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Psychology Unit 3: Area of Study 1: Mind, Brain and Body

For Mallacoota P-12 College V.C.E. Psychology Unit 4 & 4 students
by Simon Berry on 15 March 2015

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Transcript of Psychology Unit 3: Area of Study 1: Mind, Brain and Body

Psychology Unit 3: The conscious self: Area of Study 1: Mind, Brain and Body
States Of Consciousness
is the awareness of objects and events in the external world and of our own existance and mental experiences at any given moment.
Within our consciousness we develop a send of self - a personal identity thought which we experience the world.
Simon ---> New person every millisecond, explain
Consciousness is:
- Personal (subjective)....
provide example
- Selective....
provide example
provide example
- Changing....
provide example

Pg 95 L.A. 2.1 - As class 3 minutes
Our level of awareness changes.
For example you take in more when you are alert than when sleeping.

Explain: 1 Billion bits per second. We attend to around 15.

state of consciousness
(or level of awareness) of our internal state and external environment determines how much we take in and respond to.
Fg 2.3 pg 96 - on board in in books.

L.A. 2.2 pg 98

Class/Home Learning
pg 98 L.A. 2.3 Qns 1, 3, Ext 4,5
Consciousness is:
- Not all or nothing
- Times when we taken in lots of info vs almost none
- No concrete boundaries where one level starts and ends
- Is a continuum (like a river)
- Many states with different levels of attention

- Difficult to distinguish b/w states. However psychologists agree that there are two types....NWC and ASC
Normal Waking Consciousness (NWC)
- awake, aware of thoughts, feelings, sensations.
- described as constantly changing
- like a river, constantly changing

Altered States of Consciousness (ASC)
- any state different from NWC

There are generally held different qualities that distinguish b/w NWC and ASC.
level of awareness
content of consciousness
controlled / automatic processes (on tasks)
perceptual experiences
cognitive abilities
emotional awareness
self control
experience of time
Normal Waking Consciousness (NWC)
Altered States of Consciousness (ASC) - VCAA
eference: Grivas, J., Letch, N., Down, R., & Carter, L. (2010). Psychology: VCE Units 3 & 4, (4th Ed.) Melbourne: MacMillian Education.

Produced for Mallacoota P-12 College V.C.E Unit 3 & 4 students who have purchased the above book

Normal waking concsiousness (NWC)
refers to the states of consciousness associated with being
- awake and aware of our thoughts, memories, feelings and the sensations we are experiencing from the outside.
It is also fluid and changing - much like a river
However despite this changing experience of consciousness our perceptions and thoughts continue to be organised and clear, we remain aware of our personal identity (who we are).
Levels of awareness
Look at fg 2.6 pg 101 again -
Generally those in the top half are NWC.

In NWC we perceive the world as real, have a familiar sense of time and place.
We continually shift between different states of consciousness, and awareness within NWC.

Researchers use our Attention as a measure of awareness.
Attention is defined as: a concentration of mental activity that involves focusing on specific stimuli while ignoring others.

Write down an example of attention.

Researchers distinguish between
selective attention and divided attention.
Attention can be focused external (sights, sounds etc.) or internal (thoughts or feelings).

List 3 examples of external and internal attention.
Selective attention
involves selectively attending to certain stimuli while ignoring others.

This points to the fact our attention is limited
- what do you think that means?

People often notice very little of the information that is not attended to (Milliken & others, 1996)
Selective Attention
Divided Attention
If a stimulus is
personally relevant
(or important) we are more likely to take notice of it.

Party example....

This is commonly known as the cocktail party phenomenon (Wood & Cowan, 1995)

Can you think of an example?
Our attention is also attracted by

changes in stimulus
novel stimulus
(new or unusual)

In class example

Can you think of an example?
As we begin to move down the consciousness continuum, the level of attention required is not as focused or selective.

Driving - radio, Driving - how did i get here
Divided attention

to our ability to distribute our attention and undertake two or more activities simultaneously.

What limitations could be put on divided attention?
In fact, driving a car alone causes our focus to be split between several different things at once; one must always be aware of their speed, their surroundings, and the condition of their car.
Our ability to divide our attention depends on how much conscious effort is required for the various task in which we are engaged (Damos, 1992)

Research indicates that our perceptual systems (vision, hearing, touch etc) can handle some divided attention tasks as long as they are NOT complex and do not demand considerable mental effort.

List a task that may not be able to be completed successfully with divided attention?

