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Anne Frank Annex 2
Transcript of Anne Frank Annex 2
The government controlled all aspects of life through media, education, and propaganda
Institutions like trade unions were all banned, for they were supposedly left wing communist movements.
•Catholics and Protestant priests were sent to concentration camps if they did not conform with Nazi beliefs.
All other political parties eliminated. Every day life Laws of Nazi Germany Adolf Hitler Nazi Party Officials Military leaders Ordinary Germans (Aryans) Jews, Gypsies, diseased, handicapped Focused on gaining children's support
Hitler Youth created to teach the new generation of Nazism and its power and glory.
1936: Over 4 million children in it.
Jews were segregated from other Germans because they were racially impure.
Everyone must conform and form a united body, or else they are sent to "re-education camps". Other exclusion laws Nuremberg Laws Most were directed towards the goal of eliminating Jews and diminishing their rights. Installed on September 15, 1935.
Jewish doctors & law practitioners discriminated against. German Jews were...
defined as people with Jewish grandparents.
prohibited from Reich citizenship.
deprived of all political rights.
not allowed to marry other Germans.
given new middle names that were recognizably Jewish on IDs. 430 in total.
On November 14th, 1936, Roma people, gypsies, and blacks become part of Nuremberg laws.
1937-1938: All Jews must register their homes.
"Aryanizing" of businesses.
Jews must wear yellow stars at all times. Additional Laws Freedom of religion revoked.
Book banning. (Karl Marx, Albert Einstein)
1938: Nazi Weapons Act seeks to disarm German citizens. Primary Government Leaders .
. Dr. Joseph Goebbels Adolf Hitler Heinrich Himmler Martin Bormann Adolf Eichmann Albert Speer Rudolf Hess Leader of all of Germany
Made the swastika the official symbol
Both the Chancellor and the Fuhrer. Field Marshall Erwin Rommel "The propagandist"
His official title was Minister for Popular Enlightenment and Propaganda. Head of Party Chancellery and Secretary of Hitler.
Grew more powerful towards the end of WW11. "Second in Command".
He oversaw the Final Solution, which called for the purging of all Jews in Europe.
Led the SS (Schutzstaffel) , which maintained security.
He created the SD (security service) in 1931. It served as the sole intelligence gathering department.
Developed Gestapo and was a chief policeman. Field Marshall Bernard Montgomery VS. Worked in the Gestapo.
In 1941, he and his accomplices started developing new techniques to kill Jews.
Created concentration camp gassing. In charge of Nazi Germany architecture and ministry of armaments.
In 1943, he played the role of regulating war economy. As a result, in 1944, economic production reached its peak.
Considered the "Good Nazi": went against Hitler's scorched earth policy. Hitler's private secretary
Answered and opened Hitler's mail.
communicated between leader and other organizational groups. On October 23rd 1942, The second Battle of El Alamein began.
This battle was held in the deserts of North Africa
Fought between Montgomery (British) and Rommel (German)
Afrika Korps wanted the Suez Canal, cutting of supplies to the Allies
The British successfully prevented the Afrika Korps from pushing them back
After the second day, the British and Australians had much more tanks than the Germans (900+ to 300)
The victory of the British was a morale-booster for them German Propaganda The Basics •"Nazi Propaganda machine"
•Nazi Propaganda depicted German Utopia as one being racially pure of Jews, who were depicted as diseased and corrupt.
•Expansion = self defense. Dissentors were sent to concentration camps for fictitious crimes.
All aspects of media was utalized - videos depict Hitler as Godlike.
Government failure -> rise of communism
All other political parties were eliminated.
War was glorified.
Directed towards youth especially. The Manhattan Project Propaganda can be considered the main government policy because Hitler swayed many Germans to his side through telling twisted truths.
Propaganda united Germans against common enemies, tricking most into believing that Hitler's beliefs were the only pure, correct ones. Religion Road from freedom to suppression:
1934: Professor Ernst Bergmann forms "German Christianity".
