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Transcript of Globalization
What is globalization?
Integration of economies, societies and cultures of varied worlds through process of technology and trade
World = like a small village because of possibility to be at one end of the world and know what is going on at the other side
Impacts on Health
and the Environment
Increase in knowledge of the human body and disease
Faster communication during outbreaks
Increased collaboration and harmonization within the health care industry
More rapid advances in medicine - including the diagnosis, treatments and prevention of illness
Longer life span, lower mortality rates
Better medical equipment and resources
So people who are typically pro-globalization would say that it has had a positive impact on the overall health of human beings. So, as a result of globalization they would say that there has been increase in knowledge of the human body and diseases in general and how they interrelate with each other. So how the human body fights off disease and how different diseases affect the human body at different stages of the life cycle. They would also say that as a result of technological advancement there is faster communication during outbreaks so people are better able to prepare themselves as well as possibly prevent the spread of disease. Additionally, due to globalization in the health care industry people can now go overseas to get cheaper healthcare and there are more people working towards the same goals in regards to finding cures and treatments for deadly infectious and non-communicable diseases such as cancer and AIDS. They would argue that greater understanding of the human body, disease and illness has lead to faster diagnosis, better treatment and even prevention of some illnesses. Increased life span and lower mortality rates due to better water treatment strategies, advanced medicine and better knowledge. Life expectancy has doubled in developing countries since WWII. Better medical equipment and resources that cut down recovery times and increased survival rates overall.
Increased and faster spread of disease due to increased mobility and technological advances in transportation
More advanced and serious diseases due to changes in diet and food production
Biological pollution due to translocation leading to extinction of some species of flora and fauna when new ones are introduced
Rise in the spread of zoonotic viral diseases - disease spread from animals to human directly and indirectly
The role of emerging non-infectious diseases due to pollutants - asthma, radiation, cancers, diabetes..
People on the flip side, who are more anti-globalization, would say that globalization has had a negative effect on overall human health. They would argue that there has been increased and faster spread of infectious diseases due to increased mobility and technological advances in transportation as well as an increase in non-communicable deadly diseases due to pollution, genetically modified foods and increase of meat in the average diet. They would also state that the complexities of illnesses have increased and that we are seeing a greater amount of viruses that are resistant to antibiotics and /or constantly mutating. Anti-globalizationists’ would say that biological pollution has occurred due to increased mobility of humans and as a result some species of animals and greenery have become extinct because other natural predators have invaded their habitat or humans have forced them out of it. People who are anti-globalization would also say that there has been a rise in the spread of deadly diseases that are being passed from animals to humans directly and indirectly. Another negative impact on health as a result of globalization has been the proliferation of non-infectious diseases due to pollutants. As we can see more and more people today are finding themselves subject to being diagnosed with things such as asthma, emphysema, and other heart and lung diseases.
A lot more information regarding our impact on the environment
Increased measures to encourage sustainability - through recycling, green energy
More environmentally friendly technologies being produced
Higher standards of living
When we think of environment, we think of the sky, trees, grass, flowers, but our environment is much more than that. People who are pro-globalization would argue that the environment, which basically is the world around us has been positively affected by globalization. Pro-Globalizationists would say that because of the increase and interconnectedness of communication today we are more aware of the impact we are having on our environmental resources and able to actually take steps towards sustainability. People who are pro-globalization would say that this has also lead to more companies being interested in green measures and the increase of more companies utilising and producing recyclable and reusable containers and packages as well as higher standards of living due to better sewage and water treatment equipment, and advances in medicine and knowledge.
Air, water and land pollution
Lessening of renewable resources available
Global warming and climate change
Loss of natural habitat for animals and extinction of certain wildlife
Those who are against globalization would argue that globalization has led to a depletion of natural resources as well as an increase in air, water and land pollution due to the demands of a capitalistic society. This has also caused a lessening of renewable resources available and has caused global warming and climate change due to disruption in the natural eco-system. There has also been a loss of natural habitat for some animals and extinction of certain types of flora and fauna due to displacement and pollution. Scary fact: In the past 30 years, 30% of the world’s natural resouces have been destroyed and 10% of freshwater animal and plant species and natural forests have been cut in half. (World Health Organization)
Effects on the Economy
Increasing economic interdependence of national economies
Rapid growth of science and technology
Increasing cross-border division of labor
Economic globalization can be negative and positive
What economic globalization has done in this world is that it has made the movement of goods, technology, services and etc. made way easier than it was before. Economic globalization has brought lot of positives in this international market. There has been a huge development in areas such as science and technology. There has been a increase in labor which has created million jobs around the world benefiting so many families. Through economic development it has made it easier for the world to find out about products and markets around the world. It has lot of positives and negative about it but I will be focusing on the positives.
