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AP Human Geography: Migration (Ch. 3)
Transcript of AP Human Geography: Migration (Ch. 3)
Ch. 3 Migration
"From where, to where, and why"
average US family moves every years
Why Migrate? = permanent
Emigration vs. Immigration
Mobility = all types of movement
Modern Transportation --> Relocation Diffusion
Modern Communications Tech. --> Cultural and Economic Diffusion
Jobs, Jobs, Jobs
Varies by country and region
US & Canada = Pull
Political Instability (Refugees)
fear of persecution (racial, religious, ethnic, or political)
Democracy/Freedom = Pull
Pull = Seaside and Warm
S. of England, France, Spain
US --> Sunbelt
Push = Disasters and/or changing conditions
Desertification (Sahel of Africa, Dust Bowl)
Cultural or Environmental Features
Oceans, Mnts., Deserts, Plains
Berlin Wall/Iron Curtain
Modern Transportation overcome most environmental obstacles
Today - Gov. and Political Obstacles
Rural to Urban (Jobs)
Urban to Suburban
Urban to Rural (Environment)
International Migration (Jobs)
Pop Growth Release Valve
Rural to Urban (Jobs)
Destination of International Migrants
From Stage 2
Urban to Suburban
Daily or seasonal mobility in search of food
Historically most are male (jobs)
Today in US 55% Female (jobs)
Increase in child migration
Most are Not as families
Today 40% young adults 25-39
Only 5% over 65
9% of Global Pop = International Migrants
Asia, Latin America, Africa = Emigrants
N.A., Europe, Oceania = Immigrants
USA has the most Foreign Born
Canada and Australia ^ % than US
Oil Exporters in M.E. = Highest %
Africans (Forced Migration)
Prior to 1850 - 90% from Great Britain
US = Greatest Economic Opportunity
Germans - 7.2 Million
Italians - 5.4 Million
UK - 5.3 Million
Irish - 4.8 Million
Russian/USSR - 4.1 Million
European Boundary Changes - Precise County Impossible
1840's -1850's - Irish and Germans
1870's - Western Europe
1880's - Scandinavians
- Southern and Eastern Europe
Italy, Russia, A-H
Drop 1930's -40's (Depression and WWII)
Last 20-30 years
Asia - China, India, Philippines
Latin America - Mexico (passed Germany in 2006 "Officially")
Stage 2 = Emigration (Historic Trend)
Stage 4 = Immigration (Contemporary Trend)
Indo-European Languages spoken by 1/2 the planet
Christianity - Largest World Religion
Diffusion of... Art, Music, Lit, Philosophy.
N.A. and Australia - Integrated into European Cultural Tradition
Economic and Political System Diffusion
Arbitrary (European) Boundaries for Former Colonies
11.9 Million (2008)
22% Latin America
4.1 Million born in the USA
5.4 % of total us labor force
Construction & Hospitality
Food Service and Lodging
1/4 barrier on Southern Border
1/5th California - 25% of illegal
Mexican, Chinese, Indian, Filipino, Vietnamese
1/6th NY Metro
South and West of USA
Midwest (Meatpacking and Food Processing)
Chicago - Poles
California - Iran
1921 Quota Act & National Origins Act
"2% of native born could immigrate each year"
Immigration Act of 1965
Max 20,000 per country
Max 7% from one country
3/4 Reunited Families (Spouses, Unmarried Children)
Typical Spouse Wait (5 years!)
1/4 Skilled Workers/Professionals
Diversity Lottery (countries with low historic immigration)
Spouses, Children, and Parents of U.S. Citizens
Guest Workers and Remittances
low-status and low-skilled jobs that citizens will not do
Europe (N.Africa, M.E., E.Europe, and Asia)
1/2 of labor force in Lux.
1/6 " " " " Switz.
1/10 in Ger., Austria, Belg.
M.E. and Asia
Pakistan, Bangladesh, China, C. Asian
1987 US 20,000 per year
US denied "Refugees"
Repressive Dictatorship (1957-1986)
Duvaliers = Non-Communist
Western Hemisphere's Poorest Nation
Increased immigration post Earthquake
Late 1980's 2nd Wave
With closing of the "Frontier", Opposition to immigration intensified!
Italians, Russians, Poles (S. and E. Europeans) seen as racially inferior
"inclined toward violence"
"drove old-stock citizens out of some lines of work"
Today, Similar Hostility To...
Hispanics, South Asians, Muslims
Debate - Immigrant (legal/illegal) access to public services?
Guest Workers = Often poor social conditions. (Europe, M.E., Asia)
slow assimilation (Europe)
often regarded as "temporary"
fear of political unrest or abandonment of traditional/islamic customs (M.E.)
Huge drop since 2008 Global Recession Began!
Watch "America the Story of US: WESTWARD"
Appalachian Barrier and Native American Tribes
Coastal Settlements "looking" toward Europe
Early 1800's Canals help to "open" the interior
Erie Canal (NY - Great Lakes)
Settlement of River Valleys (Ohio, Mississippi, etc)
Mid-Late 1800's = Rapid Shift West
California Gold Rush 49'ers
Passed over the Great Plains (seen as a barrier)
Slow in westward shift - increased E. Coast Europeans
Fill in the middle (Fed. Land Grants)
Ag tech made Great Plains productive
barbed wire, steel plow, windmills, well-drilling and water pumps
Expansion of the Railroads
1940-2000 Center of US Pop
250 miles West
75 miles South (from 1980-2000)
Jobs and Environmental Condition
"Sunbelt" vs. "Rustbelt"
Soviet Policy - Move People/Factories to Raw Materials
Siberia (Gulags, WWII)
Forced and Voluntary - 1/2 migrate back
Ends with Collapse of the USSR
Coastal Cities (Rio, Sao Paulo) to Interior (Amazon)
Brasilia (Planned Capital ) - 1960 - Jobs
Java to less populated islands (Gov - 5 Million)
land grants (5 acres)
Material (home), seeds, pesticides, and 1 years worth of rice
From East and South to West and North
EU expansion South = increased migration
Syrian Refugee Crisis (and others)
Within Nations (S. Italy to N. Italy, N. Britain to S. Britain)
Gov Permit Required (Protects Ethnic Groups)
Limits International Migration (border provinces - Bangladesh, Pakistan)
1800's Ind. Rev
5% - 1800
50% - 1920
75% - Today
Jobs, Jobs, Jobs
Why? - NOT jobs!
Car Culture vs. Public Transit
Decrease in Farm Land!
Counterurbanization - MDC's
Modern, Tech Dependent
CPU's / Internet
ATM's and Debt/Credit
Rocky Mt. States
CNN News Story 10/3/13
EUROPEAN MIGRANT CRISIS: