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Improve and Control - Achieving and sustaining process performance in Lean Six Sigma Projects
Transcript of Improve and Control - Achieving and sustaining process performance in Lean Six Sigma Projects
How to achieve and sustain process performance
Process Improvement is a continuous cycle!
Requires constant renewal, validation,
analysis and re-baselining
The Six Sigma DMAIC model is based on Deming's PDSA model
Where we realize the benefits of Lean Six Sigma Projects
Maintain improvements through documentation, standardization and monitoring
Documentation (Lessons, Results)
Identify, validate and select solutions to address root cause(s) of a problem to improve process performance
Pick the best solution
Planned activities that should reduce or remove the root causes of issues with the process (i.e. reduce variability)
Improve and Control phases remove the
and sustain gains
Key Questions in the Failure Mode Effects Analysis:
Steps in the process?
What could go wrong?
Why would the failure happen?
What would be the consequences of each failure?
Failure Mode and Effects Analysis
Systematic tool to identify:
Effects and consequences of process failures
Methods to reduce/eliminate the risk of failure
People are Fallible
Wherever people are involved, there are risks
We need disciplines to reduce these risks of failure, SYSTEMATICALLY
NOTE: Even without people, we need this discipline (because things fail too)
1. Select the process
2. Assemble the project team
3. Map the process
break the scope into separate subsystems or steps
A Principle for Improving Process
or states in which a component
4. Brainstorm potential
5. Identify the causes of the failure modes
6. Describe current controls in place to detect the failure
List the current controls for each failure mode
Assess the effectiveness of the controls
Are the controls automated? Remember humans are fallible!
7. Assign Risk Levels (RPN)
8. Revise or redesign Process
9. Validate and test improvements
10. Implement and monitor
design, development testing, maintenance, procurement (and suppliers), sales, marketing (and customers) and customer service
Keep it small (6 to 8)
Steps in the Process?
Map the "as is" process
Level of granularity should be related to when and where failures can occur
Strategic Alignment & Benefits
Impact on service quality
Controllability of inputs
Probability of implementation
Process redesign required
Criteria for Selection
What could go wrong?
Use the 5 whys!
Seek out expert opinions
No bad ideas
Find failures at each step
Bring the expertise of all team members
Components of the FMEA
how severe is the failure effect on the system
The result of the failure
Any point outside
the control limit
2 out of 3 points
close to limit
4 out of 5
Points in Zone B or A
8 Consecutive Points
on Same side of mean
6 Points trending upward or downward
Up and Down Trend
(14 consecutive points)
Grouping (15 points)
Rules for spotting
in a process
Statistical process control (SPC)
a method of quality control which uses statistical methods
Used in order to monitor and control a process
plot statistics such as time, length or weight in the form of subgroup means, individual observations, or weighted statistics
Moving Average Chart
EWMA - exponentially weighted moving averages
Each point contains a weighted effect from all the previous points
Used to track shifts away
from the target
plot count data, such as the number of defects or defective units against the sample number
% of Defectives
What are "Western Electric Rules?"
1) Used by BC Hydro to
determine power usage.
2) Used for detecting out of control conditions
3) Used to signify special causes
4) Both 2 & 3
Purpose of FMEA?
A systematic tool for identifying:
1. Effects or consequences of product or process failure and methods to eliminate or reduce the change of a failure occurring
2. A document used to cause failures
3. IDEAL for designing existing processes
4. 1 & 3
Controls and Consequences?
Failure results in injury
Failure results in partial malfunction
Failure has no noticeable effect
At least one occurrence / day
Occurs once in a while
Inspection doesn't reveal defects
Product manually inspected
Defect is obvious and easy to inspect
Map the "to be process"
Do the FMEA again on the "to be process"
Test the proposed improvements
Manage the change
Develop and implement a control plan
1. Provide status of a process
2. Include monitoring procedures but no response planning
3. Include response planning but no monitoring procedures
4. 1 & 2
Provides a summary of the process
Identifies who is impacted/involved in the process
Show the process steps performed and by who
List quality checklist, responsibility, frequency, etc.
List dates of when the process should be reviewed and changes
An Illustration - Lean Six-Sigma Class Evaluations
: Teach Six-Sigma Black belt class
Speak to Blackbelt concepts and use illustrations and other course material
: Material is relevant to the topic
Evaluation / Measurement:
Every 2 days
About Control Plans
Control Charts are used for...
1. Showing the number of resources assigned to complete a given task
2. Focusing on consistent quality
3. Enabling targeting to specification
4. 2 & 3
Links what clients value to ongoing operations
A critical tool to ensure improvements are sustained
Provides protocols in event of a failure, shutdown, emergency
Who loves Process MA?
1) Billy loves ProcessMA
2) Sally loves ProcessMA
3) Both Billy and Sally love ProcessMA, but Sally loves Minitab Too
4) Who doesn't love ProcessMA?