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The Galileo Affair
Transcript of The Galileo Affair
Galileo Galilei Galileo`s Discoveries The 'Affair' The Trial As of Now Sources By Elizabeth Jones Galileo was Born on
February 15 1564 in Pisa Italy His father was Vincenzo Galilei who was a musician by profession. His mother was Giulia degli Ammannati.
Galileo was the eldest of six children.
In 1572 when Galileo was 8 his family moved to Florence. Galileo remained in Pisa for two years more before joining them in Florence. http://galileo.rice.edu/bio/index.html
http://www-history.mcs.st-and.ac.uk/Biographies/Galileo.html Early Life Schooling When his parents thought he was old enough Galileo was sent to school at the Camaldolese Monastery in Vallombrosa. Galileo liked that simple life of a monk and Enrolled as a novice intending to join the order. He did not join as his father called him back to Florence shortly after finding out. His father wished for Galileo to become a Physician.
Galileo was then sent to a School in Florence (Which was also run by Camaldolese monks) to continue his education. Galileo then returned to Pisa and at the urging of his father enrolled to earn a medical degree at the University at Pisa.
Then one day Galileo sat in on a lecture about mathematics and convinced his Dad to let him study mathematics instead of medicine. Career
Galileo began teaching mathematics in Florence and then Accepted a job as the Chair of Mathematics at the University of Pisa. A year later Galileo moved to the University of Padua to teach Geometry. While there he invents his "Geometric and military Compass" made up of two folding Rulers with scales. Pictures
blogs.nature.com (Geometric and military Compass)
en.wikipedia.org (Portrait of Galileo Galilei) Information: Websites Information: Books
Galileo The Genius Who faced the Inquisition, Philip Steele, national Geographic Galileo`s Geometric and military Compass Family Life
During one of his many Travels Galileo met Marina Gamba. Together they had 3 Children though they never married. 2 girls by the names of Virginia and Livia and the boy was named Vincenzio after Galileo`s father.
Being illegitimate the Girls were considered to be unmarriageable. As i was common for illegitimate girls, Virginia and Livia became Nuns at the Convent of San Matteo at Arcetri becoming Sister Maria Celeste and Sister Arcangela respectively. Galileo Would stay in contact with Virginia until April 1634 when she died. In 1609 Galileo received a letter from one of his friends who wrote about a spyglass that had been shown in Venice. Later after reading reports and using his own technical skills Galileo was able to improve the design of the spyglass getting ranges up to 4 times and farther on his Telescope.
As part of the creation of his telescope Galileo had to learn how to grind and polish his own lenses. Sometime in 1609 Galileo turned his telescope toward the sky. He started observations with looking at the moon. He found that the surface of the Moon was not smooth as was common belief but had mountains and craters. "In about two months he made more discoveries that changed the world before or since"
said Noel M. Swerdlow in 1998 In watching Jupiter Galileo noticed 4 of its moons which he named after the Gand Duke Cosimo II of Tuscany. These moons became known as the "Medicean Stars". With this discovery Galileo is appointed as Chief Mathematician and Philosopher of the Medici court. In his observations of Venus Galileo saw that Venus went through phases just like the Moon.
This meant that Contrary to the Platonic view that was held by the Church in that the Earth was the at the Center and everything revolved Around the earth.
Venus actually went around the Sun! This helped in proving the Copernicus Theory Copernicus Theory Summery
"1. There is no one center of all the celestial circles or spheres.
2. The center of the earth is not the center of the universe, but only of gravity and of the lunar sphere.
3. All the spheres revolve about the sun as their mid-point, and therefore the sun is the center of the universe.
4. The ratio of the earth's distance from the sun to the height of the firmament (outermost celestial sphere containing the stars) is so much smaller than the ratio of the earth's radius to its distance from the sun that the distance from the earth to the sun is imperceptible in comparison with the height of the firmament.
5. Whatever motion appears in the firmament arises not from any motion of the firmament, but from the earth's motion. The earth together with its circumjacent elements performs a complete rotation on its fixed poles in a daily motion, while the firmament and highest heaven abide unchanged.
6. What appear to us as motions of the sun arise not from its motion but from the motion of the earth and our sphere, with which we revolve about the sun like any other planet. The earth has, then, more than one motion.
7. The apparent retrograde and direct motion of the planets arises not from their motion but from the earth's. The motion of the earth alone, therefore, suffices to explain so many apparent inequalities in the heavens
(Summery as seen on http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nicolaus_Copernicus) Galileo wrote a book Called 'the Starry Messenger" in which he wrote about his discoveries of Jupiter's 'stars', the Moon, Saturn, and Venus to name a few. Galileo was a devoted Christian and didn't wish to contradict the Church belief as it was dangerous to do so. He wrote to mother of Cosimo II explaining that the Church should Consider, and went to Rome to convince The Church officials that the idea of Heliocentric system was something to consider Come February 1616 the Pope asked a a Panel of Cardinals to investigate the Ideas of Coperincus. They decided that the ideas of Copernicus were against the ideas of the Church and Galileo Was told not to spread the ideas as facts. Galileo's book " The Dialogue of two world systems" is a conversation between 3 people a Copernican scientist Salviati, scholar named Sagredo, Simplicio who displays the ideas and beliefs of the Church. The Pope wished his opinion to be in the book and it ended up being in the mouth of Simplicio. This was seen as Mockery of the Pope. Galileo was Tried by the Inquisition and was convicted of Hersey. He was also placed under House arrest for the remainder of his life. As well "Galileo's Dialogue" was banned and added to the Church's list of Banned books. Galileo died January 8 1642
and was buried in a side room of the Basilica of Santa Croce in Florence because of the Pope and his nephew who was a Cardinal, protested at him being buried in the main body of the Basilica. In 1737 Galileo was moved from the side Room of the Basilica of Santa Croce and reburied in the main body of the Basilica. Galileo's Dialogue of two world Systems remained Banned until 1835 In 1992 Pope John Paul II admitted that mistakes had been made in Galileo's Trial and formally Closed the Case. 3 Key Points Galileo was a inventor, Mathematician, Astronomer, writer and a scientist
Galileo Disproved the Church's World view of an earth centered universe. Proving that instead the view of a Sun Centered universe
Galileo was eventually pardoned after more than 300 years. Videos:
YouTube- Galileo's Battle for the Heavens,