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Radiation in Military

(Modern Advances)

Melissa Yuen

on 14 January 2013

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Transcript of Radiation in Military

Manhattan Project A 1943 memo from the Manhattan Project may indicate the history of radioactive weaponry. The Manhattan Project began due to fear of Nazi Germany developing their own nuclear weapon during World War II, the project later became a secret military project that produced the first nuclear weapon. Since 1939, scientists have struggled to harness the power of fission because of its incredibility. Nuclear Stockpiles Worldwide Nuclear disarmament is an act of eliminating weapons and having a nuclear-free world. A major treaty called the "New START Treaty" was put into effect in 2011 to reduce the world's nuclear arsenal by half by 2021. The United Nations Atomic Energy Commission requires that all countries with nuclear weapons must inform them or heavy penalties would be placed. Nuclear Disarmament History of Nuclear Weapons Military

Miles Esters

Melissa Yuen

Jonathan Teklea Created By: Nuclear weapons are the most dangerous weapons
on Earth. One nuclear bomb can destroy a whole
city, killing millions of people and causing severe
damage to the environment because of the effects
of radiation. They have been used twice in history, the bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in 1945,
resulting in millions of deaths. U.S. physicist Robert Oppenheimer and General Leslie R. Groves served as directors of this project, which recruited some of the greatest U.S. scientists, engineers, and mathematicians. European scientists including Albert Einstein, Enrico Fermi, and Leo Szilard also participated in the Manhattan Project. The 1st nuclear weapon
test was in July 16, 1945 in Trinity Site, New Mexico. This was a 20 kiloton bomb code named "Trinity." It is estimated that there have been over 2,000 nuclear weapons tests worldwide since "Trinity." At one point in history, there were 31, 225 warheads on Earth.
There are approximately 17, 300 warheads today and 95% of the world's stockpile belongs to Russia & the United States. This is enough nuclear weapons to destroy the world 100 times.
The blast from the nuclear weapon is not the only thing to be worried about, it's the radiation. Nuclear winter is a direct effect of nuclear war, it is thought that the explosion of lots of nuclear weapons causes an intense and severe effect on the climate by creating cold weather and reduced sunlight for a period of months or years.
The Earth's stratosphere would be polluted, leading to crop failure and possible extinction. Opinions: These treaties will not work because countries like Iran, Yemen, Libya,
Egypt, and Saudi Arabia are all "suspected" of having a nuclear weapons program. Most of those countries are having civil wars and also have terrorist organizations within their countries. They may feel more relieved and protected with nuclear weapons. Infrared Radiation Military RADIACS Electromagnetic
Weapons Electromagnetic radiation with waves
that cause heat by increasing movement of
molecules in targeted substances.

Military Radiac AN/PDR-77
It detects and measures alpha, beta, gamma and x-ray radiation. Naval Ship Radiation Monitoring System NASRAMS-10
It reads background levels of
radiation. Type of directed energy
weapon that uses electromagnetic
radiation to bring energy to a target. Examples:
Active Denial System (ADS)
Mob Excess Deterrent Using Silent Audio (MEDUSA) Citations Negative Effects of Radiation Active Denial System (ADS) Over the years, the U.S. military invested in weapons that can incapacitate enemies without killing them.
The Active Denial System was among these weapons.
ADS direct wave beams to their targets, causing a
burning sensation. Mob Excess Deterrent Using Silent Audio MEDUSA creates a microwave effect that produces a shockwave located in the skull by heating tissue. When the device is directed towards a target, it creates sounds in the target's head. The auditory effect cannot be blocked. Full volume leads to vexation and discomfort. How Nuclear Weapons Work Nuclear fission occurs when the nucleus of an atom is divided into smaller fragments by a neutron. This method usually involves isotopes of uranium (uranium or plutonium).

Nuclear fusion occurs when two smaller atoms are brought together (usually hydrogen or hydrogen isotopes: deuterium, tritium to form larger helium isotopes. Conrad, William. "The Future of Tactical Nuclear Weapons." Airpower. Air and Space Power Journal- Chronicles Online Journal, 26 June 2001. Web. 11 Jan. 2013.

Harris, William, Craig Freudenrich, and John Fuller. "How Nuclear Bombs Work." HowStuffWorks. HowStuffWorks, Inc., n.d. Web. 11 Jan. 2013.

"Military RADIACs." CANBERRA. CANBERRA Industries Inc., 2012. Web. 11 Jan. 2013.

"Soviets Ratify Treaty Banning Nuclear Weapons from Outer Space." History.com. A&E Television Networks, n.d. Web. 11 Jan. 2013.

"U.S. Nuclear Weapons and History." Nuclear Weapon Archive. N.p., n.d. Web. 11 Jan. 2013.

Hambling, David. "Microwave Ray Gun Controls Crowds With Noise." New Scientist. Reed Business Information, July 2008. Web. 12 Jan. 2013.

Helmenstine, Anne M. "Nuclear Fission Versus Nuclear Fusion." About.com Chemistry. N.p., n.d. Web. 12 Jan. 2013.
"Google Images." Google Images. Google, n.d. Web. 11 Jan. 2013. Radiation Energy transmitted as electromagnetic waves or moving particles.

Light, heat, and sound are forms of radiation.

Radiation is primarily used by the military in destructive weapons. Radiation can cause radiation burns to the body. These last much longer than other dangers and heals slower than normal burning.

After radiation has settled in, there is much more potential for mutation in living objects. This mutation usually manifests in the form of cancer, a mutation involving uncontrollable cell division. Current State of Nuclear Weapon Usage Nuclear weapons today are rarely used because of human rights concerns and the fact that we are not the only ones with them anymore.

Nuclear weapons, if used at all, are typically weapons of complete last resort.

Nuclear weapons are highly feared for their destructive effects, with treaties between nations to stop their use. Certain imaging devices have the ability to acquire images of infrared radiation reflected or created by objects.

Military Uses
-Detecting Enemy Troops
-Directing Missiles
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