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ToK JR 4th Six Weeks-4th, 5th, and 6th periods

Phillips and McNamara
by

Cathryne McNamara

on 23 August 2016

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Transcript of ToK JR 4th Six Weeks-4th, 5th, and 6th periods

Day One-B 1/5 and A 1/6
Essential Question: What is ToK, and who are you?

Introductions--What is your name, and what is one thing that you know that most likely noone else in this room knows--a specific language, experience, skill, etc.

Syllabus--knower, ways, areas, essays, and presentations

Learner Profile Ratings and importance? Share self assessments, insight as to why or why not that characteristic, and whether it's something you want to be and you want others to be and why? Is there one that is most important--why?

Knower profile: age, sex, gender, family, health/physical ability, ethnicity, part of town, city, nation, interests--doing, reading, viewing, favorite classes, educational level, occupation, technology access, language(s), religion, politics, values, other biographical information and cultural informants--INTERVIEW EACH OTHER.

What factors most open and close knowledge to you? Share the most limiting and expanding facets? Is it possible to be a neutral knower?

What do these variables and individual differences suggest about and for knowledge and our different areas of knowledge?

With a partner, read "Remarks Concerning the Savages of North America" and then discuss and jot notes as to what these words, events, and people suggest about knowledge. Modern day relevance?

Possible Further/Later Discussion: What kind of knowledge do you have? What knowledge are you missing and why? Is your knowledge practical or theoretical? Which is better?

maybe this article: http://opinionator.blogs.nytimes.com/2015/11/07/the-rules-of-denialism/

HMWK: In a journal (a comp book, spiral, or blue book), write five things you know, two things someone much older than you knows, and two things someone much younger than you knows. Bring your journal to class every day.
Day Two-B 1/7 and A 1/8
Essential Question: What is knowledge?

Share something you wish to know that you do not right now.

Revisit first day questions and the "Remarks Concerning" and "The Rules of Denialism" as well as view Wade Davis: Cultures at the Far Edge of the World via YouTube--see below. Considering these articles and video, list in your journal as many ideas about knowledge that you can, for example, "Values influence what we want to and do know" Further discuss/journal: is considering others' and your knower profiles worthwhile--why? implications for knowledge?

In groups and with your various knowledge claims from self and the older and younger others, create a categorical system that will account for the different types of knowledge claims you recorded with as many different categories as necessary. Draft your group's system in your journal and cross check the system with your earlier claims from all partners to make sure that it works for all claims.

After designing your system, think of how these claims are "known"? In your journal and with your group, list the various modes of justification. For example, is it based on a feeling or some form of proof or a dream or another kind of justification? experiment? observation? documentary evidence? interpretation of a text? mathematical model? peer review?

In your journal after you have listed as many modes of justification as possible, answer: do you value any modes of justification more so than others and why?

Discuss and jot notes in journal for: does knowledge need to be justified? Why or why not? Should we question all claims? Should we believe all claims? Which is more dangerous?

HMWK: Read and mark Chapter 15 "What Can We Know?" from Olin's Persons and Their World--due day five. Swing by an pick up this reading if absent.
Day 3-A 1/11 and B 1/12
Essential Question: What is knowledge? (CAS Cures, too!)

CAS with Mrs. Szabo and Mrs. McDermott or Mrs. Spencer

Share something that you know that everyone else in this room knows, too. (contrast to Day One and Two) See/view clip above from
Bodysong
.

Finish and share systems. Identify patterns. Personal? Shared?

Modes of justification--intuition to experimentation

There are two different types of knowledge claims—the first type is claims about the world, and the second type is claims about knowledge.

1st order (about world) and 2nd order (about knowledge) claims
An example of a claim about the world is: “Hydrogen is the lightest chemical element.”
An example of a claim about knowledge is: “The knowledge that hydrogen is the lightest chemical element is quite secure because the methods of chemistry give us a fairly good model of what chemical elements look like.”

Different types of knowledge--similarities, differences, strengths, weaknesses.

Types of knowledge questions: (questions with one correct answer, questions which have many possible answers but require justification, and questions which have no correct answer but depend on the person answering them)

Continuum of knowledge claims--impossible to certain

Knowledge questions from student created knowledge claims.

Good quality knowledge questions involve evaluation, and will start with a term that implies a requirement for evaluation. For example: to what extent …, under what circumstances …, at what point …, on what basis …

HMWK: Read and mark Chapter 15 "What Can We Know?" from Olin's Persons and Their World--due day five.
Day Four-A 1/13 and B 1/14
Essential Question: Can we be sure or certain of __________? Does there exist a neutral position from which to make judgments about competing claims?