The death of Christ saved people from Jews.
Hitler was the new messiah.
The Concordat, an agreement to protect the rights of the Catholic Church, was soon violated.
Some protestants at Confessing church sent to concentration camps for sedition.
Monks & nuns were accused of smuggling gold, while priests were accused of immorality.
The Night Of Broken Glass Dietrich Bonhoeffer One of the strongest opponents to German Christianity.
Traveled across Germany, preaching in small illegal parishes with his students.
Banned from Berlin in 1938 for outspoken thoughts, but returned after Kristallnacht.
Active member of the Confessing Church
Helped non -Aryan refugees flee the country. In April of 1943, Bonhoeffer and Dohnanyi, one of his co-conspirators, were arrested for money embezzlement.
The Gestapo did not realize the full extent of their work until later.
On April 9, 1945, Bonhoeffer was hanged in the Flossenbürg concentration camp. Government Positions & Practices Fascism cont. Disagreeable Speech & Writings Nazi is an abbreviation from the term Nationalsozialist - the National Socialist German Workers' Party led by Hitler in 1920.
People who opposed the party in Souther Germany used the term Nazi, since Naczi means a foolish or awkward person.
Modelled off of Sozi, the former Socialist Democratic Party. Fascism is a right wing ideology which emphasizes the importance of having an organic community.
Different race levels.
Fascism usually includes genocide, ethnic persecution, and superiority doctrines.
Fascists value their youth, unity, and physical power.
Certain degrees of violent suppression. Fascism In many cases, fascism leads to a totalitarian state.
revolves around unity of people.
Hitler's government was evidently based on fascism:
Superior race: Aryans
Control all aspects of life to create unity.
Purge of the unpure Jews to keep organic community. Importance On October 26 Manhattan Project is given highest wartime priority rating by the War Production Board.
The Manhattan Project was headed by Robert Oppenheimer.
Its purpose was to work on the creation of atomic bombs
Worked on nuclear fission processes Robert Oppenheimer is the second from the left OCTOBER, 1942 November, 1942 Der Führer: Absolute power over party. All others depend on his instruction Operation Torch Reichsleiters: 18 of these. Responsible for certain policies such as labor, press, police, etc. Political leadership corps = enforcers of the law On November 8th Operation Torch begins U.S. invasion of North Africa.
This was the first mission where the British and the US fought together.
Success in El Alamein on November 4th convinced British that they were able to fight Axis in N. Africa.
Goal was to fight from Sicily to North Africa and go to the “soft underbelly” of Europe, they wanted to use the Mediterranian Sea as a passage there. Parteimitglieder: ordinary member. No political power, but often part of other nazi groups such as SS. Reason and Purpose Other Events
Rassenpolitisches Amt der NSDAP (RPA): oversaw creation of propaganda
Außenpolitische Amt der NSDAP (APA): office of foreign affairs.
Wehrpolitisches Amt der NSDAP (WPA): office of colonial policy. Plans for taking back former German colonies
Wehrpolitisches Amt der NSDAP (WPA): military policy.
Amt Rosenberg (ARo): cultural policy and surveillance. Interests Going through North Africa to get to South Europe NSDAP - Nationalist Socialist German Workers' Party On November 4th, the Germans began to retreat from El Alamein.
Robert Oppenheimer was appointed the leader of the Los Alamos, New Mexico bomb facility on November 16th.
