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Particle Theory of Matter

The four different states of matter: solid, liquid, gas, and plasma

Jenna Davis

on 7 March 2011

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Transcript of Particle Theory of Matter

Particle Theory of Matter Particle Theory of Matter is... 1. Matter is made up of tiny particles (atoms and molecules)

2. Particles of matter are in constant motion.

3. Particles of matter are held together by strong electric forces.

4. There are empty spaces between particlesof matter that are very large compared to the particles themselves

5. Each substance has unique particles.

6. Temperature affects the speed of particles (the higher the temperature, the faster the speed.)
Particle Theory of Matter explains...

1. Properties

2. Chemical changes

3. Physical changes
for example: melting, to evaporate, sublimation, dissolving..

Physical Change a change in a substance that doesn't change the identity of the substance.
changes in all states of matter are physical changes
no new substance is produced.
may require an addition or release of energy.

inside remains the same
particles may be rearranged
forces of attraction bewteen particles may be weaker or stronger

an example could be water freezing into ice. There are four states of matter:



Properties: Solids are densely packed together. That is why solids have a fixed shape and a definite volume. They however do not have the ability to flow. They can be compressed very slightly. They can also become very small with volume change of heat.
Properties Liquids have definite volume but indefinite shape. Liquids have the ability to flow. They can become compressed very slightly, and they change little with heat. Properties Gases have indefinite shape and indefinite volume. Gases can flow and be compressed. Properties High temperature state in which atoms lose their electrons. An example is the sun. By: Jenna Davis
Solids and can have very strong attractive forces between the atoms. The atoms are packed together in fixed positions. The energy of solids is vibrational . They only vibrate in place. That is because of their internal energy. Aso, they cannot move from place to place.

To change from a liquid to a solid the matter goes through sublimation which is also known as freezing. This change has exothermic energy involved. To change from a gas to a solid the matter goes through liquefication. This change in matter has exothermic involved also. Solids Liquid particles are held together by forces of attraction that are weaker than that of solid particles. Atoms are close together, and they can overcome attractive forces, giving them the ability to flow. They have translational energy, which means, particles can move from place to place inside the container bumping into other particles and the sides of the container. Liquids also have vibrational energy like solids.

To change from a solid to a liquid the matter must go through solidification. This change has endothermic energy, meaning heat is being used. To change from a gas to a liquid the matter must go through condensation. This change has exothermic energy, meaning heat is being released. Liquids Atoms in gases move very quickly and are spread far apart. They have very weak attractive forces. The spaces between gaseous particles are much larger than the spaces between solid or liquid particles. Particles of gases can move from place to place within a container, bumping into each other and the sides of the container. Gases have three types of energy: rotational, translational, and vibrational.

To change from a liquid to a gas the matter must evaporate. This change has an endothermic energy being added and used. For a solid to change to a gas it must go through sublimation. This change also involves endothermic energy being added and used. Gases Plasma is the most visible common form of matter on earth. The particles of plasma are moving faster than those of gases. It consists of freely moving ions and electrons. Plasma has different types of energy: thermal, electrical, or light. The temperature of plama is extremely hot and dense. Plasma is a high temperature state in which atoms lose their electrons. Plasma has large spaces between atoms and the electrons and ions move independently. Plasma's are not stable. An example could be the sun and the solar wind. Plasma Chemical Change A change in which a substance is converted into a different substance
this is the same thing as a chemical reaction
doesn't change the amount of matter present
a chemical change starts with a reactant- substances that react
a chemical change ends with a product- substances that form
the final substance is completely different than the intial substance
a new substance is ALWAYS produced
energy is usually released but may be required to get the change going

the particles of the new substance do not resemble those of the old subsatnce
internally, the substance produced is different than the old substance

an example could be to mix hydrogen and oxygen to form water. Properties information about a substance that describes it
it also helps us identify it

Physical Properties- characteristics that can be observed or measured without changing the identity of a substance
- an example is the melting point and the boiling point

Characteristic Physical- properties: properties that are unique for each substance and are used to identify the substance itself.

Chemical Properties- properties of a substance that we observe when it reacts does not react with other substances. It relates to a substances' ability to undergo changes that transforms it into a differnt substance.
- an example could be iron rusts in moist air; gold does not

Extensive Properties- properties that do depend on the amount of matter
- an example could be mass and volume

Intensive Properties- properties that do NOT depend on the amount of matter
- an example could be color, odor, and density You can describe matter in various ways!
(Qualitative and Quantitative observations)

physical state

when any change occurs, energy is always involved
energy can be in a different forms(light, heat, etc)
energy is never destroyed or created( law of conversation of energy)

when a state of matter gains or looses heat it undergoes a change
- a gain in heat is called an endothermic change (uses up energy or goes into)

- a loss in energy is called an exothermic change( gives off, or releases) Energy Changes in Matter Plasma is a vapor like fluid, it can flow. It can also be compressed. Plasma takes the shape of the container, and spreads out to fill the container that it is in. Refrences:
itlab2.coe.wayne.edu As you could see throughout my presentation, particle theory of matter is meant to explain several different things. Those were: properties, physical changes, and chemical changes. A better way to think of particle theory of matter is, that it is just a way to classify matter in many different ways. I hope that my prezi-tation was helpful and that you enjoyed it.
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