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Chapter 2: Early River Civilizations: Pyramids on the Nile

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Scott Kneisel

on 31 July 2014

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Transcript of Chapter 2: Early River Civilizations: Pyramids on the Nile

Chapter 2: Early River Civilizations: Pyramids on the Nile
Geography of Egypt
-Located west within the Fertile -Crescent

-The Nile Flows North

-4,100 Miles long (longest in the world)
Similar to Mesopotamia
-The Nile would flood yearly allowing the people to have bountiful harvests

-The also used irrigation systems

-Unlike Mesopotamia, the river flooding was almost always at the same time.


Now the Downside
-If the Nile's waters were lower than usual, the lack of water reduced the crops and thousands of people starved

-If the Nile flooded more than usual people lost their homes

- due to the location surrounded by desert, their was little communication with other peoples
Egypt Unites Kingdoms
-Two Kingdoms (lower Egypt and Upper Egypt) Lower Egypt was located at the mouth of the Mediterranean Sea

-Egypt Unified around 3000BC Because of either King Namer or Kings Scorpion (not 100%)

-The capital was set in between Upper and Lower Egypt

-Esablished the first Egyptian Dynasty of 31 (this empire would last 2,600)
Pharaohs Rule as Gods
-Differing than Mesopotamia; Egyptian Pharaohs were Gods as opposed to representatives

-Practiced Theocracy
->Government based on Religious authority
->It was the Pharaoh who allowed the Nile to flood

-It was Pharaoh duty to promote truth and justice
Pyramids
-Kings ruled even in the after life with an "eternal force"

-Resting place for the Pharaoh

-They build these structure without the use of the wheel

-(Giza)Built of over 2mil lime stone blocks
->some stones weighing in over 15tons (30,000lbs)


Egyptian Culture
-Religion and life
->They were polytheistic
->worshiped over 2,000 gods
-Unlike the Mesopotamian they believed in an after life that was judged on what they did in life
->Anubis weighed your life and decided on if you had a good or bad afterlife
->sent to the Devourer of Souls or the Other World

-Mummified their dead to preserve their bodies for the after life
Mummification
-First removed the brain through the nose with an iron hook

-Then removed other organs by cutting into their side

-Filled the body with perfumes

-Placed in a mineral salt bath for 70 days

-washed then wrapped in wax cloth
Moving into Chapter 2: Sec 3: Planned Cities on the Indus
Life in Egyptian Society
-Writing would evolve into what we call hieroglyphs
->Simple pictures to explain the language
-->Means "sacred carving"
-They would use papyrus instead of stone to keep records

-Developed the calendar
-.Noticed that the same star appeared just before the floods. this took 365 days to happen. they then broke it up into 12 months and 30 days per month. with 5 days for feasting

Geography of the Indian Subcontinent
-This Subcontinent is the landmass that includes; India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh
-Contains some of the worlds largest mountains (Himalayas)
-Aided in Protection
-surrounded also by the Ganges and Indus River, making this area very fertile
-Yearly floods
-unpredictable monsoons
Civilization emerges on the Indus
-No one is sure as to when people arrived in the Indian Subcontinent
-Archeologists have found evidence of agriculture and livestock as early as 7000BC
-By 3200BC we find settlement evidence
-2500BC we find homes being built in brick for India's first cities
-They were great city planners
-created the grid system, early pluming, and a strong central goverment
Harappan
-largest and most advanced city
-Language: the had a writing system but no one has been able to desypher it
-400 symbols make up the language
-Culture
-social divisions were slim according to historians
-very few weapons have been found
-Religion
-Archeologists believe Harrapa was a theocracy
-yet no temples have been found

Indus Valley Culture Ends
-For some reason, around 1750 BC, Indus Valley cities declined and decayed.

-We assume earthquakes and floods from tectonic plate movement are the cause

-These earthquakes may have changed the Indus river causing civilization in this area to move or fail
Chapter 2: Section 4: River Dynasties in China
Geography of China
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