Practical/
procedural
/skill--"how," acquaintance--someone/someplace, and
factual/propositional/formal/semantic--"that"

personal and shared knowledge graphic (to left): How is this representation accurate and inaccurate? What variables skew these graphics? Which comes first? Which is more influential? Which helps or hurts more? What are the pros and cons of each?

Examples of personal knowledge evolution/changes and shared/public knowledge evolution/changes
personal example: Santa Claus-->parents-->conspicuous consumption understandings
shared example: drilling holes (trepanation)-->lobotomies-->medication treatments
shared example: psychoanalytical-->behavioral-->cognitive-->biological explanations
Create one of your own. Consider what this means for knowledge?

Plato's "Allegory of the Cave" Connections

Gaardner's
Sophie's World
Chapters "The Myths" and "The Natural Philosophers"

Continue reading "What Can We Know?"--due on Day Five.
Day Five-A 1/15 and B 1/19
Essential Question: What counts as evidence for X; what makes a good explanation in subject Y; how do we judge which is the best model of Z?

Share Plato's Cave illustrations. How does this allegory relate to some of the concepts and ideas we've discussed, read, or personally experienced; how does it relate to knowledge; why are so many people stuck in the cave; what are the chains; where are you and why; where do you hope to be; what will it take to get there; does this have any relevance; is this allegory hopeful or hopeless?

"What Can We Know?" discussion

Truth Tests--define correspondence, coherence, pragmatic, skeptic truth tests and list pros and cons.

Do these qualities matter? eternal? universal? justified? Are they even possible?


Day 6-A 1/20 and B 1/21
Essential Questions: Does it matter if what we believe is true, and how is knowledge constructed and evaluated? What counts as evidence for X; what makes a good explanation in subject Y; how do we judge which is the best model of Z?

Assign the essay--due to Turnitin.com February 1st.

Truth Tests--coherence, correspondence, pragmatic, skeptic, justified, universal, and eternal?

Harem and FEDS articles--Does it matter if what others and we believe is more certain or true?

Look at various articles and tease out knowledge claims and questions--3 articles, 3 real-life situations, and 3 knowledge questions.

Knowledge Questions--open-ended; deals with knowledge; maybe considers people, method, justification, evidence, language, applications, conclusions, certainty involved
Ex. 1: Future population growth in Africa.
Good Knowledge Question: "How can a mathematical model give us knowledge even if it does not yield accurate prediction?"
article link:
Ex. 2: The placebo effect and its impact on the medical profession.
Good Knowledge Question: "How could we establish that X is an 'active ingredient' in causing Y?"
article link:
other sample knowledge questions: What is it about scientific explanation that makes it convincing or unconvincing? and Can human science use math to make accurate predictions?

Start to plan essay specific examples--dangerous, helpful, more certain, less certain personal and shared knowledge examples. Do all knowledge claims have equal value?

Sample Essays

HMWK: Essays are due to Turnitin.com on February 3rd--yay, two full weekends!
Day 7-B 1/22 and A 1/25
Essential Questions: Does it matter if what we believe is true, and how is knowledge constructed and evaluated? What counts as evidence for X; what makes a good explanation in subject Y; how do we judge which is the best model of Z?

more from last time--knowledge questions, essay examples, rubric, qualities, planning, examples, and writing with Scaffolded ToK Essay Planning Document

Knowledge Questions from prompts:
For example, past prompt: WITH REFERENCE TO TWO AREAS OF KNOWLEDGE DISCUSS THE WAY IN WHICH SHARED KNOWLEDGE CAN SHAPE PERSONAL KNOWLEDGE?

Possible claims/assumptions for prompt: Shared knowledge can shape personal knowledge. Shared knowledge may not always affect personal knowledge. There are such things as shared knowledge and personal knowledge.

Possible KQs for this past prompt: How effective is the distinction between shared and personal knowledge? Is there just one way in which shared shapes personal knowledge? Does shared knowledge shape personal knowledge in different areas of knowledge? How do ways of knowing allow (or make it difficult for) shared knowledge to shape personal knowledge? Under what circumstances does shared knowledge fail to impact personal knowledge? When is failure a good or a bad thing? To what extent does the way shared knowledge shapes personal knowledge affect the reliability and validity of that knowledge? To what extent is the shared knowledge that shapes personal knowledge itself dependent upon input of personal knowledge?

Find a prompt partner for this essay, discuss and identify the assumptions, possible knowledge questions, how much you agree/disagree/both with the ideas, and what areas of knowledge and specific examples would work well.