The Soviets began their counter offensive against the Germans at Stalingrad. Anne enjoys literature, books of all genres and languages
La Belle Nivernaise (French)
Joop ter Heul (Cissy van Marxvedlt)
Anne also enjoys shorthand and Greek/Roman mythology Paramilitary Groups Schutzstaffel (SS): Fuhrer’s body guard, protection squadron, carried out holocaust
Sturmabteilung (SA): protection for Nazi Rallies, got rid of opposers
Nationalsozialistisches Fliegerkorps (NSFK): airforce
Nationalsozialistisches Kraftfahrerkorps (NSKK): motor corp December, 1942 Inspirations Anne aspires to be the opposite of her mother
Where her mother is meek and passive, Anne hopes to be outspoken and firm
Because Anne feels closer to her father, Anne strives to be similar to him
War events insipire Anne to improve herself and it also sparks a feeling of gratitude On December 17th, Anthony Eden reports on mass executions of Jews by Nazis in the House of Commons.
Anthony Eden was the British foreign minister
Talked about the atrocities happening.
Jews of ghettos taken to concentration camps. Anthony Eden's Report Anthony Eden January, 1943 Other Events On January 10th Soviets began offensive against Germans in Stalingrad.
On January 23rd U.S. troops take Tripoli, this is one of the key parts in Operation Torch. Warsaw Ghetto Uprising On January 18 Jews in the Warsaw Ghetto begin uprising.
During mid-1942, 300,000 Jews were deported or murdered.
Jews with pistols fought back allowing the others to flee while the Germans were disoriented. February, 1943 On February 1st Field Marshall Paulus surrenders to Soviet forces in Stalingrad.
U.S. and German forces begin Battle of the Kasserine Pass in Tunisia on February 14th, one of the many parts of Operation Torch.
Construction begins at Oak Ridge, Tennessee, on uranium enrichment facility on February 18th. Events March, 1943 On March 1st, processed food rationing began in the U.S.
March 16th was the climax of the Battle of the Atlantic; 27 merchant ships sunk by U-boats in one week. Events Frustrations The Nazis burned and banned books that went against their beliefs.
Albert Einstein, Ernest Hemingway, Karl Marx, Helen Keller, etc
May 10, 1933: Over 20,000 volumes were burned by stormtroopers and and university students.
Some authors fled the country Anne's main frustration is her struggle to please her family.
When Anne flippe through Margot's book, both her mother and her father took Margot's side over her's, without even understanding the reason for conflict
Anne is extremely upset thather father treats Margot better than he treats her. Anne's one desire is for her father to love her for herself Fears Anne often describes the horrible fate of her friends, fearing that one day it may be her fate as well
Anne wonders if being gassed is the quickest way to die because she fears a painful death
Anne was terrified when a carpenter almost discovered the secret annex Anne Frank Life in the Annex Blending Critical Matters with Everyday Life Miep informs Anne of the happenings outside the annex
Deaths of friends
The radio also informs them about the war
Anne is constantly aware of the horrors that ensure outside her annex
This generates a gloomy ambience in the annex which affects Anne's life and and actions
Critical matters and everyday life = intertwined Ordinary? Anne Frank definitely has the troubles of an ordinary girl.
Desire to please adults
Awkward transitional stage between childhood and adulthood
Her diary writing shows her more profound side
She has deeper ideas that are unattainable by girls her age of a more petty nature. Annex Events Involving Anne The events that have the greatest influence on Anne are personal squabbles
An argument between her parents led to Anne telling her father she was more fond of him than she was of her mother
When her parents took Margot's side over hers in a petty conflict, Anne felt completely unloved by her father
Sharing a room with Dussel completely changed her opinion on him. Annex Rules Rest Hours: 10:00 p.m. - 7:30 a.m., or 10:15 a.m. on Sundays
Meals: Breakfast 9:00 a.m., lunch 1:15 p.m., Dinner depends on news broadcast
Residents must help with office work
Bathtub available from 9:00 a.m. on Sundays
Alcohol only with doctor's prescription
Speak softly at all times and only civilized languages may be spoken, so no German. Relationships Family Others At times, it seems as though Anne's relationship with her family and her relationship with the other annex members are both strained and unpleasant.
Anne still has a fundamental love for her family, so she still tries to seek the best in them.
