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Victorian Era

IB English 1A
by

Joy Shen

on 10 November 2012

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Transcript of Victorian Era

1837-1901 Victorian Era Victorianism Women This period was mostly known for the prudish behavior, both socially and sexually. For example, written or verbal communication showing emotion were often expressed with the language of flowers, so not to openly display affection. As it was with emotion, children were also seen as an inappropriate topic to discuss Expected Behaviors The most popular form of literature was novels Victorian Literature In Norway Victorian Era 1837-1901 The Victorian era is most commonly associated with the British period of time of Queen Victoria's reign. It was characterized with a long era of peace, prosperity, and innovations. Culturally, it transitioned away from the rationalism of the preceding era the Georgian period and made its way to romanticism and mysticism with regard to religion, social values, and the arts. The era was popularly associated with social and sexual restraint Social status There were three social statuses that existed in the Victorian era:

Upper
Middle
Lower The Upper class received their riches through inheritance, mainly comprised of people of the church and nobility. Most did not have to work by receiving their income from taxes of the lower classes

The Middle class worked the "cleaner jobs" such as being bankers, merchants, or shop keepers.

The Lower class did the physical work, had poor living and working environments, doing the dirtier jobs such as maid, or factory worker. They received little to no education The culture in Norway did not differ the culture in Britain. The political power was held in the hands of the social elite ( mainly those with a higher education).
The economy was dominated by the elites who occupied important posts of the central government. Victorian Norwegian Society

Norwegian society also had multiple levels of social classes.

Those who had a higher education had a higher social standing, and of course those who could afford it were the only ones with the means of obtaining the education. By 1854, women were given the right to inherit property, and by 1890, married women gained the right to control their own wealth, but prior to the Victorian era, the role of women were entirely subservient to men. Women belonged in the domestic sphere. Marriage The notion of marriage is popularized during this era, but because of practical political circumstances, marriage was predominately a financial transaction. Etiquette Knowing the proper etiquette was essential for the upper class especially

For example, women walked the streets without making too much sound during Victorian times. They could speak up only if a startling noise occurred near where they traveled. The Victorian era required that women had to wear gloves while in public, at formal dinners and while attending balls. People the women knew received a gracious bow. The lady needed to know the gentlemen who might approach her. He bowed his head and waited for an answering nod. Women wouldn't bow in return if they didn't wish to acknowledge the man. If she smiled or bowed in return, he understood that she desired his company or found him acceptable. Plots had a moral lesson at the core, revealing critiques the author made against multiple topics.
Contemporary issues
Social class issues
Loss of Religion Doll's house Three act play written by playwright Henrik Ibsen, premiering at the Royal Theatre in Copenhagen in 1879, the heart of the Victorian era.
Ibsen described his play as a modern tragedy. He thought that "A woman cannot be herself in modern society." It is "an exclusively male society, with laws made by men and with prosecutors and judges who assess feminine conduct from a masculine standpoint." Lowest: Beggars, menial laborers, many were orphans or illegitimate or both.
Next: Servants hired out at age 15 or younger.

Next: Craftsmen such as shoemakers, smiths, stonemasons, carpenters.
Next: School teachers, priests, civil officers.
Next: Nobility who were still largely Danish since Black Death times.
Next: Danish (later Swedish) royalty governing Norway. Culturally It is known that especially during this era, women were subjugated to obey the men, and never having a sphere of influence outside the household.
Talk of sex was distasteful, and was strict in many other aspects
When courting a woman it is best to communicate through letter, rather than face to face contact. "How painful and humiliating it would be for Torvald […] to know that he owed me anything! It would upset our mutual relations altogether." Contextual "How painful and humiliating it would be for Torvald [] to know that he owed me anything! It would upset our mutual relations altogether." (Ibsen 11).

HELMER: "My little songbird must never do that again. A songbird must have a clean beak to chirp with--no false notes!" (Ibsen 19)

NORA: "But don't you think it is nice of me, too, to do as you wish?"
HELMER: "Nice?--because you do as your husband wishes? Well, well, you little rogue, I am sure you did not mean it in that way."(Ibsen 33) How does this all tie in? Ibsen writes this play as a critique on the human chains of the Victorian era. We see that through his dialogue, he reveals all that is culturally wrong with his then current society of feminine restraint and prudency with natural topics of courtship or children. The protagonist of the story is bound by the chains of society to remain in her inner sphere of the household
The idea of children, which is a staple in a traditional marriage, but they are rarely mentioned, and not given any voice. Except through Nora's dialogue
The ideals and accepted behavior is challenged with Nora's Bibliography Amphlett-Micklewright, F. H. "The Rise and Decline of English Neo-Malthusianism." Population Studies 15 (1961): 32-51.

Banks, J. A. and Olive. Feminism and Family Planning in Victorian England. Liverpool: Liverpool University Press, 1964.

Banks, J. A. Prosperity and Parenthood: A Study of Family Planning among the Victorian Middle Classes. London: Routledge & Paul, 1954.

Banks, J. A. Victorian Values: Secularism and the Size of Families. London: Routledge, 1981.

Brookes, Barbara. "Women and Reproduction c. 1860-1919," in Jane Lewis, ed., Labor and Love: Women's Experience of Home and Family, 1850-1940. Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1986.

Bullough, Vern L. "A Brief Note on Rubber Technology and Contraception: The Diaphragm and the Condom." Technology and Culture 22 (1981): 104-111.

Cominos, Peter C. "Late Victorian Sexual Respectability and the Social System." International Review of Social History 8 (1963): 18-48, 216-250.

D'Arcy, F. "The Malthusian League and the Resistance to Birth Control Propaganda in Late Victorian Britain." Population Studies 31 (1977): 429-448.
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