Loading presentation...

Present Remotely

Send the link below via email or IM

Copy

Present to your audience

Start remote presentation

  • Invited audience members will follow you as you navigate and present
  • People invited to a presentation do not need a Prezi account
  • This link expires 10 minutes after you close the presentation
  • A maximum of 30 users can follow your presentation
  • Learn more about this feature in our knowledge base article

Do you really want to delete this prezi?

Neither you, nor the coeditors you shared it with will be able to recover it again.

DeleteCancel

Make your likes visible on Facebook?

Connect your Facebook account to Prezi and let your likes appear on your timeline.
You can change this under Settings & Account at any time.

No, thanks

Annenberg Microbiome Prezi

No description
by

Tiffany Croumbley

on 25 March 2013

Comments (0)

Please log in to add your comment.

Report abuse

Transcript of Annenberg Microbiome Prezi

Background
•“Internal ecosystem”
•The role of the microbial cells
•Four main areas
•Highlighted examples in stomach and intestines
•Why Study the Microbiome?
– Preventing diseases
– Role in the immune system
– Link of diet and lifestyle Merion Mercy Academy
Physiology Classes
Annenberg High School Science Symposium • Irritable Bowel Syndrome
– Cause of the disease -> microbe and mucosal interactions
– Antibiotics predispose or worsen symptoms of IBS
– Women
– IBS patients have fewer species, as well as other
instabilities of the microbiota
• Inflammatory Bowel Disease
– More diverse bacteria in intestines than healthy people
• Crohn’s Disease (IBD)
– Mutated NOD2/CARD15 gene in ~20% of affected
– Lower than normal levels of Lactobacillus Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, and Lachnospiraceae Celiac Disease
- protein gluten attacks small intestine
- musocal barrier and mucosal immune system
- higher levels of and
- reduced levels of and
- analysis of genomic profiles and probiotic treatment
- varying microbiomes between individuals and over time

Psoriasis
- skin condition
- skin microbiome
- "zoo of bacteria"
- 84 foreign species Continuing Implications in Health and Disease More Implications in Health and Disease Role as Immune Organ Lactobacillus Bacteroides prevotella Escherichia coli Mitochondria • Protein found in the mitochondrial membrane that contributes to vital
defense
– Engineering cells with large amounts of the protein and grew them in
culture with viruses
– The cells gained antiviral immunity, but when they silenced the
protein’s expression, the resulting cells were swamped with viruses
– Connection to the microbiome
• Each, the microbiome and the mitochondria, have an individual
response -> sent to DNA transcription factor-> interferon then
secreted and general alarm sounded
– Mitochondria and the immune system
• Mitochondria are the first to alert the body about threats
• When the body is damaged, cells release mitochondria RNA, alerting the immune system to the damage and helping to defend the body ~Obesity and Diabetes
- Increased caloric intake affects composition of microbiome
- High levels of
- Low levels of
- Changed microbiome
- Cause of obesity
~Foods that can promote or
hurt the microbiome
- Obesity:
~NSAIDS
~Connection to Ghrelin
- Hormone that tells the brain when the body needs food
~Antibiotics change microbiomes
- Rising levels of childhood • Autism
– Alarming link between the microbe and the human
brain
– Autistic individuals generally have intestinal problems
• Coupled with abnormal microbiomes
– Overproduction of Clostridia

– Researchers at the University of Minnesota
incorporated fecal transplants into their treatment
options to cure Clostridium difficile Clostridium difficile Diet (General Health) Firmicutes Bacteriodetes H. pylori Implications in Health and Disease - Human Microbiome Project
GOALS
1. Determine if all humans share a core microbiome
2. How we acquire and maintain our microbiome
3. How the microbiome changes with diet and stress/ health implications
4. Lead to new information for bioimformatics
5. Ethical/Legal/Social issues with the information Future Research Connection to Infants
and Mothers •Pregnancy
– As babies pass through the birth canal, they pick up bacteria from the mother’s vaginal
microbiome
– Less diverse, rich and or abundant
– One particular type of bacteria dominates
• Bayor College of Medicine and Texas Children’s hospital study and research
– One of the dominant species in the vagina of a pregnant woman is
• During a delivery, a baby will be coated by and ingests some of it
which prepares the infant to digest breast milk
- Babies formula-fed rather than breast-fed had markedly different gut flora which means they
were not receiving as many nutrients as those who were breast-fed Lactobacillus johnsoni Lactobacillus johnsoni •Microbiome
-Not one distinct organ
-Spread throught the body
•GI Tract
-Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron
-Complex carbohydrates
•Hostile Invaders
-Antibiotics
•Mice and the microbiome immune system
-Dr. Richard S. Blumberg
-Tested the microbiome of mice
-Microbe-free mice-> inflammation
-Asthma and inflam. Bowel Disease, Good Bacteria -> Prevented Illness
-Dr. Yasmine Belkaid
-Mice lacking Microbiota ->Unable to fight off Leishmania Major
-Mice inoculated w/ Staph Epidermis -> Defeated the Parasite
-S. Epidermis produces inflammatory molecules -> Key for immune response Thank You! especially to...
Dr. Mann
Suzanne Comers
Michele Corkery
Mrs. McClennen
Merion Mercy Academy
Administration Biofidiobacterium
Full transcript