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English Verbals, infinitives, participles, gerunds

Christian Mariano

on 21 March 2011

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Transcript of Verbals

What are Verbals? There are 3 types:
Infinitives simply... participles act like adjectives! They can be the present or past participle.

Walking, he tripped over his laces.
Shaken, the driver walked out of the burning wreckage. they come from verbs
- present participle
- past participle walking, sleeping, singing
established, diagnosed, determined Identify the participles...

Children introduced to music early develop strong intellectual skills.
Removing his coat, Jack rushed to the river.
Delores noticed her cousin walking along the shore. Identify the participles:
1.The bike had a broken spoke.
2. Her smiling face made everyone happy.
3. The frightened child was crying loudly.
4. The people were frightened by the growling dog.
5. The squeaking wheel needs some grease.
Participial Phrase
1. Taking my time, I hit the basket.
2. Shouting angrily, the man chased the thief.
3. Exhausted from the hike, Jim dropped to the ground.
4. Grinning sheepishly, the boy asked for a date.
5. Trying to open the gate, I tore my coat.
Create your own participial phrases 1. Jim reached for the final rung of the ladder.
2. Sylvia walked down the hallway.
3. The driver turned the corner.
4. The cashier bagged the groceries.
The robber ran from the policeman, still holding the money in his hands.
After being whipped fiercely, the cook boiled the egg.
Flitting from flower to flower, the football player watched the bee.
Flying past the end zone, the cornerback reached for the football.
Dressed in an elegant red gown, Samuel gazed at his Prom date. Dangling Participles Identify the phrases...
1. The man running slowly still finished the race.
2. The boy having been scolded finally did his work.
3. The teacher, having retired, could now travel widely.
4. The soldier, having saluted his superior, continued on his way.
5. The truck swerving and sliding hit the brick wall.
Are verbals
A verb form ending in –ing that is used as a NOUN
Can be the subject, direct object…
Running is his main form of exercise.
Many Americans consider eating as a hobby.
As subjects and subject complements Parking is difficult in New York City.
Parking near Penn Station is difficult in New York City.
One major offense in school is cheating.
Another crime is stealing.
Gerund Phrases Phrase may have objects and complements
May contain modifiers
Together acts as a NOUN; 1 unit
Eating chocolate is Mom’s favorite form of recreation.
Procrastinating is many a student’s hobby.
Waiting until the last minute is a hobby, mastered by many Hill students.
More examples...
Spending a night in Paris is expensive.
Talking during a test is not allowed.
One potentially dangerous sport is mountain climbing.
Sipping coffee while driving may cause you bodily harm.
Talking on the phone while driving is illegal.
Texting while at Church will not please your God.
Participles in the passive Having been elected (by the people), Sam went to work on passing the first bill.
Having been recognized (by the police), the fugitive had fewer options regarding where to hide.
Being treated attentively (by the staff), the patient felt relieved to have been admitted at St. Vincent’s Hospital.
The young couple walked cautiously into their prospective home, being renovated (by its previous owner). Passive or Active Gerunds Making the team is Kevin’s goal.
Being chosen for the team is Kevin’s goal.
Pitching a perfect game is very difficult to do.
Being fashionably late was not what he intended.
Gerunds as Objects and Appositives Many parents consider naming their children after family members.
Many parents decide on a name by looking through books.
Genealogy, exploring one’s roots, often involves research into last names.
More examples...
Loitering is prohibited in many areas in New York City.
Listening to classical music may enhance your academic performance.
Watching too much TV retards your intellectual growth.
The coach reminded us that practicing daily boosts our skills.
The student lowered her score by cheating on the exam.
...and yet more...
You can improve your score by paying attention.
The pedestrians painfully witnessed the beating of the victim.
The game begins by throwing the ball in the air.
The Allies strongly prohibited militarization, the raising of one’s army for military conflict.
Use the scratch paper for figuring.
Possessives with Gerund Phrases May be preceded by a possessive form—possessive noun or possessive adjective
Review: Possessive adj. = my, your, his, her, its, our, their
Examples of possessives with gerunds...
His raising of the flag was the signal for the beginning of the ceremony.
Ali’s raising of the flag was the signal for the beginning of the ceremony.
The beginning of the ceremony was signaled by his raising of the flag.
The competition culminated with his horrible singing.
Which is correct? (You, Your) offering to help the poor is commendable.