Free Trade Area
Free trade area is a trade bloc whose member countries have signed a free-trade agreement (FTA)
Eliminates tariffs and import quotas
Free to move between the countries
Free trade agreement has done lot of good to global economy. We can just look at NAFTA (North American Free Trade Agreement) as an example. It gives a poor country like Mexico an opportunity to work off rich countries, which are USA and Canada. This keeps the Mexico’s economy moving because there has been lot of labor jobs created by USA and Canada in Mexico because of really cheap labour. For companies it is really cheap to move products between the countries that signed FTA because tariffs and import quotas are eliminated. So, it is really easy to move around the products that benefit companies and they end up saving a lot of money.
Brings Advanced Technology to poorer countries
Low cost products to wealthier countries
Helps standard of living and provides qualities products all over the world
Majority of these multinational companies have branches all the over the world, so they bring there technology and products in almost every country. These countries end raising the standard of living in that country with their own products. This goes the other way around to where wealthier countries get cheaper products because they are made or are from poor countries. There is a global investment, which helps everyone, but with the poor countries it plays an important role because it ends up developing the economies of poor countries because they invest in these countries which provides more market and that also provides employment.
Narrowing gap between
rich and poor
Per capita GDP growth
Increased communication and improved transport, effectively reducing barriers between countries
The more movement of corporations in different nations has created more labour jobs around the world. Sometimes countries have shortage of jobs so these corporations give people employment and some other countries people have increased opportunities to look for work elsewhere, it helps both ways. This has increased investment for countries and it is easier to invest, that’s brings short term or long term investment in there countries which creates more jobs. All these factors have decreased poverty, now people are getting jobs to support themselves doesn’t matter what wages they are getting, people are just happy they have jobs. The gap has been decreased between rich and poor, any person can tell that by looking at the poor countries now and where they were 20 years ago. Example we can look at China and India where they have got in 20 years, they were among the poorest countries 20 years ago. Globalization has helped these countries the most there has narrowing of worldwide inequality due to these countries economic expansion. Global organizations like The world bank and The world trade organization has made really easy for countries to trade between each other, there has been lot of transportation of products in last 20 years. Which is good for the overall global economy. There has been more diversity in the world because people have no problem in getting items from any country they want example India’s popular for their rice now you can find basmati rice at loblaws, no frills and food basics
Globalization has many challenges but it has played a positive role in many developing countries changing many people’s lives.
Many anti-globalization crusaders talk about issues like environmental degradation, economic inequality, and loss of jobs
Globalization has benefits to the society as well, it has helped increase competition, increase number of jobs, with investment and capital flows, with foreign trade, spread of technical know-how, spread of culture, and spread of education
Globalization is known to have many challenges but it also played a positive role for many developing countries. Anti-globalization crusaders talk about issues like environmental degradation, economic inequality, and loss of jobs regarding globalization. It has many benefits to society as well, it helped increase competition. Due to global competition, the quality of products has improved significantly, most domestic companies have foreign competition so they have to make sure they raise their standards and meet customer satisfaction to survive in the market. This creates a survival of the fittest situation. Increased number of jobs, companies have opened up in developing countries which has generated employment for people. This is can be bad as well because since all jobs are going to developing countries, its causing loss of jobs in developed countries because the growth of domestic companies is low. Globalization has helped with investment and capital flows, companies have invested into developing countries like Brazil and India. Companies that do well attract a lot of foreign investment and this allows more foreign exchange. Foreign trade has been affected by globalization as well, in the olden times people had to be unfair and destruct kingdoms and countries to get what they wanted, but now it is done in a more civilized manner. Globalization has helped the spread of technical know-how, a perfect example of this would be how people have more knowledge of things like yoga which is an Indian practice and things like antibiotics which were known in developed countries are now known in developing countries as well. Globalization has helped the spread of culture as well. People from one culture usually pick up the culture which is more correct. Societies have become bigger because people of all civilizations have come together to form it. Things like cooking styles, languages and customs have spread through globalization. Last but not least globalization has helped the spread of education, now a days people can move to different countries for better education facilities and people can also go to different countries to learn new things and spread it in their own country which can benefit them as well.
Americanization of Society
Americanization is seen as one of driving forces of globalization
American pop culture has crept its way into peoples lives worldwide, from what they wear, what they listen to, what they eat, talk about, etc.
