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Fibres,yarns and fabric.

basic structures and properties

Daisy Partridge

on 13 March 2011

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Transcript of Fibres,yarns and fabric.

Fibres Yarns Fabrics Synthetic Natural are either staple (short) or filament (long) Regenerated Cotton Wool Silk Can be sourced naturally from plants or animals Fibres can be obtained from a range of animals and plants which were not previously used because they were less easy to harvest and produced fabrics which were rough and unrefined. However, they are now considered to be sustainable sources because they are available in greater quantities and occur naturally. an example is hemp pineapple fibres and crab shells are also being used to develop new fibres. another is yak hair Luxury fibres can be found in nature, these include angora and cashmere Linen Polyester Man made fibres come from oil. They are most commonly filament fibres and we can manipulate them to do pretty much anything, although some technologies are expensive. Polyamide Acrylic Elastane Acetate Viscose Originate from plant sources such as wood pulp but are heavily manipulated by man to make fibres. Chemicals are added to a solution of pulp to extract the fibres. Yarns are made from fibres which are twisted together in long lengths. Fibres are 'carded' this means that they are brushed so that they all face the same direction. They are then twisted together to form long continuous lengths of yarn. Yarns are twisted in an S twist or a Z twist, this basically means to the left or to the right. If you then combine an s and a z twist you will have a stable yarn. Some yarns are much more complicated, for example, core-spun yarns which have a central twist of fibres and another fibre twisted around it. These are very strong and can have special properties, such as corespun elastic. Fibres can be very fine or very thick - this is called the weight of the yarn. a school shirt would be woven from a very fine cotton-polyester yarn. Your chunky winter jumper would be knitted from a loosely spun wool yarn. Fine synthetic yarns Fine silk - notice its much easier to create fine yarns from FILAMENT fibres! Cotton yarn chunkier wool yarn (naturally dyed using nettles, beetroot an coffee!) Fancy yarns silk 'paper' yarn mohair tape yarn boucle yarn stainless steel yarn (holds its shape) Very pretty fancy yarns Yarn dying blended fibres
Often, yarns will be made from more than one kind of fibre, for example, polyester/cotton of wool/acrylic. The purpose of this is to maximise on the properties of each fibre - more of that later! Woven Non-woven Aertex
Calico (textile)
Chiffon (fabric)
Chino cloth
Drill (fabric)
Georgette (fabric)
Harris Tweed
Hessian (cloth)
Shot silk
Tulle netting
Tweed (cloth)
Waxed cotton
Worsted Woven fabrics are made by weaving yarns together, vertical yarns for the warp and horizontal yarns form the weft (remember from WEFT to right!) Weaving takes place on a loom - these can be small and hand operated, or large and mechanised. Plain weave Twill weave Satin weave By adding in different yarns and using different methods of weaving we can created many woven patterns. Pile weave eg. denim eg. cotton lawn eg. duchess satin eg. velvet Here are just some examples of woven fabrics, there are many many more. Research a few for you exam so that you can talk about them. From Habotai silk (used for lining) to Hessian (used to make sacks). fabrics can be woven for different uses, different weights and strengths. Habotai Hessian Woven fabrics do not fray until cut - they always have a selvedge at the side which prevent fraying. If you cut a woven fabric parallel to the grain it will be strong and stable. If you cut it on the bias (at 45 degress) the fabrics will drape very well and stretch around a form. Knitted We can also knit fabrics on different scales. By hand with needles or with huge industrial machines. Both of these methods involve the interlinking of loops from one or more continuous yarns. We can create simple knitted fabrics or we can interlink the loops in more complex patterns to give different effects to the fabric. There are two catergories of knitted fabric which you will need to know for your exam: WEFT and WARP. WEFT WARP An example of a weft knit is single jersey. The yarn is knitted from left to right. Weft knits are warm and highly elastic - we can stretch them becasue of the loops. We can clearly see the V's formed on the right side of a weft knitted fabric. Two problems we have with weft knits can be: They loose their shape easily and they unravel. Warp knitted fabrics are constructed up and down the length of the fabric. This is a much more complicated method which CANNOT BE DONE BY HAND. We can create a number of interesting knitted fabrics such as sweatshirt jersey, lace and high performance sportswear knits. Warp knitting machines are very complex and expensive for companies to buy and use. The properties of a warp knitted fabric are: very fast to construct, fabric keeps its shape but stretches less than weft knits, Less likely to unravel, expensive to produce. The main properties of knitted fabrics are stretch, comfort and warmth. The properties of woven fabrics depend on the weight and method of weaving. But most woven fabrics are strong and stable. There are two main methods of created a non woven fabric: Felting and Bonding. Non woven fabrics are made directly from fibres - we skip the yarn stage all together. Fibres are tangled together in a web to form a fabric. Felting is when we apply heat, pressure and moisture to tangle fibres together. We can make felts from natural fibres like wool which are scaly and curly or from synthetic fibres that we can manipulate with heat such as polyester. felted fabrics are dense and very stable, they cannot be stretched at all and as therefore not used to clothing. However, you could use a fleted fabrics structure to make a bag... The other method of creating non-woven fabrics is bonding. This means that fibres are melted or glued together. They can be made by spraying wet or dry fabrics onto a surface and heating them (synthetic) or gluing them with a solvent so that the BOND. Bonded fabric uses include safety and hygiene products, interfacing and linings cleaning materials. Examples of knitted fabrics:
Double knits
Four-way stretch knits
Interlock knits
Power net
Raschel knits
Rib knits
Single knits
Stable knits
Stretch knits
Stretch velour
Sweater knits
Sweatshirt knits
Two-way stretch knits
Fleece knit
Terry knit
Examples of non wovens that you need to know are: wool felt anf interfacing/lining. Properties of non wovens:
not very strong
do not fray
can be moulded into shapes
can be made from recycled fibres
can be made soluable
Can be made to soften with heat (eg hem tape)
weaker when wet
cheap to produce
Can be given special properties such as permeability (water can pass thorugh) because we can amnipulate how the fabric is formed

We can also use micro encapsulation technology to capture chemicals in the fabrics structure such as antisepctic in wipes.
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