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The Hungry Brain

Cognitive Neuroscience Fall 2014
by

Maggie Baxter

on 3 December 2014

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Transcript of The Hungry Brain

1. Cognitive Labeling Model
2. Cognitive Processing Model
3. Dual-affect Model
4. Outcome expectancy model
Benefits of Hunger
The Hungry Brain
Presentation
Exposure
Social Influences
Decreased Cognitive Decline
Definition:
The sensation, the hollow ache in the stomach, experienced as a reminder from the brain when one has the physiological need to eat food.

Memory
Presentation:
Size of container/plate
Color
Smell
Exposure:
Attentional Bias
Trait Impulsivity
Social Influences:
External Cues
Dopamine Reward Pathway:
Down regulation of D2/D3 Autoreceptors:
Behavioral Mimicry:
Perception-behavior expressway
Appropriate Eating
Traditional Proposal
: Classical Conditioning
Recent Proposal
: Cognitive Models
What makes you hungry?

Have not eaten in a while
Craving a specific food
Seeing food
The time of day
What happens to you when you are hungry?

I become irritable
I become tired
I feel sick/nauseous
I feel lightheaded
I feel frustrated

"You're not yourself when you're hungry!"

Ghrelin
Vartanian, L.R., Herman, C. P., Wansink, B. (2008). Are we aware of the external factors that influence our
food intake? Health Psychology, 27(5), 533-537. doi: 10.1037/0278-6133.27.5.533

Blumenthal, D. M., and Gold, M. S. (2010). Neurobiology of food addiction. Genes and Cell Metabolism,
360-62. doi:10.1097/MCO.0b013e32833ad4d4

Hou, R. et al. (2011). External eating, impulsivity and attentional bias to food cues. Appetite, 56, 424-425.
doi:10.1016/j.appet.2011.01.019

Harmon, K. (2010). Dopamine determines impulsive behavior. Scientific American,
http://www.scientificamerican.com/article/dopamine-impulsive-addiction/

Vartanian, L.R., Herman, C. P., Wansink, B. (2008). Are we aware of the external factors that influence our
food intake? Health Psychology, 27(5), 533-537. doi: 10.1037/0278-6133.27.5.533

Hermans, R. C. J., et al. (2012) Mimicry of food intake: the dynamic interplay between eating companions.
PLoS ONE 7(2), doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0031027

California State University, Northridge. (Spring 1997). Hunger and eating. Retrieved November 17, 2014 from ttp://www.csun.edu/~vcpsy00h/students/hunger.htm

Location
Hippocampus
Improves Memory
Long Term Potentiation
Neurogenesis
Cognitive Development
Damage to the Hypothalamus and effects on hunger
Patient : A.Shapiro Age 12
benign tumor removed and resulted in damage to the pituitary gland and a part of the medial hypothalamus
Rare condition: Hypothalamic Obesity [constant hunger]
Medial Hypothalamus
Evolution of Hunger
Cognitive Labeling
Cognitive Processing
Dual-affe
ct
Outcome
Expectancy
1. Impulsivity is linked to-

a. Down regulation of D4/D5 receptors
b. Up regulation of D2/D3 autoreceptors
c. Down regulation of D2/D3 autoreceptors
2. The hormone ghrelin-

a. Increases feelings of fullness
b. Increases feelings of hunger
c. Makes you feel tired
Set-point theory
-motivated to eat by energy deficits
Dual center hypothesis of hypothalamus
Lateral (LH):
feel hunger
Ventralmedial (VMH):
feel full
Positive-incentive perspective
-motivated to eat by the anticipated pleasure of eating
Patient: L. Jones Age: 12
Dysfunction of the Hypothalamus and the effects on Hunger
dysfunction potentially due to:
- infection
- resistance to ghrelin.
- too much leptin being released
has no appetite or any thirst
Hypothalamic Tumors
Damage to Hypothalamus and hunger
Lateral hypothalamus =feeling you want to eat
Damage/Dysfunction LHA = absence of hunger and thirst
Ventromedial hypothalamus =feeling to stop eating
Damaged/Dysfuntion VMH = absence of satiety
3. Damage to the medial hypothalamus will cause-

a. No appetite
b. Constant hunger
c. No change
4. Eating with others can alter your-

a. Pace of eating
b. Amount eaten
c. Both
The Hypothalamus
Damage to Hypothalamus and cognition
A. Shapiro is aware that she has eaten but due to the signals being sent she doesn't have the "desire" to stop eating and cannot reason with or decide to stop eating on her own.
The most known hypothalamic tumors in children are craniopharyngiomas
Dysfunction and Cognition
Hypothesized mechanism of Food Craving
Although L. Jones can understand that he needs to eat to fuel his body and survive, he cannot make the decisions to do so because the signals are not being sent to the brain transmitting that the body needs fuel.
5. what are the most common tumors found in children ?

