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Using Social Media in Language Teaching and Learning in the context of Bangladesh
Transcript of Using Social Media in Language Teaching and Learning in the context of Bangladesh
This study argues that the rapid increasing demographic figure of using social media and beliefs and attitudes of teachers and students towards this Holistic goal ushered a new era of taking this challenge of using it in language teaching and learning in the context of Bangladesh. “Using Social Media in Language Teaching and Learning
in the context Bangladesh” by
Md. Jamal Uddin Jamy Overview Introduction
Discussion Introduction Introduction
Purpose of the study
Statement of the Problem
Significance of the Research
-Teacher Fotini Karagiauri
Purpose of the study The objective of this study is to investigate the position of social media in Bangladesh and the possibility of using it in language teaching and learning.
Moreover learners in this country tend to have few opportunities to learn English language and practice it inside the country as it is not multi lingual.
Whereas social media having the potential to level the playing field for language learning can be the best tool, it is interesting to get some insight in how learners actually perceive and use social media in their daily activities and when learning foreign language. Research Questions The study is designed to address three major questions using social media as a theoretical framework: Is it possible to use social media in language teaching and learning in the context of Bangladesh.
How the use of Web 2.0 technologies will motivate students in language learning.
What are the roles of social media in promoting learners autonomy? Research Hypotheses Data were collected for the purpose of investigating the following Hypotheses: It is possible to use social media in language teaching and learning in the context of Bangladesh.
The use of social media will enhance students’ knowledge, understanding, and language abilities; specific to reading, writing, speaking, listening and culture.
The use of Web 2.0 technologies will motivate students in language learning.
The use of social media will promote learners autonomy. Technology has played an increasingly vital role in our everyday life over the past ten years or so, yet little research has been conducted into learners’ actual use of the technology for both everyday life and language learning. After the facebook revolution in 2004 the young generations are being addicted with the Web 2.0 or social network sites. As a result, most of the parents are worried about their children’s wasting time. Sometimes they prevented them from using social network sites. Even many universities of Bangladesh technically blocked using facebook in their lab. But new technologies Web 2.0 and social media are not any longer regarded as a vacant grade movement. Our students should be able to handle this area of ICT. Those are powerful and interesting tools. Which open up new opportunities for everyone and for this reason teachers and students must know how to use it nowadays in a perceptive approach. Our social networking statistics show that Facebook penetration in Bangladesh is 1.70% compared to the country's population and 434.15% in relation to number of Internet users. The total number of FB users in Bangladesh is reaching 26, 80,020 and grew by more than 7, 66,020 in the last 6 months. Therefore, this swift ever-increasing number of Social Media users in Bangladesh specially Facebook influenced us to study the possibilities of using Social Media as a helping tool to teach English language in Bangladesh, which will investigate the role of learner autonomy and its pedagogical impact by using social media. Significance of the Study Significance of the Study (cont.) Significance of the Study (cont.) Litterateur Review Literature Review Social media: Social media refers to activities, practices, and behaviors among communities of people who gather online to share information, knowledge, and opinions using conversational media. Conversational media are Web-based applications that make it possible to create and easily transmit content in the form of words, pictures, videos, and audios.
(Safko & Brake 2009, P. 6) Web 2.0 technologies According to Wikipedia Web 2.0 refers to “web applications that facilitate interactive information sharing, interoperability, user-centered design, and collaboration on the World Wide Web; examples of Web 2.0 include social networking sites, blogs, wikis, video sharing sites, hosted services and web applications. Social Media Cont. Social media is nothing but online networking. Before internet, people used to socialize in clubs and public gatherings. After internet, people are doing the same but on a different platform and that is social media.
As Bozarth (2010) has given examples of social technologies used to create social media include those for communication such as blogs, collaboration such as wikis, communities such as facebook, and multimedia such as YouTube (p-11). Web 2.0 Cont. Web 1.0 was read-only where internet users went online to find information. It was similar to going to the library to find books.
