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Copy of Teacher Preparation: Accommodating Diverse Students and Facilitating Social Change
Transcript of Copy of Teacher Preparation: Accommodating Diverse Students and Facilitating Social Change
"[Special Education] is a service not a place. It is about meeting the needs of students, whatever those needs may be." - Deborah McKnight (San Francisco Special Education Director)
The Solution: Educators in all classrooms need to be better informed and prepared to deal with the diverse abilities of their students
(1) Directly increase the diversity of subjects addressed in teacher preparation to better accommodate the diversity of student populations.
(2) Indirectly improve the school environment, retention of teachers, professional growth and support, evaluation, and selection of quality teachers through avenues of teacher preparation. Our Plan: Teachers within special education typically have (1) a bachelors degree in special education from a 4-year university, (2) have completed alternative training in certificate programs, or (3) have completed a post-graduate masters degree or Ph.D program. Special Education Training Programs An 11-month graduate program that culminates in Massachusettes teacher licensure at the secondary level. Program includes three semesters of classroom-based learning and 2 semesters of field studies in a local urban public school.
Within this program's curriculum, there is only one course offered that prepares teachers for students with disabilities and special needs. Harvard University Teacher Education Program Stanford University Teacher Education Program Aspire is an instense and supportive four year teacher training program. It serves predominantly low income students. Provides K-12 college preparatory education while it seeks to transformed underserved communities.
Residents will earn a preliminary credential from the State of California, a Master of Arts in Education, a stipend of $13,500 the first year plus benefits and tuition reimbursement. Completing the first year will be hired at full salary at an Apsire school. Residents work four days/week with a mentor teacher in the classroom, one day/week in Seminar and take online courses to earn degree. Aspire Teacher Residency Program A dual credential Bilingual Multiple Subjects and Education Specialist Teacher Preparation program.
This dual credential teacher preparation program is designed for Bilingual individuals proficient in Spanish and English seeking a Bilingual Credential and who are interested in obtaining an additional credential as an Education Specialist in Mild / Moderate disabilities.
This is an intensive two year program credential program for highly committed individuals interested in meeting the specific needs of English language learners in California.
ALAS has partnership between local school districts with a large population of language minority students and two higher education departments specializing in Bilingual Education and Special Education
San Diego State University : Acquisition of Language and Academic Skills(ALAS) MUSE is a program here at UC Berkeley in the Graduate School of Education. The MUSE Master's and Credential Program is a two-year program that prepares candidates to teach English in middle and high school classrooms to both native speakers of English and second-language learners.
1.)The first year of the program is full-time.
Candidates student teach in the mornings or early afternoons and attend graduate classes in the evenings. At the end of the first year, which includes summer, fall and spring semesters, candidates receive a preliminary Single Subject Teaching Credential. This credential certifies them to teach English/Language Arts and English Language Development classes in grades six through twelve in California.
2.)During the second year of the program, candidates have already received their credential and most are teaching full time. To complete their Master of Arts degree, candidates participate in a yearlong MA seminar focused on teacher research.
MUSE -Multicultural Urban Secondary English Teachers need to develop an understanding of the cultural and historical impacts that diverse populations have made to facilitate the advancement of the United States and the education system.
The goal of our program is to prepare our teachers for obstacles both inside and outside the classroom through increasing the scope of their knowledge and providing extended hands on support during training.
Impact on School Environment Impact on Selection Impact on Retention Impact on Evaluation Impact on Professional Growth and Support Through extended and multifaceted preparation we want our teachers to be prepared in both traditional education practices and accomidating diverse student populations. Factors that enable these skills include:
Ability to progress student learning through recognition of diversity, continuously self-evaluating and improving strategies, and optimally utilizing the resources available.
Ability to be a leader while simultaneously working in collaboration with others.
Ability and willingness to optimize the relationship between theory and practice.
Conclusion Requirements & Limitations Achinstein, B., R. Ogawa, et al. (2004). Are we creating separate and unequal tracks of teachers? The impact of state policy, local conditions and teacher characteristics on new teacher socialization. American Educational Research Journal 41(3): 557-603.
