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The Oxygen Family
Transcript of The Oxygen Family
Willis Hao and Matthew Kim
Oxygen is odorless, tasteless, and is a gas at room temp. It has a boiling point of -182.962 degrees Celsius, an ionization energy of 1314 kJ/mol, and an ionic radius of 140 pm. It's configured: 1s2 2s2 2p4
Oxygen is a diatomic element, and often forms bonds with other oxygen. Oxygen often forms two bonds and two lone pairs when covalent bonding. Other times, it makes one bond and three lone pairs, giving it a formal charge of -1. Rarely, oxygen will form a triple bond with one lone pair, such as in the molecule Carbon Monoxide.
Oxygen is the most abundant element in the crust and body. It is vital to cellular respiration, and can be used for countless other purposes, such as in life-saving devices, rocket fuel, and water treatments.
How does Sulfur communicate?
With a Sulfone
General Group info of the
Who's oxygen group's favorite singer?
Sulfur (or Sulphur in British English) is the sixteenth most abundant element in the crust and has been used for many purposes because it form the highest amount of allotropes than any other element in the periodic table. It's used to vulcanize rubber, a fungicide in grapes and strawberries and is mostly found in deposits under water. In the modern age, there's a growing concern of both the sulfur emissions from the industrial process. The creation of Sulfuric Acid is the highest manufactured chemical reactions and is primarily used in fertilizers. Sulfuric Acid is created by the uses of Sulfur Dioxide and Sulfur Trioxide. Sulfur was discovered in the 6th B.C.E in China as the natural form was used in medicine and warfare. Antoine Lavoisier in 1777 proved it was not a compound, rather an element.
Physically, Sulfur (at room temperature and 1 atm pressure) is yellow, solid, tasteless and almost odorless. When Sulfur is combusted, it's presence is toxic and strong. Hydrogen Sulfur, for example, is one of the deadliest forms of gas and can be detected by a strong, rotten-egg like smell. It has a boiling point of 444.674 C and a Radius of 184. It also has a Ionization Energy of 1000 Kj/mol. It's configured: 1s2 2s2p6 3s2p4
Sulfur has a very unique ability to form a wide range of allotropes, more than any other in the Periodic Table. It's typical state is the solid S8 ring. It usually has a wide range of oxidation states, which values from -2 to +6. It is often the central ion and can hold up to six atoms easily. Most of Sulfur's reactions are organic, thus the prefix thio- has been created to name these types of molecules.
What's Tellurium's favorite meal?
A little biscuit and Te.
Polonium and a base go out on a date.
There is no reaction.
There's only 2 things more attractive than oxygen: Halogens, and Mr. Marbry.
Selenium was discovered in 1817 by Jöns Jakob Berzelius and Johann Gottlieb Gahn, two Swedish chemists, who named the element after Selene, the Greek word for moon. Selenium is important in industrial applications today, such as in glass, alloys, and solar panels. It is found in some amino acids, and in most healthy organisms. Although selenium is necessary for most organisms, large amounts are poisonous or even lethal.
In its "pure" form (selenium salts), selenium has two allotropes: red and black, which resemble dust and red blood cells respectively. Selenium has a boiling point of 685 degrees Celsius, an ionization energy of 941 kJ/mol, and an ionic radius of 184 pm. It's solid, and has a density of 4.809 grams per cubic centimeter at room temperature. Selenium is said to have a "horseradish-like" smell, particularly when it is burned. It's configured: 1s2 2s2p6 3s2p6d10 4s2p4
Being the only metalloid of the Oxygen family, Tellurium is an extremely rare element. It's mostly found in solar panels, memory chips and is used commonly in metallurgy. It is not very toxic; however, people that are too exposed to Tellurium develop a peculiar, garlic-like breath. Discovered in 1782 by Franz-Joseph Müller von Reichenstein near the mines in Romania and names it after "the goddess of the earth", Tellus.
Tellurium is silky-white in it's pure, metallic luster. It's very brittle, easily pulverized. At room temperature, it's a solid, boils at 989.9C, has a ionization energy of 869 and has a radius of 221. It is a great conductor of electricity and it also has a great sense of photocondutivity. It's configured:
1s2 2s2p6 3s2p6d10 4s2p6d10 5s2p4
Tellurium adopts zig-zag chains of Te atoms that resists oxidation by air. It usually oxidizes with +4, however it's been know to range from +6 to -2. The atomic alignment of Tellurium fluctuates, but is still a great conductor.
Polonium has an electron configuration of: 1s2 2s2p6 3s2p6d10 4s2p6d10f14 5s2p6d10 6s2p4. Polonium rarely forms any bonds, and has an extremely short half life for all of its isotopes (around 130 days for the majority of them). Sometimes, polonium oxidizes and forms compounds such as PoO2 and PoO3.
Selenium is rarely found pure, instead, it is usually found mixed with various ores and refined in a complex process. When selenium forms an ion, its charge is almost always -2. It's relatively reactive, and forms bonds with other elements easily. For example, selenium can bond with hydrogen, creating the compund H2Se, and also halogens like Fluoride, creating the compound F2Se.
All atoms of the Oxygen Family have six valence electrons, thus all are reactive. The Oxygen Family, also called the chalcogens, are all naturally occuring as free elements or compounds.
Oxygen is the only gaseous nonmetal in the group
Sulfur and Selenium are solid nonmentals
Tellurium is a solid metalliod
Polonium is a solid metal
Sulfur, Selenium, and Tellurium all have about a two on the Mohs scale of hardness and form acids in compounds
Technically Ununhexium, called Livermorium by many, is a part of Oxygen Group but scientists are too busy testing luster and shine of shampoo in commercials to fully understand Ununhexium and it's radioactivity.
How often are these jokes funny?
Polonium is a controversial element discovered by Pierre Curie and Marie Curie in 1898. Polonium's status is disputable: it is debated whether it is actually a metal or a metalloid. Usually found alongside uranium, polonium is extremely rare and unstable. Its applications are mostly helpful for research, as it can emit both neutrons and alpha particles.
"Livermorium." WebElements Periodic Table of the Elements. WebElements, n.d. Web. 03 Nov. 2013.
"Oxygen." WebElements Periodic Table of the Elements. Webelements, n.d. Web. 03 Nov. 2013.
"Science Clarified." Oxygen Family. Advameg, 17 Dec. 2008. Web. 01 Nov. 2013.
Polonium has a boiling point of 962 degrees Celsius, an ionization energy of 812 kJ/mol, and does not have an ionic radius. It has a density of 9.32 grams per cubic centimeter, and is solid at room temperature. It has a lustrous silver color, and gives off a dazzling blue glow.