With Web 2.0, which is read, write, watch, listen or perform, people have become active participants and content creators. Literature Review Social Media in Language Teaching and Learning Blogs Blog is an easily created, easily updateable Website that allows an author (or authors) to publish instantly to the Internet from any Internet connection. (Richardson, 2009) So, a weblog or blog can be described as an online journal with one or many contributors. Blogs in Education Lina Lee (2011) a Professor of Spanish in the Department of Languages, Literatures and Cultures at the University of New Hampshire has used three types of blogs for the research project. These are: 1. PERSONAL blog
2. CLASS blog and
3. PROJECT blog Personal blog Each student is responsible for keeping a personal blog. The blog serves as a personal diary in which they write reflective observations about various aspects of the culture and address cultural differences from their own perspectives. To make meaningful cross-cultural observations, they should pay attention to current events, popular culture, native speakers’ behaviors and attitudes and their surroundings (e.g., at home, on the street or in school). They are required to write three entries per week through which you reflect on the chosen topics. Each entry should have approximately 150-200 words. You are strongly encouraged to take pictures from cultural activities and incorporate them into your blog. Class blog After completing weekly assignments on readings, cultural activities and/or ethnographic interviews, students should post a 200-word entry to share their observations. They are strongly encouraged to ask questions regarding the assigned topic and/or make comments on others’ postings. It is recommended that they use external resources (e.g., YouTube video clips, external links) to support the content. Project blog For this project, students choose a topic that interests them the most and create a blog to compile and share information. They are required to read a minimum of 3 articles and conduct a minimum of 2 interviews with expert speakers to find out their own perspectives about the topic. They analyze the readings and interviews, and then write about their own observations. They should be sure to upload the interviews and add additional sources (e.g., newspapers, podcasts, videos) to the blog. Wikis A wiki is a set of interconnected and structured pages that provides a new dimension to information exchange and knowledge management.
Orehovacki, Bubas, Kovacic (2012) So, a wiki is a group of web pages that allows users to add content, similar to a discussion forum or blog, but also permits others to edit the content. Wiki pages can be interconnected and organized as required. Wiki offers a vast simplification of the process of creating HTML pages, and thus is a very effective way to build and exchange information through collaborative effort. Wikis in Education Doolan (2011) has discussed the role of the teachers in facilitating student learning through the use of technologies like Wikis. Doolan has developed the CLAT (Collaborative Learning through Assessment and Technology) pedagogical model, which has been successfully used and evaluated across a number of academic disciplines over the course of five years in higher education. Students can use a wiki to submit their assignment, develop research projects, with the wiki acting as ongoing documentation of their work, add summaries of their thoughts from the prescribed readings, building a collaborative annotated bibliography. Facebook Founded in February 2004, Facebook was the first social networking site to become an online phenomenon, quickly outpacing all other social networking sites in registered users.
(Towner, T & Munoz, L. 2012: 346) Facebook allows one to look at recent and past pictures and conversations of people, as well to communicate in real time. Hence, it enables people to defying the time-space continuum and communicate in synchronous and asynchronous platforms simultaneously. Facebook Towner and Munoz (2011) have talked about the possibility of using Facebook in teaching and learning. How can teachers and learners connect Facebook with specific educational practices and education related socialization? Writers have mentioned the findings of collected data in 2009 where the college students use Facebook largely for informal learning purposes, such as student-to student interactions about non-required course-related matters. Further more, students also use Facebook for formal learning purposes, such as student-to-student interactions about required course components. On the other hand, students do not like using Facebook for informal or formal teaching purposes, such as teacher-student communication about required course matters that is formally assessed. As a result, students perceive Facebook as more of an informal or formal learning tool and not as a formal teaching device. The findings of the survey also suggested that the teachers are unwilling to adopt Facebook for educational practices where they feel that it is an educational tool better use by students rather than by teachers. Consistent with students’ views, teachers perceive Facebook as a formal learning tool rather than a formal teaching tool. Towner and Munoz (2011) have given some specific recommendation on how teachers should use Facebook as an educational tool. The teachers should create a professional Facebook profile that is conscious of privacy, professionalism, and instructor-student boundaries. This will engage students with the course materials, syllabus, lecture notes and reflective feedback. Podcast Podcasts/vodcasts are audio and/or video files that can be saved in an MP3 file format, and can be downloaded and shared with others over the Internet for playback on computer or personal media devices.