Arllen, N.L., Gable, R.A., Hendrickson, J.M. (1996). Accommodating Students With Special Needs in General Education Classrooms. Preventing School Failure: Alternative Education for Children and Youth. (41)1
Darling-Hammond, L. (2004). Inequality and the Right to Learn: Access to Qualified Teachers in California Public Schools. Teachers College Record. 106(10): 1936-1966.
Grossman, P., Compton, C., Igra D., Ronfeldt M. Shahan, E., Williamson, P.W. (2009). Teaching Practices: A Cross-Professional Perspective. Teacher College Record. (111)9: 2055-2100.
Ingersoll, R., & Merrill, L. (2010). Who's teaching our children? Educational Leadership (May 2010), 14-20.Jennings, T. (2007) Addressing diversity in US teacher preparation programs: A survey of elementary and secondary programs’ priorities and challenges from across the United States of America. Teaching and Teacher Education (23)8: 1258-1271
Works Cited Special education teachers are also required to becomed liscensed by the state through standardized testing in either general special education or various specialties within special education. Bachelors Degree in Special Education (ex. NYU): Curriculum includes approximately 10 courses that specifically emphasize working with special needs in addition to 4 semesters of field work and observation in different special education settings. The 4-year program leads to a dual certification in early childhood education and special education. Special Education Training Programs Masters Degree in Special Education (ex. KU): Curriculum requires approximately 10 special education specific courses and a master's thesis for completion. Upon graduation, educators receive licensure in their chosen specialty within special education. A 12-month program of classroom based learning along with clinical work at a local elementary school culminating in a Masters of Arts in Education and a preliminary California Multiple Subject Teaching Credential. The curriculum requires a minumum of 45 units of coursework and an average of 16 hours a week of field work at a local public school. With regards to recognizing and accommodating special needs, there is only one course offered for 2 academic units. Affecting Teacher's Work Through Preparation The Problem: There are 4.4 million limited english proficient students in the United States, there is a persistent achievement gap between LEP and non-LEP students, and a critical shortage of bilingual education teachers with the preparation, skills and tools to ensure that all of their students succeed. (Intercultural Development Research Association)
"LEP" describes a student whose skills in English are limited.
"ESL" describes a language instruction program designed for those students.
The Solution: Prepare teachers that have the qualification and preparation in language development, but also recognize the importance of language and culture in the acquisition of knowledge.
The Problem: Teachers in public schools who serves high numbers of low-income, cultural, and racial diverse students are frequently under qualified, under prepared, and under supported. One third of new teachers leave the profession after just three years and about half leave within five years not because they don't want to teach, but because they're not always ready. -Urban Teacher Residency United
The Solution: Provide teacher preparation and professional development for educators working with diverse populations to ensure benefits for students, teachers, and their learning environments. Boettcher Teachers Program The Boettcher Teachers Program is a licensure and master's degree fellowship designed to prepare and support a highly skilled workforce of professional educators to make differences in the lives of low
A yearlong classroom teaching residency with a mentor, on going master's level coursework, and coaching support.
The program develops professional learning that benefits students, teachers, schools, and communities. I would like to see future teachers truly have a year of methodology classes and observation and student teaching under a quality master teacher where they can try things. . . . (and) effectively evaluate what [they] are doing. (Darling -Hammond p. 6) Touch on Observation and interview experience during discussion of plan 4 year University Post-Graduate Program:
1st Year: Theory & Methodology (Standard Educational training) + Observation and Research In Local Public Schools
2nd Year: 50% Theory and Methodology (based on diversity issues) + 50% Teaching Internship, Observation, and Research
3rd Year: Mentoring/Residency with Frequent Feedback and Guidance
4th Year: Mentoring/Residency with Frequent Feedback and Guidance
Degree Earned: Masters of Arts in Education + State Credentialing (variable depending on specialization) Program 4-Year Plan Our program targets prospective teachers that demonstrate proficiency to succeed in an academic setting, passion to postitively impact students and the education community, and intend to aid in perpetuating positive developments in diverse educational settings.