The dominance of American culture has lead to the loss of individual cultures, values, and ideologies
Today, no matter where you are in the world people are eating the same things, wearing the same clothing, listening to the same music. Why is that though? Why has the world seen a loss of culture and values? Why don't countries struggling to maintain their own individual culture? The answer is simple. It's all because of Americanization.
Worldwide Cultural Effects
globalization fueled by the flow of culture and economic activity of the USA
globalization leading to the transformation and diffusion of individual cultures
world has become Westernized/Americanized
people are not forced to accept to Western culture and views but over time begin to adapt to them
the world becomes immersed into the consumption cycle fueled by American brands, and we become dependant on these brands
Globalization has turned the world into a closely knit integrated system where we exchange worldviews, products, culture, ideas, etc. However much like in all aspects of the world, those with the most power have the most influence. As a massive super power in the world America has been influencing the world over the past millenium. American clothing brands, music, tv shows, movies, and so on are often in arms reach wherever you are in the world.
The dominance of Western culture has lead to the diffusion of individual culture. If you fly to India, you can find American food such as McDonalds (albeit with slight variations) as well as clothing brands like Abercrombie, Aeropostale, etc. The dominance of American pop culture is leading consumers to buy into these American products leaving local brands and culture behind. We've become incorporated into America's cycle of consumption where we continuously support production of western culture, become dependent on them, and essentially forget and lose respect for any other products.
Americanization is shifting the world into one single culture. Cities, and cultures are losing their historical significance and becoming more and more like their big brother America. While this shift is more obvious in people who come to Canada and over time lose touch with their cultural/religious roots, it is becoming more and more common in countries in Europe, South America, Asia, etc.
Time to discuss!
Increasing economic interdependence of countries
Result of a significant rise in movement of goods, service, technology and capital, across international borders
Concept of 'global village'
>> Wealth and prosperity
• Continue education
• Open trade with all countries
• Reduce welfare/public services
• Wage inequalities
Competing in a Global Economy
Effects on Local Markets and Workers
• Foreign goods sold at little to no profit margins
•Wages of skilled to unskilled workers increased by 25%
Wastage of Resources
To import and export products, country makes use of precious resources even when product manufactured in own country
Country >> puts more money into improving their products = promote their business and save on resources
• Production costs cheaper in Third-World countries such as China and India
Ideally, the result of globalization should have been wealth and prosperity, instead corporate greed and corrupt government has been the affect. Wealth is the main goal for every country, however it is not distributed equally. We will together explore the negative aspects of globalization on the economy, discussing the impacts on small businesses, workers, professionals, developed and developing countries, etc.
Globalization negatively effects the economy as it becomes difficult to sell local products in the market within the country. This is alarming for those who grow/sell locally in developing nations and are unable to make enough money/profit. Another example is small businessmen who do not or are unable to export their goods, thus facing damaging losses because they are not sold.
Another negative aspect of globalization is that professional employees are making more money as globalization has proceeded in recent years from the increase in the number of hours worked for professional workers. Now you might be wondering how in the world that is a negative! Well, because on the other hand, the hours worked for unskilled labourers are declining which results in lower earnings. When comparing wages, it is evident that skilled workers' wages increased 25% compared to unskilled workers. It is said that if this trend continues, it can eliminate the middle class constraing that Marx argued (though it is probably unlikely to happen soon, since the majority of workers are in that sector).
So with that said, you could argue the long standing theory that the rich become richer, while the poor become poorer.
You would expect that if a person works long hours, he/she would be paid more, thus have an increase in their overall average earnings right? That is not the case in developing nations. In countries such as India and China, workers are overworked, but underpaid for their hard labour. This video, called "The Hidden Face of Globalization" is a video about the working conditions of workers in Bangladesh.
People work hard to make our brand named clothes such as Nike sweatshirts, Levi's jeans, etc. The workers who make such clothings probably earn less than how much we pay for them, whether saying this in an exaggerated context or not, the point is that we are not considering their conditions. They have little or no benefits, less annual earnings, and work under pressure for hours.
Another negative aspect is the "domino effect." An economic crisis in one country can result in harmful consequences on various other countries with whom it shares economic ties with, which is called the domino effect.
The majority of the products we buy are manufactured in different countries. Is there anything that you buy, know of or use that is made in CANADA?
...Why isn't that product also imported from abroad?
...How can we promote buying products that are made in Canada?