(Beatty, 2010) Podcasting is a way in which a listener may conveniently keep up-to-date with recent audio or video content; vodcasts are video versions of podcasts. Wikipedia defines podcast as a digital media file or a series of files distributed over the Internet using syndication feeds for playback on portable media players and personal computers able to be syndicated, subscribed to, and downloaded automatically when new content is added. Lebow, Lick, Hartman, Dalglish, and Grundmann (2011) have discussed how social annotation products make the thinking of learners “transparent” – visible and easily accessible for sharing with others. The authors have presented their experiences from three instructors who use a social annotation product, HyLighter, to enhance teaching, learning and assessment activities in three different areas of the college curriculum. Dalglish has described how he has used HyLighter to improve students’ and critical review skills. Grundmann has described the application of HyLighter to help students learn about chemical structures and related analytical principles. Hartman has discussed her use of HyLighter to implement an alternative multiple-choice assessment approach in educational and developmental psychology courses. They concluded with thoughts on the potential of social annotation technology to shift the focus of learning systems from content to be learned to what is going on inside the minds of learners. Podcast Other Web 2.0 technologies Through Twitter, also known as micro-blogging, students can communicate with many people around the world, by sending shout messages, at the same time by following celebrity personalities they can be updated. Lehmann and Chamberlin (2011) have talked about the benefits of using Twitter and short messages sent via Twitter and how this can be a very powerful tool for teaching and learning. Educators and their students can use Twitter to tap into an immediately available global network of experts, educators and fellow students interested in educational topics. Students, faculty, and other university personnel including librarians are using Twitter in a wide variety of ways to communicate both inside the classroom and beyond. Skype provides audio-visual form of communication, where learners and teachers can exchange and express opinion. Mobile-device-based social spaces designed to facilitate communication, collaboration and content sharing across networks of contacts. They enable users to connect to friends and colleagues, to send mails and instant messages, to blog, to meet new people and to post personal information profiles, which may comprise blogs, photos, videos, images, audio content. Facebook and MySpace are used for social networking, LinkedIn for professional networking, Second Life for virtual world and Elgg for knowledge accretion and learning. Media-sharing devices these store user-contributed media, and allow users to search for and display content. Examples include YouTube for movies, iTunes for podcasts and vodcasts, Flickr for photos, Slideshare for presentations, DeviantArt for art work and Scribd for documents. And finally Google is a kind of new world students can do anything with this. Edwards and Mosley (2011) have discussed the merits of technology integration and social bookmarking for teachers. Delicious, a social bookmarking tool is introduced as a strong Web 2.0 tool that contributes towards meaningful learning in and out of the classroom. The authors piloted Delicious in seven technology courses with specific instructions for collecting quality education websites with great learning potential. Rhine and Bailey (2011) have discussed some significant barriers to fostering student participation in class which include dynamics related to class size and available time, as well as personal dimensions such as gender, age, and learning preferences. Authors have proposed that the emergence of new forms of social media can help break down those barriers by enabling the collaborative construction of understanding. During graduate and under graduate courses in two different universities, the authors have used a single Google document, open to every class member and they have analyzed these collaborative documents and their uses are described, along with student reports and videos. REASEARCH DESIGN & METHODOLOGY I interviewed ten English Teachers and fifty students from different university of Bangladesh as well as one online survey were conducted for partially students interviewing from February 25 to March 15, 2012 targeted university students on