Fill out Scaffolded ToK Essay Planning Template and continue planning and writing your essay.

HMWK: Essays are due to Turnitin.com on February 3rd.
Day 8-B 1/26 and C 1/27
Essential Question: What is sense perception? How do we and others sense our world? Do we sense all? How important is this filter? How can we know if our sense perception is reliable--world as it is or active process?

Finish sharing knowledge claims and knowledge questions from articles.

Scaffolded ToK Essay Planning Document and Essay Questions?--See previous day's sample knowledge questions.

Examples to Comment on Area's Applications, Language, Methods, Development, and Personal Connections--What does this example reveal about the area of knowledge? What do our examples say for and against how our areas of knowledge operate?

Some sense perception--eyes, ears, nose, skin, tongue, heat, pain, movement, balance, hunger, thirst, brain, different species and abilities, technology
http://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PL6E0620CCFB6966D4

common-sense realism, scientific realism, phenomenalism clarification, discussion, and application to areas, experts, technology, cultures...

Essays due to Turnitin.com on February 3rd
Day 9-B 1/28 and A 1/29
Essential Question: What does sense perception suggest about knowledge? Do we have a responsibility to consider others’ and our perceptual filters—biological abilities, selective attention, context, illusions, prior experiences, expectancy effects, states of consciousness, technology—why or why not?

More Sense perception--eyes, ears, nose, skin, tongue, heat, pain, movement, balance, hunger, thirst, brain, different species and abilities, technology

http://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PL6E0620CCFB6966D4

common-sense realism, scientific realism, phenomenalism clarification, discussion, and application to areas, experts, technology, cultures...What makes one explanation or theory better than another?

More Essay Writing

Essays due to Turnitin.com on February 3rd
Day 10-A 2/1 and B 2/2
Essential Question: What can we conclude about sense perception? Is sense perception shared, universal, or individual? experiences? expectations? context? culture?

Sense perception--eyes, ears, nose, skin, tongue, heat, pain, movement, balance, hunger, thirst, brain, different species and abilities, technology

http://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PL6E0620CCFB6966D4

common-sense realism, scientific realism, phenomenalism clarification, discussion, and application to areas, experts, technology, cultures...

ESSAYS DUE to Turnitin.com!
Day 11-A 2/3 and B 2/4
Essential Question: What are our conclusions about sense perception?

Revisit common-sense realism, scientific realism, phenomenalism.

Find five fun facts from
Natural History of Our Senses.

Sensation and Perception Articles:
http://www.bostonglobe.com/ideas/2014/09/20/the-bias-fighters/lTZh1WyzG2sG5CmXoh8dRP/story.html?s_campaign=8315

http://www.theguardian.com/science/2014/mar/16/bionic-ears-cochlear-implants-transformed-lives-children

http://www.theguardian.com/science/2014/apr/27/benefit-synaesthesia-brain-injury-mental-decline

http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/science-environment-22302487
http://ieet.org/index.php/IEET/more/niman20130202
http://www.nytimes.com/2012/11/18/magazine/ashlyn-blocker-feels-no-pain.html?emc=eta1&_r=0
http://www.reuters.com/article/2014/01/06/us-wearable-gaming-idUSBREA0501120140106?p=BREA05012
http://www.pri.org/stories/2013-02-11/new-york-designers-create-drone-proof-stealth-wear

Finish sense perception.

Do we have a responsibility to consider the influence of sense perception--others' and ours? How reliable is our sense perception for knowing?
Day 12-B 2/5 and A 2/8
Essential Question: What is language? How reliable is language for knowing?

Explore accents, grammar, con languages, polyglot, music, and programming considerations and implications.

What is language according to these and your experiences?

Symbolic
Arbitrary
Shared
Structured and rule governed—syntax
Creative and generative
Allows for displacement

Language Myths reading: "Some Languages Have No Grammar" and "Italian is Beautiful, German is Ugly"

Assign groups and word for presentation. Research its explanations, models, understanding, and theories across multiple ways and areas of knowledge. Challenge our default understandings, explanations, models, and theories for your word (justice, love, beauty, courage, wisdom, happiness, freedom, peace, goodness, piety, that, too, reflect Plato's theory of forms)? Where, how, via whom, and in what ways can we become knowledgeable about the available truth of this word/concept/idea?
Day 13-B 2/9 and A 2/10
Essential Question: Which time's, culture's, and area's language best explains?

rule-governed, intended, creative, open-ended, vague, ambiguous, connotative, denotative, euphemistic, metaphorical, translated, contextual

Write a sentence that has never before been written.

