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Improve and Control - Achieving and sustaining process performance in Lean Six Sigma Projects

Study notes in Prezi form. Inspired during the Masters Certificate of Lean Six Sigma at the Schulich School of Business.
by

Michon Williams

on 21 February 2016

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Transcript of Improve and Control - Achieving and sustaining process performance in Lean Six Sigma Projects

Improve & Control
How to achieve and sustain process performance
Deming's Cycle:

Plan
Do
Study
Act
Process Improvement is a continuous cycle!
Requires constant renewal, validation,
analysis and re-baselining
The Six Sigma DMAIC model is based on Deming's PDSA model
Where we realize the benefits of Lean Six Sigma Projects
Control
Objective:
Maintain improvements through documentation, standardization and monitoring

Output:
Monitoring system
Control Plan
Documentation (Lessons, Results)

Improve
Objective:

Identify, validate and select solutions to address root cause(s) of a problem to improve process performance

Outputs:
Pick the best solution
Planned activities that should reduce or remove the root causes of issues with the process (i.e. reduce variability)
I

I

ProcessMA
Minitab
DMAIC
Measure
Analyze
Improve
Control
Define
Improve and Control phases remove the
Root Cause
and sustain gains

Key Questions in the Failure Mode Effects Analysis:

Steps in the process?
What could go wrong?
Why would the failure happen?
What would be the consequences of each failure?
Failure Mode and Effects Analysis
Systematic tool to identify:

Effects and consequences of process failures

Methods to reduce/eliminate the risk of failure
People are Fallible
Wherever people are involved, there are risks

We need disciplines to reduce these risks of failure, SYSTEMATICALLY
NOTE: Even without people, we need this discipline (because things fail too)
1. Select the process
2. Assemble the project team
3. Map the process
FOCUS:
break the scope into separate subsystems or steps
A Principle for Improving Process
Mode:
conditions
or states in which a component
can fail
4. Brainstorm potential
Failure Modes
5. Identify the causes of the failure modes
6. Describe current controls in place to detect the failure
List the current controls for each failure mode

Assess the effectiveness of the controls





Are the controls automated? Remember humans are fallible!
7. Assign Risk Levels (RPN)
8. Revise or redesign Process
9. Validate and test improvements
10. Implement and monitor
Functional Representation
:

design, development testing, maintenance, procurement (and suppliers), sales, marketing (and customers) and customer service
SMEs
Project
Sponsor
Trained
Facilitator
Team Selection:

Keep it small (6 to 8)
Diverse knowledge
Varied seniority
Varied expertise
Steps in the Process?
Map the "as is" process

Level of granularity should be related to when and where failures can occur


Strategic Alignment & Benefits
Customer impact
Benefits
Investment required
Impact on service quality
Project alignment

Process Feasibility
Process stability
Defect definition
Data availability
Solution clarity
Controllability of inputs


Organizational Feasibility
Project sponsorship
Team availability

Execution Feasibility
Project timeline
Probability of implementation
Process redesign required
Criteria for Selection
http://www.isixsigma.com/implementation/project-selection-tracking/15-criteria-selecting-viable-dmaic-project/
What could go wrong?
People
Equipment
Methods
Environment
Use the 5 whys!
Seek out expert opinions
Identify all
causes!!
Do a
simulation
Mind
Maps
No bad ideas
Quantity over
Quality!
Silent
voting
Find failures at each step
Bring the expertise of all team members

Post
its!
Components of the FMEA
Criticality:
how severe is the failure effect on the system
Effect:
The result of the failure

Any point outside
the control limit

2 out of 3 points
close to limit

4 out of 5
Points in Zone B or A

8 Consecutive Points
on Same side of mean

6 Points trending upward or downward

Up and Down Trend
(14 consecutive points)

Grouping (15 points)
near average

Points
hugging
Control Limits
Rules for spotting
ABNORMALITIES

in a process
Statistical process control (SPC)

a method of quality control which uses statistical methods

Used in order to monitor and control a process
Variable
Data
plot statistics such as time, length or weight in the form of subgroup means, individual observations, or weighted statistics
Individuals
Subgroups
Xbar

R Chart

S Chart


Non-Weighted
Moving Average Chart
Weighted
EWMA - exponentially weighted moving averages

Each point contains a weighted effect from all the previous points

Used to track shifts away
from the target
Attribute Data
plot count data, such as the number of defects or defective units against the sample number
# of
Defectives
NP Chart
% of Defectives
P Chart
Number of
Defects

C Chart
Defects per
Unit
U Chart
I Chart

MR Chart

I-MR Chart

XBar-R

XBar-S

I-MR-R/S

?
Pop Quiz!

What are "Western Electric Rules?"

1) Used by BC Hydro to
determine power usage.

2) Used for detecting out of control conditions

3) Used to signify special causes

4) Both 2 & 3
?
Pop Quiz!

Purpose of FMEA?
A systematic tool for identifying:

1. Effects or consequences of product or process failure and methods to eliminate or reduce the change of a failure occurring

2. A document used to cause failures

3. IDEAL for designing existing processes

4. 1 & 3
Controls and Consequences?
Making Improvements
Failure results in injury


Failure results in partial malfunction


Failure has no noticeable effect


Absolute Uncertainty


Low



Almost Certain

At least one occurrence / day


Occurs once in a while


Rare occurrence


Very High



Moderate



Remote

Dangerously High



Moderate



None


Inspection doesn't reveal defects



Product manually inspected




Defect is obvious and easy to inspect


Severity
Occurrence
Detection
Severity
Occurrence
Detection
Improve
process
to reduce
consequence
Improve
controls
to reduce
failures
Improve
detection
methods
Fishbones
help with
Robust
Design
Reduce
human
factor &
chance
of error
Automate
inspection
Map the "to be process"

Do the FMEA again on the "to be process"

Test the proposed improvements


Manage
the project


Manage the change


Develop and implement a control plan


?
Pop Quiz!

Control Plans....

1. Provide status of a process

2. Include monitoring procedures but no response planning

3. Include response planning but no monitoring procedures

4. 1 & 2
What?
Provides a summary of the process
Identifies who is impacted/involved in the process
Show the process steps performed and by who
List quality checklist, responsibility, frequency, etc.
List dates of when the process should be reviewed and changes
How?
An Illustration - Lean Six-Sigma Class Evaluations

Process Name
: Teach Six-Sigma Black belt class
Tools:
Laptop
Process:
Speak to Blackbelt concepts and use illustrations and other course material
Process Specification
: Material is relevant to the topic
Evaluation / Measurement:
Evaluation survey
Sample Size:
24
Frequency:
Every 2 days
Control Method:
100% monitored

Why?
About Control Plans
?
Pop Quiz!

Control Charts are used for...

1. Showing the number of resources assigned to complete a given task

2. Focusing on consistent quality

3. Enabling targeting to specification

4. 2 & 3
Links what clients value to ongoing operations

A critical tool to ensure improvements are sustained

Provides protocols in event of a failure, shutdown, emergency
?
Final Question!

Who loves Process MA?

1) Billy loves ProcessMA

2) Sally loves ProcessMA

3) Both Billy and Sally love ProcessMA, but Sally loves Minitab Too

4) Who doesn't love ProcessMA?


I

ProcessMA
Minitab
I
Full transcript