Facebook groups. There were three research questions which guided me to bring out the real scenario of using social media as helping tool in language teaching and learning. Sampling A sample is a subject chosen from a population for investigation. The way samples are selected is called sampling. The present study has followed random sampling while selecting the respondents. In random sampling from 45 private universities in Dhaka city I selected ten universities students only those who had English Foundation course in their academic year. Two types of samples are used for the present study: students, and teachers. Participants For the questionnaire survey, fifty students and ten English language teachers from different private universities of Bangladesh were selected for interview. There were 42 males (65%) and 18 (35%) females. Their academic grades ranged from undergraduate to graduate levels. The participants majored in English, Law, Pharmacy, and Business studies. All the participants were native speakers of Bangladesh and they were enrolled in communicative English courses as a part of their curriculum. Moreover, an online survey was conducted by using facebook page for students interviewing from February 25 to March 15, 2012. Instruments In this study, data was collected through structured questionnaires for students based on different satisfactory level of Likert Scale form strongly disagree to strong agree. To know teachers’ perception about using social media in English language teaching and learning I took face to face interview with a semi structured questioner. Two of the teachers were sent the questioner through email. For the teachers questioner both close and open ended questioner were selected. By using Faebook page part of the survey was taken where I used 14 question based on Likert Scale. Procedures The interview was conducted in English. A mixed method approach (quantitative and qualitative) was used to combine the two types of data (structured questionnaires from students and face to face interview with a semi structured questioner from teachers). The data was analyzed for seeking answers to the research questions and also noting the data that were forming patterns, the results were triangulated with the statistical analysis by using Microsoft Office Excel 2007 Worksheet and in this way the proposed conclusions were drawn. RESULT This study focused on two objectives, one was to gain teachers’ perspectives on the possibilities of using social media in language teaching and learning and the second objective was to obtain students’ perspectives. The achievement of both objectives will help to provide a more thorough picture of finding the result of my research questions. Analysis of Students’ Information I am good at computer I use internet / social network site Using social media helps me in my everyday life
Using social media helps me in intercultural exchange. I believe that by using social media (YouTube, Blog, Podcast, Facebook and etc) I can improve my language skills. I can practice English Language a lot by my own by using internet social network outside of classroom. I believe networking technologies are effective tools for self learning. I use internet almost everyday I use social media because it helps people stay in touch communicate and find information. I write my own blog in English language I download English podcast and listen to them from internet I communicate (chat) with others in English Using social media gives me more freedom and control of my own learning By regularly writing reflective blogs or on FB wall I can understand, generate, and analyze the sentence structures and vocabulary. I use internet / social network site at home or office 2.I use internet / social network site in classroom for teaching language 3.I believe that by using social media (YouTube, Blog, Podcast, Facebook and etc) students can improve their language skills 4.I download English podcast and listen to them for my personal improvement
5.I download English podcast and use them in my classroom 6.I believe that by using social media Students can improve my language skills. 7.I believe that social media promotes learners autonomy. DISCUSSION OF THE FINDINGS Present situation of using social media in Bangladesh Bangladesh Internet Using Statistics In Bangladesh the number of Internet users as in August 2010 is about one million which is only 0.6% of the total population. Though the ratio of Internet users against the population is very low but its significant growth over the last 10 years is remarkable, which is about 500%.