List a task that can be completed successfully with divided attnetion (not discussed already)
Read pg 107 bottom para..starting with...In one experiment Duncan (1993).....

Limits of attention
has become and important research area
Content Limitations -
Controlled Processes
Generally content (or info) held in NWC - is more limited/restricted that ASC.
- We
what enters our attention

(in NWC) through selective attention.

- We can also block our awareness of info that makes us feel embarrassed, sad ect.

- Logical and organised

States of consciousness that demand a high level of attention (or concentration)
Controlled processes tend to be
: meaning only one activity requiring controlled processes can be preformed at a time.

Were our example serial?
Automated Processed
- requires little conscious awareness and mental effort, minimal attention and does not interfere with the performance of other activities.

Unlike controlled, automated processes tend to be
....that means two or more process can operate at the same time.
Stroop effect Experiment - in class
Class Discussion/Home Learning Stroop Effect\

Construct a research report with the following:
- Operational IV and DV
- Operational Hypothesis
- Research method used
- Sample and allocation method used
- Summary of data
- Limitations: CV / EV
- Conclusion
- Generalisation
In class experiment pg 105
The term
Altered state of consciousness (ASC)
s used to describe any state that is distinctly different from NWC.
(it is different in terms of level of awareness, experience, and quality of intensity of sensations
In an ASC mental processing or perceptions of yourself and the world may change, normal inhibitions or self-control may weaken (Martindale, 1981)
Some ASC
occur naturally
(daydreaming, sleep, dreaming) others are
purposely induced
(meditation, hypnosis, alcohol, medications or illegal drugs
Distortions of perception and cognition
Time Orientation
Changes in emotional awareness
Changes in self control
Alcohol-induced state
Methods to study level of alertness in NWC (VCAA)
Heart Rate
Body Temperature
Galvanic Skin Response
Concepts of of NWC and ASC
An ASC seems to have two effects on the senses.
- more receptive to external stimuli
- dulls them to such an extent that some sensations are not felt at all.

Perceptions are often so distorted in an ASC that people may lose their identity (who they are).

Example: Dress up party vs Rabbit man GBH
Cognitive functioning also becomes impaired during an ASC. Thoughts are often more disorganized, especially during sleep.

Who has had a dream that has made no sense?
NWC / ASC - Revision
Cognitive impairment
- Thinking is often illogical and lacking sequence.
France snow example
- Problem solving is difficult.
Police sobriety test
- Trouble remembering
Where am I (after smashing your head)
Cognitive impairment disappears when the person returns to NWC.
In an ASC the perception of time is often distorted.

Appearing to move faster or slower in different ASCs.

Nap example - Wow I was out for 30 minutes.
ASCs appear to sometimes put an individuals feelings into a state of turmoil resulting in uncharacteristic responses.

Unpredictable emotional responses are often associated with ASC.

- Can be more emotional
- Can be emotionless

Example - Aggression/crying while intoxicated
Changes in our ability to manage self-control are often evident in ASC's.

Less self control:
- Trouble walking when under the influence of drugs.

- Hypnotic people are more open to suggestion.

But ASC have also allowed
some people greater self control
....hypnosis to give up smoking.
Daydreaming is an altered state of consciousness in which we shift our attention from external stimuli to internal thoughts, feelings and imagined scenarios.

The shift in consciousness occurs naturally often without the individual being aware of it
Research suggests that daydreaming is more likely to occur when were are stationary (maybe b/c our active behaviour and directed attention are turned off) (Pope & Singer, 1980)

It is also more likely to occur when we are tired, waiting to fall asleep, board.

It appears that consciousness may become bored by the lack of stimuli in the environment and turn inwards.
Day dreams are also, when measured on an EEG (Electroencephalograph - measures eye movements) different to night dreams. Daydreams are less connected and unrelated that night dreams.
Freud believed we daydream to allow us to fulfill our desires.

Singer (1975) proposes daydreaming enables us to mentally try out a range of plans that could be applied to situations.

Schachter (1976) suggests that daydreaming allows us to problem solve.

Others state it is our brains attempt to stay mentally alert when there is not enough external stimuli.
Alcohol is considered to be a psycoactive drug (which are chemicals that change conscious awareness, perceptions or mods.
Alcohol is considered a depressant, it lessens inhibitions (by depressing centers of the brain) responsible for judgement and self-control. Hockenbury (2006).
Effects of Alcohol on consciousness depend on a wide range of variables. Amount consumed, weight, amount of food in stomach, environment you are in, drinking history
Effects of alcohol on the consciousness are many and varied.
- shorted attention span - impaired thinking
- impaired perceptions - impaired memory
- slower r/time - reduced self-awareness
- impaired emotional awareness and control
- impaired perception of time
- less self control - difficulties with voluntary muscle control and fine movements
- deterioration in performance of complex tasks
pg 114 tbl 2.3 read

pg 114 L.A. 2.13 Q 2 discuss in pairs.

