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presentation on a reading goal

presentation reading goal

Alzbeta Springer

on 23 April 2010

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Transcript of presentation on a reading goal

The Ultimate Reading Makeover Before After Faruk Birtek From Affiliation To Affinity: Citizenship In The Transition From Empire To The Nation-State

The author argues that the Greek invasion of Izmir in 1919 and its aftermath played a crucial role in the transformation of the Ottoman Empire into the Turkish Republic by creating a political situation that favored and eventually brought into power a republican regime with a greater ability to mobilize population. During this period from 1919 to 1922, the multilayered cosmopolitan character of the Ottoman identity was superseded by a sharply defined ethnic identity better reconcilable with the republican regime under real (or imagined) duress. Using binary concepts of empire versus nation-state; rights versus liberties; Hobbesian versus Lockean paradigms and self-identity versus public persona, Birtek compares the vulnerabilities of pre-modern empire and ethnic-state republic to the danger of both external invasion and internal radicalization.
In his political typology, Birtek assigns the pre-modern empire these characteristics: Empire is antecedent to polity; associated with Lockean paradigm; established to safeguard people’s liberties and to emphasize selfhood. Republic, on the other hand, emerges from membership in political society; is endemic to Hobbesian paradigm; protects rights and emphasizes citizenship. Applied to the case of the Ottoman Empire and the Turkish Republic, the empire was built to foster a multilayered identity in which Ottoman citizenship did not restrict self-identity in the private sphere. The empire perpetuated elitist ‘thin’ rule that safeguarded liberties but that ultimately failed to mobilize the population when faced with an external thread. The Republic established through mobilization of unified (but still endogenous) population inspired radicalization of ethnic identity by constricting the space between the public and the private. A citizen was only able to privately pursue self-identity that was congruent with the regime or else he was perceived as a threat to the republic.
Birtek’s article provides a strong conceptual analysis of a mobilizational republic and pre-modern empire, which he applies to a specific example of Ottoman Empire and the Turkic Republic. His work questions the common notion that a republic is a better regime-type for safeguarding freedom by highlighting the diverse roles, strength and weaknesses of each regime-type and by drawing attention to the tension between communal and individual rights and liberties in political society.

Title: From Affiliation To Affinity: Citizenship In The Transition From Empire To The Nation-State.
Author: Prof.Dr. Faruk Birtek teaches at the Bogaziçi University in Turkey. He specializes in Political Sociology, Historical Sociology, Social and Political Theory.

Main argument: An analysis of different regime-types (republic, empire) and their effect on government of multiethnic and multi-confessional populations. The author links the disintegration of the Ottoman Empire to the outside force (Greek invasion) and questions commonly held preconception that the empire fell due to inner incongruence.
Quoted & adapted scholarly work: Hegel – ideal types, Cooper – empire typology
Foils: Republic is a better regime-type for protection of its population’s freedoms than an empire. Ottoman Empire fell due to inner disintegration. Ethnic radicalization occurred as a response to the spread of nationalism.

Related topics: Empire, Mobilizational Republic, Diverse populations, Citizenship, Rights and Liberties, regime-types

Rationale: if we are to understand the disintegration of the Ottoman Empire, its transformation into a republic and its ensuing ethnic radicalization, we need to understand the catalyst of the change – the effect of the Greek invasion on changes in political, social and spatial organization of population.

Audience: Academia – professors, researchers, and students.

Problems? Birtek concentrates on the period of 1919-1922 as the period of ethnic-radicalization and identity shifts, but he never mentions Armenian genocide. Also, when he talks about the government of the Ottoman Empire after the Tanzimat reform, he seems undaunted about the inequality in social mobility of diverse ethnic groups and even seems to exaggerate the involvement of non-Muslim and non-Turkic people in the government (for alternative view, see the article on Kemalism by Anderson).

How did it read? This was a tough article to read. It is divided into many sections but the headings do not give many cues as to what will be discussed. Although the article talks about concrete historical case-study, its purpose is to establish a conceptual frame allowing the study of other mobilizational republics and other pre-modern empires. As such, the article is not always context-embedded (or when it is it assumes a great amount of prior knowledge – which is not always the case); it contains a challenging academic language; and requires background knowledge of other fields such as political philosophy.
Stephan Berger “Border Regions, Hybridity and National Identity: the Cases of Alsace and Masuria”

This chapter deals with the development and the conditions for development of a hybrid identity in the border regions. Berger claims that development of a hybrid identity depends on many criteria including the military pressures from nation-states; similar religious, political and social legacies of the border regions; the strength and influence of the middle class and the basic respect of rival nationalisms for one another. These criteria were met in the case of Alsace region which developed strong hybrid identity but was missing in the case of a Polish-German Masuria where rival nationalisms did not allow a merging of regional and national identities.

Quote: “a border region [is a place where] physical division lines are contested and where nations shared the same geographical memory space. It is important to recognize that borderland identities cannot be simply imposed by states, but that they emerge in complex and multiple negotiations between state governments and the borderlanders.”(p. 368)

Main argument: Hybrid identity depends only in some regions. The criteria for such development are defined by socio-political inclinations of the people living in the region rather than on geographic character of the region.

Quoted & adapted scholarly work: H. Donnan & T. Wilson for literature review, M. Hroch – nationalism of non-dominant groups.

