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The American Civil War
Transcript of The American Civil War
Total:580 First shots of the war fired. At 2:30 pm, April 13, Major Anderson surrendered Fort Sumter, evacuating the garrison on the following day. First Battle of Manassas (Bull Run) First battle of the war 4,700 casualties Confederate victory Stonewall Jackson earned
his nicknamed. July 18-22, 1861 April 6-7, 1862 Battle of Shiloh Corinth, MS Albert Sidney Johnston, a Confederate commander, was killed midafternoon on April 6. 23,746 casualties Northern offensive to control the Memphis & Charlestown Railroad Capture of New Orleans April 24, 1862 David Farragut divided the
ships into three fleets to
attack. CSS Manassas attacks
several Union ships Mayor Monroe refused to
surrender the city. The Confederacy lost the
biggest city and port in the attack. USS Monitor v CSS Virginia March 9, 1862 CSS Virginia (Merrimack) was the first ironclad ship. Several navies from around the world adopted the ironclad design for warships. The Virginia sunk the USS Constitution and Cumberland, ran aground the Minnesota, and tried to attack the Montana on March 8. The battle resulted in a draw. The Battle of Sharpsburg (Antietam) September 17, 1862 Bloodiest day in American history 87,164 Union soldiers verses
25,000 Confederate soldiers. HI hI PEOPLE!!!!!
Union victory was caused by a mistake by a low ranking Confederate officer, who lost the battlefield plans along with three cigars. Battle of Fredericksburg December 11-15, 1862 Fought in the streets of Fredericksburg First urban battle of the American Civil War. 12,600 Union casualties 5,300 Confederate casualties Burnside removed as commander of the Army of the Potomac. Emancipation Proclamtion Issued September 22, 1862 Took effect January 1, 1863 Freed all slaves in the Confederacy. Effectively made the war
about slavery. Battle of Gettysburg July 1-3, 1863 Bloodiest Battle in
American history 75,000 Confederate forces,
97,000 Union forces The ghost of George Washington supposed led the 20th Maine regiment during battle. Seige of Vicksburg May 19-July 4, 1863 10 AM May 22- Grant's
entire army attacks. The first few days of battle leave 3,000 soldiers dead. Confederate commander Pemberton raised a white flag on July 3. Turning point in the war. Grant took 37,000 POWs. New York Draft Riots Began in response to the Enrollment Act of Conscription, issued March 3, 1863. First draftees drawn on July 11, 1863 Most violent draft riot in the North The mob caused an estimated $1.5 million in damage. The draft led to only 150,000 more soldiers in the Union Army (about 1/4). Gettysburg Address November 19, 1863 Delivered at the dedication of the Soldiers' National Cemetery. Lincoln was not the featured speaker, rather Edward Everett, a PA statesman, was. The two-minute speech is now one of the most famous in American history. Lincoln had two drafts prior to delivering. One went to John Nicolay, the other to John Hay. Both are now on display in the Library of Congress. Sherman's March to the Sea Began May 6, 1864 Captured Atlanta September 2, 1864 Atlanta was burned on November 14. Savannah was captured on December 22. Due to the fact that he began this march a few months earlier, Sherman was promoted to major general in August of 1864. Grant vs Lee in Virginia May 5-6, 1864 Battle of the Wilderness Before the Battle of the Wilderness, on May 3, Grant led the Army of the Potomac towards Richmond. June 1-3, 1864 Battle of Cold Harbor Within 20 minutes at the Battle of Cold Harbor, 10,000 Union soldiers were dead, and only 1,000 Confederates died. June 15-August 21, 1864 Siege of Petersburg By June 22 in Petersburg, the Union had 2,500 POWs. These battles led to devasting losses for both sides, though the Union ultimately won. Surrender at Appomattox Courthouse April 9, 1865 Two Confederate generals (including Lee) attended. 14 Union generals attended (including Grant). Effectively ended the war, though it took two months longer for all Confederates to surrender. Robert E Lee arranged the meeting between the two men. Lee surrendered after Union forces captured Richmond. Lincoln's Assassination April 14, 1865 John Wilkes Booth shot Lincoln once in the back of the head at Ford's Theatre. While jumping from the stage, Booth shouted, 'Sic semper tyrannis', a Latin phrase meaning 'Thus always to tyrants'. Lincoln died the next morning, while Booth was supposedly shot and killed in a Virginian barn. Lincoln's body was moved from Washington to Springfield, Il, where it was stolen twice before being placed in a cement tomb 10 feet under ground, where his body remains to this day. Lincoln was the first US president to be assassinated. The 13th Amendment Passed by Congress in January, 1865 After the 1864 election, Lincoln pushed for abolition. This amendment ended slavery in the US. The states in the South had to ratify the amendment to rejoin the Union. By the end of 1865, 27 states had ratified the amendment. Abraham Lincoln Born February 12, 1809 in Kentucky Grew up in Indiana, where he later became a lawyer Self-educated, humorous President during the Civil War Assassinated April 14, 1865
in Washington, D.C. Hated slavery, but was not an abolitionist Wanted the west to remain free while the south kept their slaves Jefferson Davis Born June 3, 1808 in Kentucky Attended West Point Academy, where he graduated in 1828 Married one of Zachary Taylor's daughters in 1835, elected to Senate from MS in 1845 President of the Confederate States of America Rewarded his US citizenship posthumously in 1974 after having it removed May 10, 1865 when he was captured in Irwinville, GA, and made a federal prisoner. December 5, 1889 in New Orleans 51,112 soldiers killed, 1 civilian
killed. The Battle of Chickamauga September 18-20, 1863 Second bloodiest battle in American history At the end of the first day, the Union seemed to have an advantage. Confederate losses totaled 20,500 missing, wounded or dead.
