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Structure of Matter- andrew ceruzzi
Transcript of Structure of Matter- andrew ceruzzi
6th Energy levels are the shells or spaces where elctrons orbit around the nucleus. higher energy levels are farther away from the nucleus Orbitals are the are the different types of orbits electrons make and are categorized into 4 different orbitals:
s, p, d, f
2 electrons can occupy one orbital.
the s orbital has 1 orientation
the p orbital has 3 orientations
the d has 5, and f has 7
Orbitals are in an atom are refered to by their energy level,
for example 2s= s orbital in the sencond energy level, 4d= d orbital in the fourth energy level Chemical Bonding -Bonding forces Nuclear chemistry Deals with this part of the atom Protons and Nuetrons Molecular Models Periodic Relationships Electron Affinity Increases Noble gasses have zero
electron affinity Based on:
Zeff effective charge of the nucleus(protons)
electron energy levels and shielding An atom can be describecd by its
elctron configuration this way:
Sulfur(S)= 1s2,2s2,2p6,3s2,3p4 special cases Ionic Bonding= two oppositely charged ions
-elctrons are donated
intermolecular bonds covalent bonds= electrons are shared metalic bonds= sea of losely shared electrons that travel throughout a metal intramolecular bonds weakest strongest LDF-london dispersion forces LDF- stronger the more electrons the molecule has http://prezi.com/rr389skmjcce/edit/#359 soderholm knows best Network covalent- (diamond) Metalic Ionic- (ions in solutions) dipole-dipole (increasing) Hydrogen Bonds = strong dipole-dipole with a hydrogen
directly bonded to O, F, N
ex: H2O molecules are held together
by hydrogen bonding Lewis Structures VSEPR Hybridized orbitals chap. 8 (end)--------------------- chp. 9 resonance structure Molecule NO2
lines represent bonds
-(2) electrons shows electrons in the outer energy level when drawing lewis dot diagrams-
count the valence electrons of the molecule. thats is the number of electrons you can use
satisfy the octet rule, duet rule for H, He, sometimes sextet rule for B
check to see if formal charges cancel out. Formal charge =(valence electrons)-(lone pair electrons)-(bonds)
formal charge for each atom should add up to the total charge of the molecule When covalent bonds form to make molecules
the s, p, and d orbitals hybridize to form new and more
awesomer orbitals. they look like this and explain the shapes of molecules Sigma Bonds (sigma thing) are the first covalent bonds between atoms. the hybridized orbitals sharing electrons Pi Bonds (pi) are the second and third covalent bonds in
double and triple bonds.
formed by p orbitals that do not hybridize and are in the same plane When you have an atom
bonded with this
many other atoms and this many lone pairs of electrons Heres is the shape of
the molecule formed Chp. 21 is where its at for nuke chemistry Nuclear equations are fun and look like this these numbers have to
add up and be equal on both sides.
kinda like moles! except now
they're protons and tha mass number alpha particle
ms=electron spin Atomic numbers-an address for electrons http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quantum_numbers