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Introduction to Japan's Pro-Natalist Policy
Transcript of Introduction to Japan's Pro-Natalist Policy
Pro-natalism is the encouraging of child birth. Pro- natal policies are policies the promote human reproduction, this takes place in places that need a larger population. The term is taken from the Latin word ‘natalis’ meaning birth. Pro-natalism encourages people to have many kids because then a problem is going to rise. There is going to be very little kids and older people. The government is encouraging people to have children and they also want more immigrants entering the country.
An example of a country with this policy is Japan.
Consequences of Japan’s pro-natal policy.
The Japanese government has been adopting pro-natal measures since the early 1990s but has not succeeded in preventing fertility decline. Measures applied by the central government include expansion of child allowance, introduction of childcare leave, improvement in childcare services, etc.
At Japans population rate, it seems that the pro-natal policy will be inexorable. Its low birthrate and ageing society are taking the world's third-biggest economy to the verge of a demographic crisis to which Japan is struggling to find solutions. In fact it is estimated that by the year 2060 the population would have dropped by 87 million from its current size of 127 million.
Causes of Pro-Natalism in Japan
The Pro-natalist policy was needed in japan because of two major problems. Japans population is aging and declining. They are higher life expectancies in Japan and the average age men in japan live uptil is 82 and women live uptil 87. Longer life expectancies are making older people live longer in Japan. There are fewer births. The fertility rate is 1.26 and this is bad because if Japan has more old people and less young people then the country economy will drop. This can cause a lot of problems.
Japans Pro-natal Policy
Why was the Pro-Natalist policy needed in Japan?
Problems Caused because of Low birth rates
Pensions and Taxes – If there are little people paying taxes and the government is paying more pension to the older people then the government is losing money. The burden on the younger people is a lot because they are few younger people supporting older people.
Shops and Businesses will FAIL – If they are less kids then who out there will buy toys and books.
To many old people – The country’s economy will drop if they are not enough people working and paying taxes.
Less Educated – Many kids will need to drop out of schools in towns because there is no income in small towns as many of the young population moves to the city where jobs are easier to get. So many kids will need to help and support their families instead.
The Reasons why Japan has a Low Birth Rate is because.....
Small living spaces in Japan
High education standards for women
High costs of child education
Increased participation of women in work
Education about the problems of Overpopulation.
Bandai, a toy company is offering its staff Y1 million to have a third child, and the same amount for each subsequent baby.
A car maker Daihatsu and the administration of Ikeda city, in western Japan, jointly offered municipal residents a Y200,000 encouragement for a fourth child, plus free rental of a car for a year, but the imagined baby boom failed to happen.
How does it work?
The pro-natal policy in Japan is assesed after every year to see how well the policy is affecting the fertility measure.
This is done by using the TFR (Total Fertility Rate)
The TFR is easily interperated because it is expressed in births per woman.
•Japan became pro-natalist before WW2, because they believed that a larger population could strengthen its military and economic power. Later on as Japan developed they brought in new laws like child care and family care leave.
• The child care and family care leave is.....
1. An eight week paid leave.
2. Shorter working hours.
3. Businesses urged to give their employees more time off to procreate (reproduce).
4. Shops offering discounts to big families.
It has been observed that with the onset of contraceptives, women in Japan are opting to start their careers, ignoring the need to reproduce. Having children is very important since it ensures the continuing of a race or country. Without reproduction the human race will be extinct. One of the problems in Japan is that women do not have time for children. Some pursue careers and get married at a very late age, and so do not have children. There is also a devotion of raising healthy children which means less children per women.
However, pro-natal measures are not as effective as expected. Despite government efforts and various incentives, the fertility rate has risen by only 1.4%. Quantitative analyses show that it is very difficult to elevate the TFR by 0.1 with policy interventions. There is no reason to expect that policy intervention can induce sustainable recovery of fertility. A cultural deterministic view on fertility asserts that most of the differences between moderately low and lowest-low (or very low) fertility are attributed to direct effects of cultural features, not to governmental efforts.
This Work Was Done By:
Alakhonya, Khush, Manvir and Saabira
Therefore as you can see the policies designed to intervene in Japan’s rapidly falling population failed. In some cases there was even a negative in some of the year differences. This shows that there was absolutely no effect on the population. Moreover, there might have even been a fall in the economy because of the expenses in introducing the policy.