Union losses are estimated at 19,000. Confederate victory Robert Edward Lee Born January 19, 1807 Graduated from West Point Academy top of his class in 1825, as one of only four boys in his class to graduate with no demerits on his record Originally offered a position for the Union, but declined saying he could 'never raise a gun against my Virginia.' Died October 12, 1870 in Lexington, Virginia Commanded the Army of Northern Virginia beginning in 1862 Ulysses Simpson Grant Born April 27, 1822 as Hiram Ulysses Became Ulysses Grant through a mistake when entering West Point, where he graduated in 1843 General-in-chief of the Army of the US Resigned from military service in 1854 after being made a captain in 1853. He was one of the first to volunteer when war broke out. Died July 23, 1885 on Mount McGregor, New York George McClellan Born December 3, 1826 First commander of the Army of the Potomac Grauated from West Point in 1846, and later became an instructor of bayonet exercises at the school. Commissioned major general of volunteers in Ohio by the governor Died october 25, 1885 in Orange, New Jersey Thomas 'Stonewall' Jackson Born January 21, 1824 Appointed to West Point Academy in June of 1842, when he was only 18. He graduated in 1846, with the rank of second lieutenant. After being exposed to religion in Mexico City, Jackson became a Presbyterian in 1851. Provided excellent defense against the Union Army at the Battle of Manassas, and was one of Lee's most trusted generals. Died in battle on May 2, 1863. On May 3, General Stuart led a charge with the shout of 'Remember Jackson!' Joseph Eggleston Johnston Born February 3, 1809 Commanded Army of Virginia until 1862 Wounded twice in battle during the Mexican American War Later commanded in the Mississippi Valley Died March 21, 1891 in Washington, D.C. Born July 5, 1801 David Farragut Entered the navy between the ages of nine and ten Promoted to commander in 1841 Commanded the naval attack on New Orleans In 1863, he helped capture Fort Hudson. In 1864, he defeated the Confederates in Mobile Bay. Died August 14, 1870 in Portsmouth, New Hampshire Promoted to admiral in 1866 William Tecumseh Sherman Born February 8, 1820 Married his adoptive father's daughter in 1850 Graduated from West Point in 1840 Led the March to the Sea in 1864 Died February 14, 1891 in New York City. Joseph E. Johnston, who led the resistance to Sherman in 1864, and respected him greatly, was a pallbearer at his funeral. When asked to put on his hat, Johnston replied, "If I were in his place, and he were standing mine, he would not put on his hat." John Wilkes Booth Born May 10, 1838, as the ninth of ten children Popular in Richmond Virginia for Shakesperian plays Assassinated Abraham Lincoln on April 14, 1865 Southern sympathizer Attended the execution of John Brown and thought all abolitionists should face the same fate Suposedly killed April 26, 1865 by government officers, it is debated if he was killed that night. Union Advantages
22 million free citizens
90% of factory
Strong Navy Confederate Advantages Fight for Independance
Fight defense Good leaders Shooting was part of life The Anaconda Plan
Block south ports Seize Richmond Seize Mississippi River Wear down South of supplies Conscription for both sides Strong national government Knew the battle areas well Lincoln required many Northerns to join the Union Army Many Northerns thought this would ruin them financially Conscription in the South was met with much less hostility It was much more important in the South, seeing as there were fewer people living there Total War Utter destruction of everything in possession of the enemy during war Most common among Northern troops in the South Best known example from the Civil War is from Sherman's March to the Sea in which he burned the city of Atlanta to the ground (picture) Paper Currency Impact of War on Life in the North Impact of War on life in the US Imapct of War on Life in the South Role of Women in the War The South's weak government did not allow for a strong national currency, but similar to other times in history, bonds were available to be paid back twenty years later. The North left the Gold Standard. In 1862, the Legal Tender Act was passed, allowing government bills to be paid with paper money. Due to economic ruin, an income tax worth 1/10 of crops was passed Wild inflation of Southern currency Cotton trade collapses due to Eygpt's growing trade of it Low supply of neccessaties Farming increased Manufacturing companies made huge profits through profiteering Women were forced to work The first income tax in the North was passed to pay for damages Expanded the federal government Total cost was about $3.3 billion 359,528 Union soldiers killed About 260,000 Confederate soldiers killed Devastated the South Promoted Northern growth Women were forced to tend farms, as well as work in industry Others disguised themselves as men to fight in the war (ala Deborah Sampson from the American Revolution). The most notable is Loretta Valazquez, better known to history as Confederate Lieutenant Harry Buford. The American Civil War
by Jill Tadrzynski and Morgan Strobl