Do you view globalization as a positive or a negative thing for our society today?
Where do you think we/our society would be without globalization?
How has globalization changed how we communicate or the speed at which we communicate?
By: Shareen Douglas
By: Ajaypal Sandhu (positives) & Inderjit Mandeir (negatives)
By: Kevin Martins (positives) and Rahul Sagar (negatives)
The advancement of technology has given us a chance to reach out to others across the globe, and benefit from the ability to boost one's economy with this advantage. Now that we are able to export and import goods and services across the world, we can view our globe as a single community -a village- that is linked by telecommunications. But economic globalization has a positive as well as a negative impact on our economy. Let's take a look.
You may have heard globalization being assoicated with the term "global village." That is because countries have the oppotunity to reach out to others in different countries miles and miles away without having the need to physically be there. We are privileged to get to know what events are going on the other side of the globe. We are at an advantage thanks to the advancement of technology, as we have a greater knowledge of things outside of our country, and that we can take advantage of using this resource. However, globalization has both its positive and negative impacts, and today, we are going to discuss both sides in the environmental, economical, and societal aspects.
>> Corporate greed and corrupt government, unequal money distribution
Firstly, to compete in a global economy, continued education is necessary and to open the trade agenda with all countries. The advancement of technology is the reason/cause of the glory of being able to connect with people from all over the globe; education in technology is important. Secondly, opening trade with all countries is necessary to boost one;s economy and make the amount of money a country wishes for (the amount is never-ending -every developed nation is hungry for more!). This means that most professions in demand will be those who have knowledge in business and technology. There is also reduced welfare and public services, environmental costs (which Shareen discussed earlier), and wage inequalities. Regarding welfare and public services, countries may reduce company taxes to attract global companies to have their home base within the country. Thus, the reduced taxes lead to reduced governmental income which leads to reduced welfare and public services. Wage inequality is a major negative factor of globalization, and that will be discussed in the later slides.
Theory – rich become richer, poor become poorer
Resources are used up to import and export products, which is fine and can be useful, but the confusing question is: Why waste the resources by getting products that a country already manufactures in their own!? Okay, so its simple. It is because first world nations are able to go into developing nations and pay less money than if they were to produce them themselves. They take advantage of their power and although they help the developing countries boost their economy, they are blinded from the reality that they already have those products at home (in the country). If that money was used in improving the product, we could promote business for our own country and save on our resources. Now let's get into the effects on the developing countries workers when manufacturing our products.
This video just gives us example of corporations who have changed our lives. Transnational corporations are making more money than some of the countries are, this shows how much we have grown in past 3 decades. Every individual have so much information about every subject because of Google and yahoo, people are free to move around the world to find better opportunities.
Adaptation of Common Views
American Pop Cultures conveys messages such as "drink, have lots of sex, fight, be strong, etc."
developing countries cannot deconstruct these messages to see them what their for, instead they embody them
What happens to these developing countries?
citizens become rebellious because of the messages their
loss of individual values and ideologies
loss of uniqueness
loss of culture
With the adaptation of American pop culture comes the adaption of American views. The loss of individual culture around the world has lead to the embodiment of messages portrayed in mass media. We have grown accustomed to and have become dehumanized to topics that were once controversial including sexuality, and violence. The values that are portrayed from the public eye have become directly injected into us and have become a central part of our lives, from what we wear, to the toys our kids play with, and what we watch on TV. "Drink, eat, have lots of sex, travel, fight, be open to violence, be strong, don't feel sorry for the weak -- in fact, drive over the weak. Just don't question the system; don't think too much. Live for today; don't be worried about what tomorrow will bring." These are all messages the messages that Westernized media are teaching
Despite most of the Western world being aware and accepting of these messages embedded in media, it is developing countries that struggle with them. In developed countries we have the capability and knowledge to deny, or modify the messages we perceive in media. We have governments and groups that fight against advertisers so that the general public can be better informed. However, developing countries don't have these defences available. These messages to be a rebel, consume, be promiscuous, etc. are more powerful in developing countries than anywhere else. Globalization has showed developing countries how to to be economically profitable by following in the Western world's footsteps. But with this positive comes a negative. If developing countries follow in the footsteps of American pop culture with no sense of what to make of the messages it contains, where are they headed? The answer is a destructive society that doesn't care about rules and authority, much less culture. They become a product of media, with no individual ideas living a "virtual life" where responsibilities can simply be ignored.
After taking into consideration all the ways globalization effects the environment, economy and society, here are some questions we want you to think about and attempt to answer: