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Run-ons and sentence fragments

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Nicholas Hong

on 17 October 2012

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Transcript of Run-ons and sentence fragments

Run-ons and Sentence Fragments 2 rules that every sentence needs to follow: 1. Every sentence needs an independent clause. 2. Any two independent clauses need to be joined with a coordinating conjunction or semicolon. Every sentence needs an independent clause. Removing any part makes the sentence incomplete. subject + verb + (sometimes) object = independent clause. Three errors the SAT likes to use to break this rule: Using a "-ing" verb Taking over related verb Missing active verb "-ing" verbs can NEVER be the verb in an independent clause The SAT might add an extra word that "takes over" the verb The SAT might omit the active verb altogether. To fix: To fix: To fix: Two independent clauses in a sentence must be joined them with a coordinating conjunction or semicolon. Two errors the SAT likes to use to break this rule: Missing coordinating conjunction Coordinating conjunction = FANBOYS
FANBOYS = "for", "and", "nor", "but", "or", "yet", "so" Joining with dependent clause The SAT might connect two independent clauses with only a comma or adverb in between.
Add a coordinating conjunction or semicolon A dependent clause can NEVER join two independent clauses. To fix: One more mistake the SAT likes to use... Incomplete dependent clauses The SAT likes to leave dependent clauses incomplete

To fix:

SAT Example SAT Example SAT Example SAT Example SAT Example SAT Example subject = "Pearl Buck" verb = "winning" wrong! "-ing" verb can't be verb... Fix: look for form of "win" that isn't "-ing" still has "-ing" verb still has "-ing" verb has "won", so could work ... but "won" is the verb for the "she" has "won", so could work uses "bringing", another "-ing" verb, so that doesn't work "Pearl Buck" needs to have a verb too! Subject = "Pearl Buck" | Verb = "won" Object = "Nobel Prize in Literature" subject = "Joseph Pulitzer verb = "established" current subject of this verb = "who"! leaving "Joseph Pulitzer" as a stranded subject Fix = Delete "who" Reading it now without "who" makes sense. Subject = "Joseph Pulitzer" | Verb = "established" | Object = "Pulitzer Prize" Subject = "C.G. Jung" Verb = ... We don't see a related verb for the subject.... Fix: Add a verb. "was" is added but refers to "who" Which subject, "Swiss" or "C.G. Jung" goes with "equals" later in the sentence? Doesn't matter - one is stranded! adds "was" and makes it the verb for "C.G. Jung" adds "was" but makes "who" the subject subject = "city" | verb = "was" |
object = "founded subject = "they" | verb = "were seeking" |
object = "shelter" Found 2 independent clauses... is there a FANBOYS conjunction or a semicolon? No... Fix:
add a FANBOYS conjunction or a semicolon
- or -
make one of the clauses a dependent clause
- or -
make one of the clauses a phrase already wrong still 2 independent clauses with no FANBOYS conjunction deletes "they" and "were", making this a phrase ... could work semicolon REQUIRES an independent clause after, so doesn't work "which" is the wrong relative pronoun for "nomads" note: semicolon on SAT requires an independent clause after it Example - He drove around town. -> He driving around town. Example - Mark, wanting food, drove to Arby's. -> Mark, wanting food, he drove to Arby's. leaves stranded subject with no verb... "he" took over "drove" as it's subject Example - Mark, wanting food, drove to Arby's. -> Mark, wanting food, to Arby's. missing a verb! - or -
Turn one independent clause into a phrase by deleting the noun or the verb Sasha ran fast, since she was late, she had a test Example: independent clause dependent clause independent clause This sentence is a run-on! 2 independent clauses ... joined by a dependent clause Fix: Combine one independent with the dependent clause Delete or move word that took over related verb He chased the dog. Chased the dog. He the dog. He chased. The independent clause is what a sentence needs to complete. He driving around town -> He drove around town - or -
Add helping verb, some form of "be" - or -
Adding some other verb for the subject He driving around town -> He was driving around town. He driving around town -> He liked driving around town. Change "-ing" form back to active form Mark, wanting food, he drove to Arby's -> Mark, wanting food, drove to Arby's. Simple, huh? The SAT might use an "-ing" verb instead of an actual verb. Add a verb Mark, wanting food, drove to Arby's. Mark, wanting food, to Arby's. -> The SAT likes to join two independent clauses with a dependent clause. What's a dependent clause? Mark ordered food. Because Mark ordered food. > Independent clause Subordinating conjunction signals new information that IS NOT the main idea Subordinate conjunction + independent clause = dependent clause A dependent clause is never a sentence by itself. Other examples:
However
Even if
Since
After The SAT likes to make a dependent clause join two independent clauses. subordinate conjunction Back to the error:
Combine one of the independent clauses with the dependent clause Sasha ran fast, since she was late, she had a test. Sasha ran fast, since she was late and had a test. to Dependent clause combine subjects and add "and" If you combine them into a new independent sentence, add a FANBOYS conjunction or a semicolon! sounds redundant, but has "and" and no dependent clause, so keep for now independent clause with no coordinating conjunction independent clause with no coordinating conjunction has "and", and the "so" establishes
cause-and-effect with fewer words than (B) She came into the test late, she aced it. missing a coordinating conjunction! She came into the test late, she aced it. She came into the test late, but she aced it. easy fix - just add a FANBOYS conjunction She came into the test late, she aced it. Although she came into the test late, she aced it. to to added a subordinate conjunction She came into the test late, she aced it. to Coming into the test late, she aced it. - or -
Turn one independent clause into a dependent clause deleted "she" to make this a phrase To fix: Because she aced the test, Sasha celebrated! SAT changes to Because she acing the test, Sasha celebrated! Dependent clauses need a subject and verb. - or -
Change the "-ing" verb back Because she acing the test, Sasha celebrated! to Because she liked acing the test, Sasha celebrated! Because she acing the test, Sasha celebrated! Because she aced the test, Sasha celebrated! to new active verb completes the clause Add a verb "Although" =
subordinating conjunction = dependent clause "-ing" verb "having" doesn't work Fix: Change to an active verb two independent clauses, no FANBOYS conjunction "they" is the plural pronoun that refers to "a portrait", which is singular No independent clause after semicolon Uses "painted" as verb. Deletes "although" and adds "because", but that's alright.
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