Measuring consciousness is difficult as it is a hypothetical construct (it is believed to exist, but can not be directly observed or measured).

Much of what we know about consciousness is inferred or assumed based on what the individual reports, their behaviour and their physiological changes.

Various devices are used to measure physiological responses and different patterns of responses are associated with different states of consciousness.
EEG Measures: Electrical activity of the brain

Brain wave patterns as shown in an EEG recordings c
an vary in frequency (
the number of waves per second). High frequency is faster, with more brain waves per unit of time; while low frequency is slower with fewer brain waves per unit of time.

ain waves can also vary in amplitude (
the size of the waves), this is judged on the size of the peaks and troughs. High amplitude waves have bigger peaks, and low amplitude brain waves have smaller peaks.
Changes in heart rate are associated with different states of consciousness.
In some ASCs heart rate increases, while in others it decreases.

Measured using a electrocardiograph
Body temperature is less variable than heart rate; however, a pattern has been identified.

ody temperature will drop by more than 1C when person is asleep.
Beta waves: Have a high frequency (fast) and low amplitude (small). They are associated with normal waking consciousness and focused attention.

Alpha waves: Have a high frequency (but slower than beta waves) and a low amplitude (but larger than beta waves). They are associated with a relaxed, wakeful or meditative state.

Theta waves: Have a medium frequency (slower than alpha and beta) and a mixture of high and low amplitude. They are associated with early stages of sleep.

Delta waves: have the highest frequency and amplitude. They are associated with the deepest stages of sleep.
Physiological response that measures the electricalconductivity of the skin.

More sweat, decreases electrical resistance, increasing electrical conductivity. More sweat can be caused by increased emotional arousal.
pg 116 L.A. 2.14 In class.
Class/Home learning
pg 118 Q3, 4 Ext Q1,2
pg 111 L.A. 2.11
Q5 as a class
Home/Class Q1, Q4, Ext Q3

pg 114 L.A. 2.12
Home/Class Q1, 2 Ext 3
Night time is dangerous for humans
Being inactive during this time aids our survival as we are less likely to be eaten! Arrrrr

Sleep evolved to enhance survival of organisms by making it inactive in the most dangerous time.

One criticism of the survival theory is that is does not account for why we loose consciousness during sleep.
Biological factors
– rhythms – regulate when we sleep and wake through the release of hormones that make us tired.

Our sleep-wake cycle is called a
circadian rhythm

When melatonin is released (due to darkness) we begin to feel sleepy.

When it stops releasing (due to light) we begin to wake up
Sleep pattern shifts
During adolescence your sleep-wake cycle is shifted by around 2 hrs.

Delayed onset of sleep (by about 1-2 hours)
- It has
biological reasons
(melatonin being released 2 hours later)
- It has
psychological reasons
(late parties/gaming

This Causes:
-Delayed you to want to sleep later, and sleep longer in the morning.

SLEEP-Wake Cycle Shift in Adolescence
Characteristics and patterns of Sleep
The sleep Scientist at Work
Polysomnography - detailed monitoring and recording of physiological responses during sleep
Read Box 3.1 pg 131
Studying Sleep - Sleep Labs
Sleep deprivation means going without sleep
partial or total loss
of sleep
May occur during one night or for several nights.
Varies from one individual to another

Longest anyone known to have gone without sleep is 11 days – suffered severe psychological effects during deprivation, hallucinated and deluded

Two types of sleep deprivation studies (regular - all sleep) and REM sleep deprivation
Total and Partial Sleep Deprivation
Non Rapid Eye Movement sleep
Yay sleep, that’s where I’m a viking!
Sleep – one of the most common ASC
REM = Alpha
4 = Delta
3 = Theta / Delta
2 = Theta/Spindles
/K complex
1 = Alpha/Theta
Rapid Eye Movement Sleep
Pg 133. Sleep Diary. The best way to learn about sleep is to do it!!!
Is a device used to ditect, amplify and record the electrical activity of muscles.

Fg. 3.3 Analysis and write 2 points about it
EMG Measures: Electrical activity of the muscles.