Foils: Common beliefs that: The development of a hybrid identity depends on the geography of a region – if you place diverse people in proximity, they will develop a hybrid identity. Clear-cut borders existed and were important before the development of modern-states. Borderlands do not dramatically change identities.

Related topics: Identity, nationalism, physical borders

Rationale: The best way to understand how regional (and national) identities are made is to track the discoursive and cultural changes of a region in flux. The regions of Alsace and Masuria can teach us what supports the development of hybrid identity which could be of use to discourage ethnic self-segregation.

Audience: Academia – professors, researchers, politicians, policy-makers, and students.

Problems? Berger chose two perfect examples on the extreme ends of the case-studies scale. It remains to be seen how useful would his concept frame be if it was applied to other cases.

Before, my summaries were:
very detailed
time consuming

Now, my summaries are:
but, not as detailed
easier to write
contain quotes

Writing summaries taught me to:
to shop for the best strategy
organize my thoughts
commit to an argument
ask questions about the text

Summaries Notes Margin notes Legal pad notes Articles Difficult - Conceptual Easy - Practical Allomorphism
variability in crystalline form without change in chemical constitution. This can also apply to the plural English morphemes (variant forms).
a sepulchral monument erected in memory of a deceased person whose body is buried elsewhere. My example: The tomb of an unknown soldier is the best known example of cenotaph. (from Greek - empty + tomb)
an office or position requiring little or no work, esp. one yielding profitable returns
an ecclesiastical benefice without cure of souls
Taken from: The more advanced segments of this class feared losing their offices requiring little work under a centralized administration.
happening or produced by chance; accidental: a fortuitous encounter
lucky; fortunate: a series of fortuitous events that advanced her career
Taken from: The similarity is by no means accidental, produced by luck or chance; it is clearly related to the geography of all colonial pilgrimages.
to unite or fuse (as pieces of metal) by hammering, compressing, or the like, esp. after rendering soft or pasty by heat, and sometimes with the addition of fusible material like or unlike the pieces to be united
to bring into complete union, harmony, agreement
a welded junction or joint
to consume (liquids) by drinking; drink: He imbibed great quantities of iced tea
to absorb or soak up, as water, light, or heat: Plants imbibe moisture from the soil.
to take or receive into the mind, as knowledge, ideas, or the like: to imbibe a sermon; to imbibe beautiful scenery
Taken from: As the words ‘Jews’ and ‘Orient’ suggest, the Anglicized monarch had received into mind, adopted the idea of particular racism of the English ruling class.
Evanescent [ev-uh-nes-uh nt]
vanishing; fading away; fleeting
tending to become imperceptible; scarcely perceptible
My example: As walked to the venue, curious looks followed him and his new outfit, but as he approached the stadium filled with the Kiss fans, he became evanescent to the world.
Easily seen or noticed; readily noticeable or observable, attracting special attention.
Example: Unless an ethnic group becomes easily noticeable, receiving much attention, migration goes unnoticed in the west.
prominent or conspicuous: salient traits
projecting or pointing outward: a salient angle
a proposition that is incidentally proved in proving another proposition.
an immediate consequence or easily drawn conclusion.
a natural consequence or result.
Example: The outbreak of this infectious disease was a corollary of the floods.
Before After 1.incapable of being expressed or described in words; inexpressible: ineffable joy.
2.not to be spoken because of its sacredness; unutterable: the ineffable name of the deity. ineffable (adj.)
11 Hours
Hard 4 Days
7 Days
Lessons learned... we all have our "best strategies" for learning vocabulary.
But... what is good for some, may be a waste of time for others.
Anki rocks!
But... the best way - FOR ME -to learn words is to encounter them in the texts we read... Over and... ...over and... ...OVER AGAIN! Edcational atrticles
friendly language
illustration and photographs
relevance (to my life)
assumes knowledge
interdiscoplinary references
academic-to-pretentious language
structuraly complex (heretofore, aforementioned, etc.)

“The national experience of 1848 is seen as part of wider and more general processes: European, Western, even Universal. In the alternative, particularizing framing, 1848 stands for national liberation, for an Eastern Europe “awakening to the call of nationality, revolting against national oppression , seeking national recognition and autonomy, and embarking on a nationalizing developmental trajectory leading to the creation and consolidation of independent nation-states in place of multinational empires. The national experience is celebrated for its distinctiveness, not subsumed under a universal perspective.” How to cope with the tough cookie... Take notes
(margins, legal pad, mental maps...)
Add examples
(elision = ?)
Make conections
(finantial math can help you to figure out poetic parallelism)
if AT ALL possible, make them relevant to your life.

Different notes are good for different things.
Match your notes and their purpose
Work on getting more succinct
Good notes do not waste your time
Get Zotero and keep your notes online!!!

Reading Goal
2 articles a week
2 summaries a week
word lists
2 words to learn a week
try out different strategies Words
words As a Reader, I am a different person than I was in January. I am...
aware of the quality of my reading
aware of my favorite reading strategies
able to addapt my reading processes to reading material
better at writing summaries
working on my vocbulary - never-ending story
glad I challenged myself
hoping i will keep my new reading habits up

I am a different Reader and I am pleased with my new self! http://sites.google.com/site/alicesabet/host-page/Home
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