contributes to Egypt's economy.
The pyramids were ancient Egypt's greatest legacy and the earliest large-scale cut stone construction. They built the pyramids as tombs for their pharaohs. They believed that it was important to be buried properly so that they'll live again in the afterlife. The construction of the pyramids affected many people's lives as they were the ones who built them. Slaves weren't used to build the pyramids but rather average citizens who worked in farming. The pyramid-building era lasted for around a millennium; through the Old and Middle Kingdoms. The pyramids help us understand not only Egypt's history about the afterlife, but also how it influenced the beliefs of future civilizations about the afterlife. It also sheds light on parts of western civilization traditions. Modern western civilization was influenced by the Greeks and the Greeks were influenced by the Egyptians.
The ancient Egyptians all relied on math because they needed to learn their numbers in order to know how many livestock they had and they needed to use accurate measurements to build buildings and the pyramids. Math was one of their important subjects along with reading, writing, and sports. Most ancient Egyptians went to school to become scribes because it was an essential to be able to read and write in order to get a career. The reason why girls did not go to school was because instead, they were taught how to cook, weave, etc. by their mothers. Not all of the ancient Egyptians were educated because some couldn't afford it; only wealthy people got the privilege to go to school.
The earliest form of writing in Egypt was declined by the 4th century AD because Egypt had went through a Christian conversion and adopted the Greek alphabet. Hieroglyphic writing is pictorial meaning that pictures and symbols were used to express ideas, objects, and so on. The ancient Egyptians called their language "medu-netjer" because it meant that it was the words of the gods. However, the Greeks called the Egyptian's language "hieroglyphics" meaning "sacred carvings" because the Egyptians commonly carved the words on stone, walls of tombs, and temples.
The afterlife is a continuation of life on earth after death. All the ancient Egyptians believed in this and they believed that there was a process in getting into the afterlife. They thought that the dead person would first get judged based on their life (if they made good choices, if they were a good person, etc) by the underworld god. After that, rituals were performed by priests to ensure that the dead person had passed the test. A ritual called "opening of the mouth" was performed to allow the dead person to be able to eat and drink in their afterlife.
It was important that the ancient Egyptians embalmed their corpses; mummification was the method they used. They would first cut the left side of the body and remove all the internal organs except for the heart. They left the heart inside the body so that it can be weighed in the afterlife. After that, they cover the body with natron which keeps the body from decaying. Once that's done, wrapping and burial of the body occurs. There are different costs for each methods; at first, mummification was only available to pharaohs but eventually became available to everyone. Many ancient Egyptians died at a young age - about 1/3 were newborns and infants. Some women died giving birth. Diseases, hunger, accidents, physical violence, and hard work were the reasons for their deaths.
One of the most important Egyptian deities was Horus; the pharaohs believed themselves to be incarnations of him. The ancient Egyptians worshiped over 2000 deities and their gods were represented by animals.
Egypt was the wealthiest country of the ancient world until they operated with a non-monetary economy. This means that the work that were available to them such as house hold labor, care giving, and civic activity didn't have a monetary value. Wages and taxes were paid in produce. When trading, two parties were making deals until they were satisfied. The ancient Egyptians usually preserved goods for future transactions; Egypt's large gold reserves were often used for exchange purposes.
Both women and men could earn money, own property, and can ask or fight for a divorce. A divorced woman could keep her children and property and could marry again.
-Egypt's time was cyclical and linear. In fact, the calendar we use today is derived from one developed by the ancient Egyptians.
-They divided the year into 3 seasons: inundation, growing, and harvest.
-Egyptian women had a wide range of rights and freedoms.
Government / Political Organization
Throughout Egyptian history, the general way of governing was consistent. Things only changed when parts of Egypt were invaded or when someone chose to overthrow the government.
The government revolved heavily around a single figure; the pharaoh. People believed that the pharaoh was a living god therefore their type of government was a theocracy. Their government structure involved viziers, army commanders, chief treasurers, the minister of public works, and tax collectors; all of whom directly answer to the pharaoh. To pay for tax, citizens were drafted into the military or forced labor. Many of their laws involved punishments to fit crime. Suspects were beaten, branded, got their property taken away, got their limbs amputated or in extreme cases, the pharaoh would sentence them to death.
Image retrieved from http://schools.yrdsb.ca/markville.ss/projects/classof2007/16chong/rasanathan/piture5.jpg
Fun Facts about the Pyramids
-The people put so much work into the pyramids because it was for their king’s tomb. The Egyptians believed that a deceased king continued to care for them from heaven. They believed that as long as the body was preserved as a mummy, the king would continue to visit Earth and keep them safe and secure.
-The men who worked on the pyramids were paid not with money but with beer, oil, and linen.
-The word pyramid comes from the Greek word ‘pyramis’ which means wheat cake. The egyptian buildings reminded the Greeks of pointy-topped wheat cakes. The ancient Egyptian word for pyramids was Mr pronounced as Mer, which means ‘tomb.’
Beer, oil, linen, and other food
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Pyramids of Giza
The richest ancient civilization
Mary Joy, Teresa, Gelli
Egyptian Social Pyramid
-Egyptian pharaohs were often overweight.
-Cleopatra, the last active queen, was not Egyptian.
-The Ancient Egyptians invented lots of things we still use today, such as paper, pens, locks and keys and toothpaste.
-The pyramids were not built by slaves.