a. Astrocytomas
b. Glioblastomas
c. Craniopharyngiomas

4 Major Cognitive Models of Food Craving
Derivation of Cognition-Arousal Theory of Emotion
An emotion generated after exposure to food that leads to physical arousal, which activates cognition and labels the arousal as craving
Craving is generated by environmental cues that triggers positive expectation, expectations can come from memories.
Craving generated by positive and negative affects
Explains why majority of women crave for sweets during stressful time
Craving generated by execution of eating behavior is voluntarily or involuntarily blocked
How brain works when craving...?
For any type of craving...
Hippocampus: memory
Insula: Social emotions
Caudate: dopamine reward system
6. What 3 areas of the brain that are activated during food craving?

a. Hippocampus, insula, caudate
b. Hypothalamus, insula, caudate
c. Hippocampus, leptin, pituitary gland
7. Which model explains cognition of food craving during stressful times?

a. Outcome expectancy model
b. Dual-affect model
c. Cognitive labeling model
8. What does set-point theory states about why we eat?

a.motivated to eat due to emotional pleasure
b. motivated to eat for survival
c. Eating due to desire to stop eating is blocked.
Pelchat, M., Johnson, A., Chan, R., & Ragland, J. (2004). Images of desire: Food-craving activation during fMRI. NeuroImage, 23, 1489-1491. Retrieved December 1, 2014
Pelchat, M., Johnson, A., Chan, R., & Ragland, J. (2004). Images of desire: Food-craving activation during fMRI. NeuroImage, 23, 1489-1491. Retrieved December 1, 2014
Causes for Dysfuntion

Tumors
Infections and inflammation

Small area causes major life altering issues
Masako Isokawa, “Cellular Signal Mechanisms of Reward-Related Plasticity in the Hippocampus,” Neural Plasticity, vol. 2012, Article ID 945373, 18 pages, 2012. doi:10.1155/2012/945373
Kent, Brianne, "Hunger Feeds a Healthy Brain." Gates Cambridge. N.p., n.d. Web. 02 Dec. 2014.
Ledford, Heidi. "Hunger Hormone Helps Memory." Nature.com. Nature Publishing Group, 06 May 2008. Web. 20 Nov. 2014.
Ledford, Heidi. "Hunger Hormone Helps Memory." Nature.com. Nature Publishing Group, 06 May 2008. Web. 20 Nov. 2014.
"Can Going Hungry As a Child Slow Down Cognitive Decline in Later Years?" Can Going Hungry As a Child Slow Down Cognitive Decline in Later Years? American Academy of Neurology, n.d. Web. 02 Dec. 2014.
Physiological Mechanisms of Hunger and Satiety. (n.d.). Retrieved December 1, 2014
Tiffany, S. (1999). Cognitive Concepts of Craving. Alcohol Research & Health, 23(3), 215-224. Retrieved
November 30, 2014

Tiffany, S. (1999). Cognitive Concepts of Craving. Alcohol Research & Health, 23(3), 215-224. Retrieved November 30, 2014

Tiffany, S. (1999). Cognitive Concepts of Craving. Alcohol Research & Health, 23(3), 215-224. Retrieved
November 30, 2014

Tiffany, S. (1999). Cognitive Concepts of Craving. Alcohol Research & Health, 23(3), 215-224. Retrieved
November 30, 2014

Tiffany, S. (1999). Cognitive Concepts of Craving. Alcohol Research & Health, 23(3), 215-224. Retrieved
November 30, 2014

Tiffany, S. (1999). Cognitive Concepts of Craving. Alcohol Research & Health, 23(3), 215-224. Retrieved
November 30, 2014

Video
Tiffany, S. (1999). Cognitive Concepts of Craving. Alcohol Research & Health, 23(3), 215-224. Retrieved
November 30, 2014

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