In regards to selection after completing the program, we intend to prepare expert teachers that transcend the lines between theory and practice and seek to address the issues of diversity in schools that are in need of assistance. According to The Next Generation of Teachers: Changing Conceptions of a Career in Teaching by Heather Peske, those who envisioned long-term careers in teaching where often pursuaded otherwise by unexpected monetary constraints, lack of variety, and poor working conditions. For those that entered teaching later in life, monetary constriants were often less of an issue and the philanthropic nature of teaching was a major incentive. In order to appeal to both types of prospective teachers, our program prepares teachers for a wide array of teaching opportunities in order to aid career mobility. It also exposes the our teachers to the working conditions that they will encounter in the profession to prevent "reality shock" (Little p. 322). The diversity of training in our program prepares teachers for a wide array obstacles and will facilitate the opportunities for our teachers to have a positive impact on the community. Our program works through a combination of self-evaluation, evaluation from other trainees, student/parent evaluation, and evaluation from mentors. This multifaceted evaluation process is designed to facilitate collaboration and transcend into the profession along with our graduates. Aspire is a four year that integrates academic preparation and practical teaching expereicnes.
Serves mainly low income students. Provides 12,000 students in greade K-12 wtih college preparatory education. Transformed underserved communities, graduating seniors to be accepted into four eyar colleges. Grossman, Compton, Ingra... All education must find ways of helping students build professional knowledge in a relatively brieft amoung of time, develops habits of mind and character that are appropriate to professional practices, learn clinical skills that they will need in their future practice, develop new ways of thinking that are characteristic of professional reasoning, and being to construct a professional identity. (p4) Grossman, Compton Igra... "Practice in complex
domains involves the orchestration of understanding,
skills, relationship, and idendity to accomplish particular activities with others in specific environments." .... When people learn a practice, they enter a historically define set of activities that have been developed over time by others...(p3) S. M Johnson- The Workforce Matters- Supportive working conditions can enable teachers to teach more effectively. They can enhance teacher quality Year 1: Residents have the opportunity to work in three learning environments
1. Work alongside with an Aspire Mentor Teacher
2. An all day seminar, one day per week with regional cohort
3. Online courses in education theory
Year 2-3: Induction Years
1. Residents works in their own classroom at Aspire
2. Residents recieve one on one support from an instructional coach
3. Completion of Year 3, Residents receive their Professional Clear Credential
Year 4: Final Year of Residency Program
1. Residents continue teaching in their own classrooms
2. Residents may purse other career avenue within Aspire Public Schools Aspire Residency Overview Our program will foster collaboration and collegiality with both veteran and novice teachers in order continuously enhance the growth of our professionals. We hope to continuously hold seminars and interactions in order to pool the experiences of all our cohorts. In addition, our mentoring program will directly facilitate teamwork and collaboration through multiple meetings per week. (Based off of Kardos) There are many factors that are essential our program and many obstacles that must be overcome
Funding: our program would ideally be based within a public university and be in coordination with public elementary school. In order for this program to be implemented, the university would need completely support the program in its school of education.
Attracting Students: Since this program is much longer than many other options (4 year vs. 1 year) it may be difficult to attract students to the program and provide aid to make this option feasable.
Mentoring and Instruction: Our program is based on the idea that we would be able to provide a wide range of instruction on diverse topics. In order for this to work we must have professors that can teach both traditional education training and the additional topics that address diversity. With regards to mentoring, our program would require a large amount of time commitment from veteran teachers. Johnson, S. M. (2006). The Workplace Matter: Teacher Quality, Retention, and Effectiveness. National Education Association.
Lampert, M. (1985). How Do Teachers Manage to Teach? Perspectives on Problems in Practice. Harvard Educational Review. (55)2: 178-194.
Lampert, M. (2001). Teaching problems and the problems of teaching. New Haven: Yale University Press. [Table of Contents and pp. 1-28]
Little, J. W. (1990a). The mentor phenomenon and the social organization of schooling. In C. Cazden (Ed.), Review of educational research (Vol. 16, pp. 297-351). Washington, DC: American Educational Research Association.
Markow, D. & Cooper, M. (2008). The MetLife Survey of the American Teacher: Past, Present and Future. (Excerpt, pp. 11-32)
Peske, H.G., Liu, E., Johnson, S.M, Kauffman, D. & Kardos, S.M. (2001). The Next Generation of Teachers: Changing Conceptions of a Career in Teaching. Phi Delta Kappan. 83(4), 304-311.
Ripley, A. (2010). What Makes a Great Teacher? The Atlantic Online. (January/February 2010), 1-10.
UTR United on the Internet. 2012. Urban Teacher Residency United. 17 Apr. 2012http://www.utrunited.org/