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Light Waves

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Jennifer Okalova

on 13 March 2013

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Transcript of Light Waves

Jennifer Okalova Light Waves Opaque, Translucent, and Transparent The material that an object is made from will determine the amount of light being absorbed, reflected, and transmitted. Law of Reflection The law of reflection states that the angle at which a light wave strikes an object (Angle of Incidence) is equal to the angle at which the light wave is reflected (Angle of Reflection). Regular and Diffuse Reflection The smoothness of different surfaces will determine whether or not you will be able to see your reflection. Mirrors Total Internal Reflection Total internal reflection occurs when a light wave is reflected completely at the boundary between two materials. Opaque materials cannot be seen through because light is only absorbed and reflected. Opaque Translucent materials cannot be seen through clearly but allow some light to enter. Translucent Transparent Transparent materials can be seen through because they transmit most of the light that is striking them. Smooth and even surfaces will produce clear images because incoming parallel light waves are reflected in only one direction. Diffuse Reflection Regular Reflection For Example: Polished Glass Rough and uneven surfaces cause incoming parallel light waves to be reflected in more than one direction. For Example: Carpet Mirrors are reflective, smooth surfaces which produce images by reflecting light rays into your eyes. Compare and Contrast Plane Mirrors All reflect light to form images. Reflect light waves to form images. Reflect light waves to form images. Both of these mirrors are curved surfaces. Concave Mirrors Convex Mirrors Plane mirrors are flat, smooth mirrors.
Involve two sets of reflections.
Reflections appear upright.
Produce virtual images which are images that have no light rays passing through them. Concave mirrors curve inward.
Images produced depend on the position of the object to the focal point.
Can form virtual images or real images. Convex mirrors have a surface which curves outward.
Produce upright, virtual images which are smaller than the object. Fun House Mirrors
The distorted effects of fun house mirrors is caused by the distorted shape of the mirror itself.
The angle of the mirror determines how you will perceive the distorted reflection.
Perception causes your brain to assume that the rays of light arrive directly and are not reflected causing your brain to see a distorted image.
Inward curves make one appear tall and thin while outward curves make one appear fat and short. The Four Behaviors of Light Waves Because light behaves as a wave, surroundings will determine whether light waves will reflected, refracted, diffracted, or interfere with each other. Refraction Diffraction Interference Reflection Reflection occurs when incoming light strikes an object and then bounces off. Light waves obey the Law of Reflection when reflected off of any surface. For Example: Light rays being reflected off the mirror's surface and into your eyes. Refraction occurs when a light wave changes its speed while it is passes from one material to another. The light wave will bend if it is traveling at an angle and the speed that it is traveling at is different in the various materials. A material's index of refraction determines how much the light wave will slow down in the material. For Example: The illusion of a straw in a glass of water created by the refraction of light in water. Diffraction occurs when light waves bend around an object and change direction. Diffraction can also occur when waves pass through narrow openings. The wavelength compared to the size of the obstacle or opening determines how much the wave will bend when it strikes. For Example: Light diffraction through clouds. Interference occurs when two or more waves overlap and combine to create a new wave. Waves can combine in either constructive interference or destructive interference. Constructive interference occurs when the waves add together and form a new wave with an amplitude equal to the sum of the amplitudes of the original waves. Destructive interference occurs when the waves subtract from each other and the amplitude of the new wave is the difference between the amplitudes of the original waves. For Example: Mixing colored light. For total internal reflection to occur, a light wave will have to travel slower in the first medium and strike the boundary at an angle larger than the critical angle. An example of this would be a light ray traveling from water into air. The End A practical use of total internal reflection is optical fiber cables which are used for computer networks.
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