Used to detect, amplfy and record the electrical activity in muscles generated during sleep.

Important characteristics:
- Movement / Tension
EOG Measures: eye movements/eye position pf eye.

Used to detect, amplfy and record the electrical activity in eye muscles that control eye movement.

Important characteristics:
- help identify two different types of sleep. Rapid eye movement (REM and Non-rapid eye movement (NREM)
Electro-ocular gram
Is a device for measuring eye movements or eye positions by detecting, amplifying and recording electrical activity in eye muscles that control movement
Mnemonic device EEG, EMG, EOG
Heart rate and core body temp

Both gradually drop as we progressively drift from lighter sleep to deep sleep, then gradually increase from lighter sleep to deeper sleep.

HR for trained athlete can drop below 30
Physiological Responses
Self Report - Sleep diaries
Video Monitoring
Self reports are commonly use to study sleep. The most common is a sleep diary.

Sleep diary: records individuals sleep and waking time over weeks.

look at F.g. 3.8 again pg 131
Our own sleep diary due 1 week.
Mindmap - All we know about sleep
....ways to study sleep
...types of sleep
Sleep labs often are fitted with video monitoring.

The cameras can record, sound, temperature, in little or no light.

Video monitoring is particularly important for patients (or participants) with serious sleep disorders.
Characteristics: Dosing, falling asleep, hypnic jerks -spasm, losing awareness, easily disturbed.
5 – 10 mins
Moving from alpha to theta waves
Freq: medium Amp: Mix of High/Low
Phys changes: Decreases in HR, RespR, Temp, Muscle Tension

Learning Activities
pg 133. L.A. 3.1
Q 1-2
Extensions 5, 6
In class 5 (?)
Open to pg 139 fg 3.14. Discuss
Class discussion
pg 144 L.A. 3.3

pg 143 L.A. 3.2
Q1 (important see pg 139) Q2,3,4
If you are on a 26 hr sleep cycle and you wake at 7pm what time will your body want to go to sleep??
What about the next night (do for one week)
Sleep provides us time out to help us recover physiologically and psychologically from activities when awake.
There is NO one on earth that never sleeps.
There are two main theories about why we sleep.
Restorative and Survival.
Partial sleep deprivation (or debt) can occur over a period of time. It accumulates.....

What do you think that means?

Psychologists can use human participants and believe most ppl underestimate the effects of partial sleep loss over a prolonged period.

Research findings show that 30% of road accidents occur when drivers fall asleep.

Can be overcome with a few good nights sleep.
Physiological Response
Psychological Response
- Deterioration of cognitive functioning
- Memory processes imparied
- short term memory inpaired
- Slower reaction times
- impaired motor skills
- lack of energy
Total sleep deprivation due to ethical reasons (which are...?) are commonly preformed on animals.

It is the absence (due to the experimenter manipulation) of sleep.

Rechtschaffen (1989) deprived rats of sleep, they could not maintain a constant body temperature and died! Autopsy's showed that their immune systems failed resulting in blood poising.

Humans have been studied (but of their own choice) so psychologists have used
convenience sampling.
Randy Gardner held the record of 11 days. He experienced debilitating psychological and physiological effects...but there was no long lasting effects. He slept for 15 hrs on the first sleep and 12 on the second and 10.5 on the 3rd. Follow up studies have shown he suffered no long term harmful effects.
Physiological Response
Psychological Response
- Sever motor coordination
- no energy
- body temp drops
- heart rate slows
- lack energy and strength
- inability to focus eyes
- Along with the other symptoms (partial)
- Hallucinations
- paraniod
- delusions
25 hr sleep-wake cycle (circadian rhythm)
(sleep-wake cycle shift
for adolescents is 26)
Monday to bed 9 pm
+ 26
Tue to bed 11pm
Wed to bed 1am
Thur to bed 3am
Friday to bed 5am
What are you going to do on Sat?

What can you do...trick your brain box 3.5 pg 147
REM rebound
Involves the catching up on REM sleep immediately following a period of lost REM sleep when next asleep.

PYs are sick...wake ppl up every time they enter REM. No real ill effects. But when allowed to sleep normally they spend more time in REM..catching up.

Graph it
Complete Box 3.10 pg 158 in class discuss

Pg 159 L.A. 3.9
Q1, 3, 4, 6
Ext 3,5
Is a period of very short period of drowsiness or sleeping that occurs when the person is actually awake.

