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Hydrology Lesson Unit 1

The hydrological cycle

Katharine Fisher

on 15 April 2010

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Transcript of Hydrology Lesson Unit 1

The Hydrological cycle. The movement of water between atmosphere, lithosphere and biosphere. classify the labels from the diagram as inputs, outputs, flows and stores Do they all fit? global hydrological cycle is a closed system. there are no losses. basin scale/ local scale Drainage basin: the area of land drained by a river and its tributaries. Open system - one input and two main outputs Precipitation - input formation of rain different types of precipitation intensity of precipitation is measured as mm/hr interception - flow/store label throughflow, canopy interception and stemflow type of vegetation will influence the degree of foliage season the movement of moisture from the atmosphere to the land as rain, snow, sleet, frost, dew or fog water transferred by vegetation - can be lost by evaporation, throughfall or stemflow infiltration movement of water from the surface to below the surface via pore spaces or small openings infiltration capacity -the maximum rate at which water can enter a soil Factors affecting infiltration
rock permeability
season infiltration rates - observed movement of water into a soil rain - droplets of water oceans supply most of the evaporated water in the atmosphere. Of this evaporated water only 91% percent is returned directly to the ocean basins though direct precipitation. The remaining 9% percent is transported to areas over landmasses where it returns to the ground as precipitation. The resulting imbalance between rates of evaporaton and precipitation is corrected by runoff, base and ground water flow to the oceans. Snow sleet hail type and intensity of precipitation can influence surface runoff. why is this? Leaf shape is important - coniferous trees intercept more precipiatation than deciduous also dew and fog percolation - the movement of water deeper into the soil and underlying rocks swelling and clogging How do we measure infiltration? subsurface water movement is not just vertical - there is horizontal movement too. Throughflow - above the water table baseflow - below the water table (from groundwater)
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