Because Anne's commentary on the others is generally negative, it's logical to use pseudonyms. Relationships At times, it seems as though Anne's relationship with her family and her relationship with the other annex residents are both strained and unpleasant
What differentiates these relationships is that Anne always tries to seek the good in her family, and has a true affection for them.
Because Anne's commentary on ther others in the annex is mostly negative, it is logical for her to use pseudonyms Anne's relationship with Margot constantly changes. Anne does not envy her, but dislikes that her parents take Margot's side all the time. However, Anne and Margot are close enough to confide in each other since they share their diaries. Anne's relationship with her mother is unpleasant because Anne and Edith are rather incompatible. While Anne is lively and outspoken, her mother is meek and passive. However, Anne still strives to find the good qualities in her mother that she can't find in herself. Anne has a true affection for her father. Her one desire is for this affection to be returned. Anne is greatly pained by the fact that her father doesn't even notice that he treats Anne differently from how he treats Margot. At first, Anne thought that Dussel was a pleasant person. She was told that he was loving and good with children. However, after living with him for a few days, she quickly discovered that he was strict, old fashioned, and often gave lectures. She felt as though she could not escape from his irritating presence. Mrs. Van Daan seems to be even more irritating than her mother. Anne feels as though she is immature and dramatic. However, Anne is still considerably polite to her. Anne Frank's relationship with Mr. Van Daan. is neutral. They do not interact very often, Anne thinks that Peter is rather slow witted and incapable, but the two do not often communicate, so Anne does not quite dislike him either. Special Issues in the Annex On the way up to the Annex, Mr. Koophuis' sack of beans suddenly split open and thousands of beans burst out.
This could have alerted anyone downstairs. Thankfully, no one was
The annex members used too much electricity, so they had to occupy themselves without light.
Both Mr. Frank and Mr. Van Daan fell sick. All annex members worried. Events Outside the Annex The constant banging of guns outside is a grim reminder of the war outside.
Miep alerts the annex residents of any news she finds regarding their friends, and this is a source of great sorrow.
A burgalry resulted in Mrs. Van Daan wake everyone up in the night whenever she heard a small noise.
A carpenter was working near the annex while the residents were not expecting him. The prospect of getting discovered was horrifying.
A barrel fell over in the warehouse, and the sound of unexpected footsteps resulted in utter terror. The men went out to make sure there were no intruders. General Tone The tone of this section is optimistic
Anne always tries to seek to positive side
When she finds none, she uses the negative aspects of the situation as motivation for self improvement
Anne feels that living in the annex is more positive than negative
Anne understands that she is very fortunate to have a hiding place, for she knows that without one, the gestapo is sure to get her, Quiz Questions:
1. What is Anne’s main frustration?
2. Describe the incident with Margot's book.
3. Who is Anne's favorite author?
4. Name three types of people who were in the lowest class of Nazi Germany.
5. Who was the main propagandist for Hitler's regime?
6. What was the Night of Broken Glass and how is it relate to the level of religious freedom Germans had?
7. Describe the event that demonstrated how Nazis dealt with disagreeable writings.
8. What are the names of the two generals who fought against each other in the battle of El Alamein?
9. When did the Warsaw Ghetto uprising take place?
10. What happened in the US on March 1st? International Analysis Quiz Answers:
1. Anne wants to be accepted by her family.
2.When Margot got angry because Anne flipped through her book, both of their parents took Margot's side.
3.Cissy Van Marxvedlt
4. Jews, Gypsies, Romas, Poles,Handicapped, and Diseased people.
5. Dr. Joseph Goebbels
6. The Night of Broken Glass took place on 9-10 November, 1938 in Berlin. 520 synagogues were savagely burned down, which shows how there was no religious freedom.
7. Over 20,000 volumes of Jewish works or writings from well known authors were burned by storm troopers and university students on May 10th, 1933.
8. Bernard Montegomery and Erwin Rommel (both field marshalls)
9. January 18th, 1943.
10. Processed food rationing began.