Islam & Ahamed (2011)
Bangladesh Internet Using Statistics Bangladesh Facebook Statistics User age distribution on Facebook in Bangladesh 5.2.1.Teachers’ perceptions about the role of social media A question was set to whether the teachers use internet or social network sites at their home/office where 100% of them agreed that they use social network sites though half of them do not use social network or internet in the classroom. 100% of the teachers believe that by using social media like YouTube, Blog, Podcast, Facebook students can improve their language skills. Almost all the teachers download podcast and listen to them for their personal improvement though half of them do not use them in classroom for teaching their students. The big numbers of participants believe that by using social media students can improve their language skills. 5.2.2.Students’ perceptions about the role of social media One question was set to know whether social media helps them in their everyday life and intercultural exchange or not, where almost half of the students agreed that using social media helps them in their everyday life. More than 50% students believe that using social media like YouTube, blog, podcast and facebook they improve their language skills. From the data it has been found that almost all of the students (87%) are good at computer in figure 1.1. More than half of the students 62% believe that by using social media they can improve their language skills in figure 1.5. The questions were set to know whether social media helps them in their everyday life and intercultural exchange or not. In reply to these questions 76% of the students have agreed and strongly agreed with the statement of using social media help those in intercultural exchange in figure 1.4. From the data it has been found that 88% of students use social network or internet in figure1.2. The question was set to know whether they write their blog in English language or not; the majority 62% being neutral to give their opinion where 23% disagreed with the statement and 15% of the students agreed that they use English language to write their blog in figure 1.10, the majority 62% because they do not use blog or they were not familiar with the blogging. Almost half of the students (47%) opined that they can practice English language a lot by themselves by using social media outside of the classroom in figure 1.6. A question was set to know why students use social media almost all the students (98%) use social because it helps them stay in touch with the people and find information from World Wide Web, in figure 1.9. And almost half of the students believe that social media helps them in their everyday life. From the review of literature and interview the following major uses have been found of web 2.0 technologies: 5.3.The major uses of the web 2.0 technologies •For social interaction
•For downloading podcast
•For collecting information
•For online education
•For literature review
•For sending important and urgent documents
•For learning language
•For branding product
•For searching scholarship
5.3.The major uses of the web 2.0 technologies 5.4.How social media promotes learners’ autonomy As Kumara Vadivelue (2006) says promoting learners’ autonomy is important for L2 acquisition. By using social media students can learn outside the classroom by themselves. With social media students can be engaged with different types of activities which give them more opportunities to practice language. By using SM students can learn outside of classroom and without any help of teachers in a subconscious or unconscious mind where social media is integrated with real life settings. In social media learning language is students’ centered where they will be practicing language in real world environment. 5.5.The possibility of using social media in language teaching and learning in Bangladesh From the literature review, collected data from different sources, the current demographic figures of internet and social media users and significant comments from teachers and students interview have showed the positive result regarding the possibilities of using social media in the context of Bangladesh. Choudhury a teacher talks about integrating social media in a real life settings which is similar to Heizze and Reinhardi (2011), he proposed a students centered approach to teaching and learning by integrating social media (SM) and real life situation. Zia, a teacher uses blog in his classroom as he posts the link of YouTube in the blog and asks his students for watching the video and writing comments on that which is similar to Lina Lee (2011) who used three types of Blogs (personal, class and project blog) in her research project. Choudhury (2012) has used facebook wall in his effective ELT workbook for teaching English language. British Council Report (2012), Access to information: Access to English, has talked about their research work based on 10 Union Porishads in Bangladesh as an initiative of making Digital Bangladesh by Bangladesh Government where they observed the possibilities of using computer and internet for educational and other information access provided by the Government and they found the result positive. BBC Janala the new trend of using mobile phone SMS or internet for learning English is practiced all over the country. The rapid increasing demographic figure of social media users in Bangladesh and the availability of getting internet connection all over the country proved that people specially young generation mostly students who are called digital natives are very much keen on holding this gift of technology. So, it is possible by using social media to connect the teachers with digital natives in a pedagogical way. Which is similar to Stern and Willits (2011), as they have talked about the re-imagined learning technology platform where the change of traditional management system to dynamic platform. If the teachers are well equipped with the new technology (social media) then the new research work will be done to find out the ways of teaching language by using social media as Martine (2011) has