I was surprised by (John, John’s) running of the final leg of the 4x100.
nfinitives Infinites as subjects and s.c. Is a verbal
Is a verb form, usually preceded by “to”
Used as noun, adj, or adverb To drive is a necessary right of passage.
I finally received a car to drive.
He was extremely excited to drive.
Infinitives as objects Examples:
In the 1900s Mahatma Gandhi tried to obtain freedom for India.
He also hoped to gain rights for all Indians.
He wanted to make the world aware of the issues Infinitive Clauses ...is made up of the infinitive and its subject Examples of infinitive clauses:
Gandhi encouraged people to engage in protest.
He urged them to act in nonviolent protest of unjust laws.
He began to starve himself in protest.
Everyone wanted Gandhi to eat something.
They asked me to bring some food.
Nevertheless, Gandhi refused to eat. Verbs that are often used for infinitive clauses:
advise, allow, convince, remind
encourage, force, hire, teach
instruct, invite, permit, tell
implore, incite, appoint, order Infinitives as Appositives - rename a previous noun, either in the beginning, middle, or end of a sentence Her life long dream, to perform on Broadway, died on the stage, when she was only 8.

The scientists failed to accomplish their task, to find a cure for cancer.

Obama's plan, to secure universal health care, was shunned by many politicians in Washington.
Infinitives as Adjectives My good deed, to help them with packing, meant giving up a free day.

The challenge was this--us to fit all the camping gear for the weekend into one tiny hatchback.

I decided I must give the task, to finish the paper, my utmost attention and dedication. - used to describe nouns and pronouns
- the infinitives follow the word they describe I got a chance to visit Budapest over the break.

The observation deck in the Empire State Building is a great way to see most of Manhattan.

The class was assigned several passages to read before Thanksgiving.

The ride at Six Flags was something to anticipate.

We have questions to answer.

The best way to survive an attack from a bear is to play dead.

I have too much work to do.
Infinitives as Adverbs - used to describe a verb, an adjective, or another adverb
- expresses time, manner, condition
- how, why, when Butch went to see the old sailing ship in the harbor

He was disappointed to learn of its departure the day before.

He arrived too late to see it. We eat to live and sleep.

The prayers are ready to start.

Marco came to feed his turtle.

That pitcher is used to hold orange juice.

No mountain is easy to climb for the inexperienced.

The snow was too heavy to shovel.

To write a good paragraph, you must organize your ideas.

The farmer went out to plant her crops. The police scattered the protesters to clear the park.

To paint beautifully requires talent and practice.

She chose to leave her boots behind.

Peter needs to sleep.

He's going to the pool to swim laps.
How are the infinitives used? A good way to lose your money is to go to the mall.

After a long day sitting in classes at school, I need to exercise.

To assure our safety, the fire chief gave us advice on the procedures to follow in an emergency.

Ronnie and Dave worked to create the perfect party.

My cats live to eat and to sleep all day.

He planned to succeed at learning backgammon.

The play to see will be Romeo and Juliet performed by Prep students.

They were ready to leave for their vacation.

Don't dare open that package until we get home.

We decided to vacation in Florence, Italy. "There is a busybody on your staff who devotes a lot of time to chasing split infinitives: I call for the immediate dismissal of this pedant. It is of no consequence whether he decides to go quickly or to quickly go or quickly to go. The important thing is that he should go at once."- George Bernard Shaw
Split Infinitives The surgeon decided to quickly remove the obstruction. The driver is instructed periodically to check the oil level.

The driver is instructed to check periodically the oil level.

The driver is instructed to check the oil level periodically.

The driver is instructed to check periodically the oil level.
We started to optimistically watch the sky for the comet.

Optimistically we started to watch the sky for the comet.

We started to watch the sky for the comet optimistically Hidden Infinitives - sometimes infinitives appear in sentences without the word "to" after verbs:
hear, see, feel
let, make, dare
need, help We heard the astronaut describe the first step on the moon.

We would not dare go beyond the edge of the cliff.

The soldier made him surrender before the other soldiers.

I saw many lemmings simply walk pass the precipice.
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