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Hu Waiching

on 29 September 2015

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Theories related to Ethnic Relation
Learning Outcome
English Colonisation (1874 -1957)
Class Theory
Plural Society Theory
3G factors
Conquest on :
Physical space.
~Thinking paradigm space.
1. Understanding the formation of plural society in Malaysia.

2.Explain the basic concepts and theory of ethnic relations and its aplication in Malaysia.
A.k.a as ‘
Venice of the East
Plural society – forms naturally due to the
interactions among the local and foreign traders
Pinacle of the plarity in Malacca empire:
Malacca port as a meeting pot
Palace officers also consists of foreign officer - India.
Free-flow movement or migration
Population composition change:
Before 1848 >
Great migration of
people in the middle of 19th century > tin mine.
Great migration of
in the early of 20th century > rubber estate.
Prior to 1931, the escalation number of non-Malay exceed the Malay peoples.
Maintain the culture ownership.
Separation from physical and economy space > ethnic identification from economic activities > plural society.
Plural society
– J.Nagata. 2001. Plural Societies, in International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences, pp.11513-11516. Elsevier Science Ltd.
was first coined by a British colonial administrator, Furnivall, on the basis of practical experience in Southeast Asia, in his classic volume, Colonial Policy and Practice: A Comparative Study of Burma & Netherlands India (1939), more as a descriptive device than as theory.

It reflected the condition, common in colonial and later, newly independent postcolonial states, of deeply divided societies, usually along ascriptive lines of
ethnicity, or race, but also of culture, religion, or language
Colonisation era – the beginning of country development and plural society formation.
world pluralism

Colonisation Era ~
After Independence
Cox (1948) – the issues of race and ethnic relationship was related to the class and cste system involving the white capitalist towards colored people and labor.

~The capitalist gain profit from the suppression of the labors.
~Supported by the imbalance in social structure that separated the white and colored people labors.
~Race category exist in capitalist social that benefited ruler class and the coallision of labor class.
The society consist of different group of status or land lord – defined by economical strata and bond in the different political sector.
Conflict raised in plural society due to the racial separation.
Race categorical in plural society determined by history, foster by competition and conflict between groups.
Based on:
•different goal and tendency of individual.
• maximizing the material reward and social position.
• individual behaviour function as a personal sentiment and believe towards peer.
• an individual decided to take action will deny/closed the other individual option.
• create more closed social relation with another indvidual.
• when individual failed tho maximezed the reward aimed, he/she will mobilized the collective strength and the dimension choosed will potray the socio-historical context.
• when individual failed to maximized the satisfaction through diverse social group dimension in the society, it will turn to divine and religious aspects.
• when individual opt to mobilized the collective strength based on cultural heritage, the boundary between group will open.
• when individual opt to mobilized the collective strength based on physical heritage, the boundary between group will closed.
Rational Option
Ecology Theory
Freudian Theory
Seperation Labor Market Theory
Social Change Theory
Bronfenbrenner Ecological Theory
Ethnic Relation Concept
Ethnic Concept


Race -
difference in the physical characteristics
of the human race and its most visible and often used to distinguish human groups is
skin color

in terms of language can be defined as a race or nation. On the other hand the term ethnicity can be defined as groups of
people who are determined by the differing characteristics of culture
such as customs, dress, language, economic activity, etc.
Ethnicity is the human race: it also does not force a change of religious belief or remove elements of a people

Ethnicity can be classified by different cultures.

Ethnicity can also be classified according to demographic and geographical boundaries of the state.

For example, in Sabah and Sarawak, there are various ethnic groups in different geographical locations
Ethnicity Concept
Ethnicity refers to the sense of belonging of a particular ethnic group
form of the cultures or sub-cultures obviously where members feel united with the
history, values​​, attitudes and behaviour
are the
refers to the
belief or feeling of pride
that exists among members of an ethnic group that culture and ethnicity, they are far better and superior than other groups.

carries the meaning of a perspective view the other ethnic groups than their own ethnic lenses and glasses.
Race and Racisme
Terms of race and ethnicity are often used repeatedly in spite of the different meanings

In Malaysia, the term race and ethnicity are often adulterated and used in turn to be more or less the same meaning.

The Malays, Chinese and Indians and many other ethnic groups in Sabah and Sarawak should be known as ethnic but also called the race in everyday life.

In essence, the
can be considered as a social group with a collective identification based
physical characteristics of real-biological
, like skin colour, eye colour, hair colour, and otherwise.

The striking feature is used to distinguish human groups is
skin colour
While racism is defined as views, thoughts, or negative beliefs by a social group or the other members of a group based on differences in physical face-biological or race alone, and this is shown in the open by the behaviour or action open

Racism is a
combination of prejudice and discrimination
based disarticulation through skin colour, eye and physical characteristics, biological otherwise.

Racism exists at two levels, namely the

At the individual level, racism happens in the belief that there is a certain racial status higher and some lower status.

Racism exists at the individual level in the form of beliefs and attitudes of individuals.

At the institutional level, racism involves policy and implementation of discrimination, thus creating inequality for people of different races.