discussed the ways to create an interactive and collaborative learning experience for students and faculty. While taking interviews some of the teachers mentioned that social media can be used in a informal setting for teaching and learning language. Some of the ELT practitioners have been using social media since they have done their CALL course as part of ELT degree. It is possible to use social media in Bangladesh in language teaching and learning as Choudhury (2012) has designed his materials for teaching language specially speaking skills based on facebook wall. So, all the teachers are teaching English in medical colleges where they engage their students with social media which has shown the positive attitudes of using social media in language teaching and learning. The summary of literature review, collected data from different sources and the perceptions of teachers and students about using social media in language teaching and learning proved that beliefs and attitudes of educators towards it in the context of Bangladesh are positive and practical. The use of social media will enhance students’ knowledge, understanding and language abilities specific to reading, writing speaking listening and culture. Some of Web 2.0 technologies (facebook, Blogs and podcast) can be used in education especially in language teaching and learning. The use of Web 2.0 technologies will motivate students in language learning. Using social media promotes active engagement of students in the learning process where social media can be integrated with real life settings. Social media helps teachers make changes in teaching from traditional management system to dynamic platform. It creates interactive and collaborative learning environment for students and faculty. Social media promotes learners’ autonomy by maximizing learning opportunities outside of the classroom where learning and teaching language can be students centered and they can practice language through social media in real world environment. Limitations of the Study The general objective of this research was to investigate the position of social media in Bangladesh and the possibility of using it in language teaching and learning. This study has drowned the uses of Web 2.0 technologies on language learning. However, several limitations in the study should be considered like: •The limitation in interpretation and generalization of the findings
•The generalizability within private univirsitis in the Dhaka city
•The length of the interview and the mode used to interview students
•The interview was based on likert scale where participants were bound to answer within the given options
•Online facebook survey does not create a dialogue between the researcher and the participants
•The lengths of the interview with the open ended questions as the business of the participants, details answers have not been collected
Future Research Based on the existing body of knowledge as well as these findings, potential research efforts could include studies designed to measure the effectiveness of specific Web 2.0 tools, specific combinations of Web 2.0 tools and their applications like types of tasks and types of students’ activities might be explored. Further, because this study was limited to some private universities of Bangladesh, future research efforts could include a similar design based in all the universities. To determine the long-term value of Web 2.0 technology enhanced courses and to address issues associated with criterion and predictive validity, future studies might include a longitudinal component, analyzing the relationship between student achievement in Web 2.0 technology enhanced courses and non-Web 2.0 enhanced courses. To diminish threats to external validity and to enhance the potential for generalizability, future studies might involve coordinated research efforts with numerous educational institutions exhibiting similar demographic and institutional characteristics. To enhance internal validity, other researchers might consider revisions in methodology addressing issues of evaluation apprehension, selection bias, and sample size. Future studies may focus on history concerns by isolating differences associated within classes (e.g., faculty, curriculum, and other intervening events) and establishing experimental controls identifying the impact of these events. Conclusion The quantitative and qualitative findings of this study indicate that using social media in language teaching and learning in Bangladesh is a demand of time. Social media has the potential to provide more interactive and customized learning environments where students create knowledge, rather than passively receive information from instructors, interact and collaborate with those who have similar interests globally, and obtain opportunities to learn to become professionals in communities of practice. However, it appears that many teachers and instructors are not using social media to their potentials. Instead of maximizing the benefits of social media, many universities in Bangladesh are creating obstacles or banning them in university lab. The new social network culture encourages students to reuse and remix resources as well as create new knowledge. Students take an active role in learning, rather than passively receiving information from instructors. Instructors should keep in mind that social media itself does not guarantee more effective learning and teaching. Simply adding Web 2.0 tools to our traditional teaching practice cannot realize the potential benefits of Web 2.0. New technologies can help us improve our teaching and learning only when they are used with clear goals and proper methods. Effective use of new technologies requires innovation in teaching methods. Bibliography Aguilar, F. R. (2007). Top of the Pods- In Search of a Podcasting “Podagogy” for Language Learning, Computer Assisted Language Learning,Vol.20, No. 5, P. 472
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It was a wonderful experience, to see how students got better than the teacher in using Web tools for improving their language skills.
Thank you very much