Describe _________________.

Labels? Stereotypes?

Prescriptivist? Descriptivist?

part presentation work day--
Continue to research your word's explanations, models, understanding, and theories across multiple ways and areas of knowledge and various people and places and times and forms. Challenge our default understandings, explanations, models, and theories for your word (justice, love, beauty, courage, wisdom, happiness, freedom, peace, goodness, piety, that, too, reflect Plato's theory of forms)? Where, how, via whom, and in what ways can we become knowledgeable about the available truth of this word/concept/idea?
Day 14-B 2/11 and A 2/12
Essential Question: Which time's, culture's, and area's language best explains?

presentation work day--Continue to research your word's explanations, models, understanding, and theories across multiple ways and areas of knowledge and various people and places and times and forms. Challenge our default understandings, explanations, models, and theories for your word (justice, love, beauty, courage, wisdom, happiness, freedom, peace, goodness, piety, that, too, reflect Plato's theory of forms)? Where, how, via whom, and in what ways can we become knowledgeable about the available truth of this word/concept/idea?

Continue entering, evidencing, and reflecting on all fall CAS.
Day 15-B 2/16 and A 2/17
Essential Question: Which time's, culture's, and area's language best explains?

More Language Thoughts

Present. Which explanations, theories, and models are best and why?

During presentations, record one satisfactory and one unsatisfactory explanation.

Continue entering, evidencing, and reflecting all fall CAS.

What is knowledge? Can we (or others) be neutral knowers? What counts as good or best evidence, explanations, models, and theories?
Day 16-B 2/18 and A 2/19
Essential Question: Which time's, culture's, and area's language best explains?

Present. Which explanations, theories, and models are best and why?

During presentations, record one satisfactory and one unsatisfactory explanation.

Which of these ideas can we know most? Through what experiences language and methods or areas? Which do you feel like you know most and least, and why? What do the explorations of these ideas suggest about knowledge and truth?

Possibly start
The Linguists
or
Language Matters
.
http://video.pbs.org/video/2365391566/

Continue language--What do different languages and translations suggest for knowledge and understanding?

Fall CAS--entered, evidenced, and reflected
Why does distinction matter? To what degree is it possible?

What responsibility does knowledge impose on whom?

Time for School Series (used in past) http://video.pbs.org/video/1239934544/ (Shugufa in Afghanistan @3:40, Jefferson in Brazil @15:34, Neeraj in India at 27:42, and Ken in Japan @38:00; Part Two Nanavi in Benin, Raluca in Romania @18:40, and Joab in Kenya@31:14
family groups
religious groups
groups associated with particular academic fields, such as mathematicians
groups associated with particular views within an academic field, such as neo-classical economists
groups sharing a particular culture
groups sharing particular artistic knowledge, such as sculptors
groups sharing particular interests, such as fishing
political groups
national groups
ethnic groups

knowledge I gain through practice and habituation, such as the ability to play football, ski, play the piano, dance, paint portraits and so on
knowledge of my own personal biography through my memory
knowledge of my feelings and emotions
knowledge of the world around me gained through my senses
unique knowledge that I have constructed as a result of a detailed exploration into an aspect of an existing AOK.
Individual research can contribute to advances in the natural sciences. Paul Dirac’s personal insight led to his discovery of the equation for the electron. The form of the equation suggested the existence of a particle that was the counterpart of the electron bearing a positive charge. But Dirac’s work had to be validated by the established procedures in theoretical physics first before it was accepted as knowledge by the scientific community.
Individual artists can contribute to the development of a genre. Steve Reich’s accidental discovery of the effect of two recordings of a violin going out of phase with each other led him to use this technique in his creation of minimal music. This technique is now widely used in many different musical genres.
Adam Smith’s perceptive realization that the market was a mechanism that, under certain conditions, could transform the self-interest of producers and consumers into a socially optimal allocator of scarce resources became a standard method of analysis in classical economics. His insight may have been intuitive and triggered by his own highly individual style of thinking, but it passed the test of peer scrutiny and is now economic orthodoxy.

Exposure to current artistic trends might influence the thinking and imagination of an individual artist (or musician or novelist).
Immersion in the biological sciences and medicine might enable one to understand better one's own medical conditions.
Access to the fundamentals of psychology might allow an individual to develop a deeper understanding of his/her own states of mind.
A course in ethics or moral theory might allow a student better insight into his/her own ethical and moral outlook.
Reading a history of one’s own nation might give a deeper understanding of one’s own past.
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