Racism at an institutional level this can be seen as implicit in the social structure.
Prejudice and
Stereotype Concepts
Defined as a

embedded inside a person or an ethnic group, which is often not openly expressed, the expert or other ethnic groups.

This view is not clear intimation based on appropriate or sufficient. If the prejudice voiced It becomes stereotype.

Between ethnic prejudice applies where ethnic sesebuah other ethnic memandangn negatively. Changing high prejudice against other ethnic is difficult despite the fact that firm is converted to prove bahawa given that understanding is wrong.

Prejudice is a form of support which usually arise from surrounding communities. Through the process of socialization, attitudes prejudice funneled from one generation to another generation. Impression prejudice attitudes more easily seen if applicable competition to get something similar LIMITED exist from the political, economic, social and so on.

While stereotypes are forward-looking statements are generally negative for something ethnic like all Arabs, Islam, the Dutch are stingy and so on.
In other words, stereotypes are exaggerated impression of something good or bad behavior to an ethnic addressed by other ethnic groups. This arises when there is a clash of two or more ethnic communities.
Stereotypical beliefs will create negative feelings in society, a society in Malaysia.
This is because the notion of an ethnic stereotype to make it will look down upon other ethnic groups and thus have implications on the limited interaction between ethnicity and racism poses a thickened

Discrimination defined as the views, thoughts and
negative beliefs
by a person or ethnic group against ethnic group members or others who influence the behavior that was negative.
In summary, discrimination is the
act of one individual tell the difference or something else base on ethnic group ethnic traits solely
Discrimination is the result of a translation than the prejudices that exist in something ethnic.
He is the easier it applies especially if in the form of prejudice and stereotype a community, as there is in the individual ranking or ethnic collection.
Level of Discrimination
It is the
nature of relationship separation
between ethnic groups within a country.
Separation occurs in a number of circumstances in between in terms of area of residence, school, transportation and public utilities.
It exists either based on the law or do not like Apartheid Policy in South Afric

It is a process in which
ethnic norms and values ​​aware
them between each other, but they still maintain a culture of life, respectively. However, they
live in harmony and respect
between each other.
Ranked in the central government, every ethnicity and has representatives in the fields of economics and education, they are interdependent.
Switzerland is a country of ethnic relations is his deep ethnic-ethnic accommodation Germany, France and Italy, making mutual adjustments between them
a cultural element of the admissions process among individuals or groups from other cultures something different.
Acculturation occurs when one group of people with a particular culture faced the elements of a foreign culture so that the differing elements of foreign culture was finally accepted and processed into its own culture.
Differed with the process of assimilation, acculturation process does not cause loss of society receive origin identity.
In the history of human civilization, are frequent encounters or collisions between two or more cultures. This process resulted in the borrowing and lending.
Initially, the loan element is used directly and then reworked and made their own cultural elements.
In Malaysia, some cases can be used as a reference such as the use of a tie, 'angpow', food, entertainment, etc.
However, acculturation success depends on:
i. Foreign cultural elements that are easily accepted as material culture such as clothing and culture is a huge benefit.
ii. Foreign cultural elements form non-material is difficult to accept such ideologies, thoughts, etc..
It is a process of
consolidation and mergers among different ethnic cultures to form a group with the same culture and identity
. It is related to the absorption of the individual into the way other ethnic.
Perfect assimilation resulted in the elimination of the full difference in terms of culture and identity.
In Malaysia, what happens to the Java community, the Chinese community Bihar, Baba and Nyonya, are examples of the occurrence of the process of assimilation
The process of assimilation occurs when there is:
Different ethnic cultures.
Individuals within or between ethnic groups often interact.
Interaction occurs within that time.
Assimilation success depends on:
i. Willingness to get rid of ethnic minority identity and accept other ethnic identities.
ii. Willingness to accept other ethnic ethnic majority.
iii. Cluster size difference is not huge majority and minority or minority groups are small.
iv. There are many similarities between the ethnic culture.
v. Mastery in any field, especially ethnic minorities would complicate the process of assimilation.
Major limiting factors of Assimilation:

i. The lack of cultural knowledge to create fear of other cultures.

ii. There is a sense that the higher the ethnic cultures of other ethnic groups.

iii. There is a difference between ethnic interests involved.

It is a process that occurs when
one culture or race mixed to form other types of new cultures and races

The main way in determining the amalgamation process occurs is marriage between ethnic mix.
Level of Ethnic Relation
Thank You
Focus of discussion :
History of
plural society
in Malaysia:
~Malay Malacca Sultanate.
~English colonialisation.
Theory and basic concepts of
multi-ethnics relation

Apply the race and ethnics concept.
The Glory of
Malay-Malacca Era
Apartheid – separation of whites and blacks in South Africa 1948-1994 -
Food received many races in Malaysia -
Angpau Tahun Baru Cina dan ‘angpau’ Hari Raya AidilFitri -
Kaum Peranakan India (Chetty) dan Peranakan Cina (Baba & Nyonya) -
Portrait of ethnic relations in Malaysia at present is formed by the past history as well as the complex interplay of various factors that happening right now.
Understanding of the concepts and related theories important ethnic relations to understand portrait ethnic relations in country.
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