What EEG brain wave patterns might you see?
The EEG resembles the early stages of sleep.
After the Micro sleep the person usually has no recollection.
Various research studies on sleep deprivation have found that we do not need to fully compensate for the lost hours, we can make it up by getting a few extra hours over the next few nights.
The homunculus man
After the accident Phineas suffered severe personality changes
Became impulsive, aggressive, disorganised
Could not continue his work as foreman
Appeared for a time at Barnum's American Museum in New York
February 1860, Gage had the first in a series of increasingly severe convulsions
died in or near San Francisco on May 21 — just under twelve years after his accident

Gage’s case along with others suggest the frontal lobes important role in emotion and personality, planning and initiative
Phineas gage – frontal lobe damage
Damage to Broca’s area (usually stroke)
- A person has difficulty speaking although they can understand speech
- Non-fluent aphasia (whats that)

non-fluent speech (short sentences, typically 3-4 words, mainly verbs & nouns).
People with Broca’s aphasia are usually aware and have an understanding of their condition

Left hemisphere only

Deaf people with damage to Broca’s area have difficulty producing sign language.
Broca’s aphasia
Motor and Sensory Cortex organisation
The Central Nervous System

Receives information from photoreceptors in eye. This is where our visual reality is formed

Located at botton and back of Occipital lobe.

Left half of each eye receives info from the right visual field. Left half of each eye send to the left hemisphere

Right half of each eye receives info from left visual field. Right half of each eye sends to the right hemisphere

Draw on board.
The temporal Lobe as a drummer?
Wernicke's aphasia
- damage to wernick's area (usually stroke)
- a person has considerable difficulty comprehending speech and speaking in a meaningful way.
- Fluent aphasia

Difficulty comprehending speech
Difficulty speaking in a meaningful way
Speech is fluent but nonsense.

Have little or no awareness or understanding of their condition
They do not know that they are making now sense!!

Left Hemisphere only
Wernicke’s aphasia
Only in the left hemisphere

Is involved in speech production

- has a crucial role in the comprehension of speech - specifically interpreting human speech

Interprets the sounds of human speech
Locates appropriate words from memory to express meaning

Until the information has passed through Wernicke's area it can not be understood

Vital for not just understanding words but locating appropriate words from memory.
Wernicke’s area
Different types – mostly experienced with visual sense but can occur with hearing, touch, movement

If they acknowledge a stimulus on their neglected side they will claim it came from the other side

Can affect recall of images from memory; however it does not involve memory impairment

Can show a gradual recovery in some cases

Thought to be caused by failure of cortical arousal associated with the activities of the thalamus & reticular activating system
- but no one really knows
Attentional disorder where individuals fail to notice anything either on their left or right side
- behave as if that side of their reality does not exist.

Most common in stroke or accident victims with

to the
rear parietal lobe of the right hemisphere
- what is that lobe responsible for?

(Can sometimes occur with similar damage to the left hemisphere, but it’s less common)

Where ever the damage is L/R the opposite side of the world tends to be ignored.

They are NOT aware there is an issue with their perception.
parietal lobe characteristics:
receives and processes sensory information (inside and outside body
called primary somatosensory cortex
Association areas

September 13, 1848, 25-year-old Railway foreman
Packing gun powder into a hole with a steel pole to blow up rock
Sparks from the pole ignite the gun powder and send the pole under gage’s cheek and out the top of his head

Before the accident he was well liked, organised, calm and polite
Phineas gage – frontal lobe damage
The frontal Lobe as a car?
Only in the left hemisphere responsible for:

Production of articulate speech
Coordinates movements of muscles required for speech.
Why is it next to the primary motor cortex?

Understanding of grammatical structure in order to extract meaning that depends on that grammatical structure
Broca’s area
Responsible for voluntary muscle movement

Controls voluntary muscle movement

The greatest area on the cortex is devoted to the most sensitive areas (tongue, jaw lips)

Left hemisphere sends messages to right side of body and right hemisphere sends messages to left side of body
Primary motor cortex
 The largest of the 4 lobes. Characteristics:
Primary motor cortex – movement
Broca’s area speech production
Association areas
The frontal Lobe
Structure and function: different parts of the brain control different functions.
Four Lobes of the Cerebral Cortex
Convoluted outer covering of the cerebral hemispheres

Surface area approximately 0.25m2

2-4mm thick

3 broad categories
Sensory cortex areas (receives & processes info about senses)
Motor cortex areas (receives, processes & sends info about voluntarily body movements)
Association cortex areas – integrate sensory, motor & other info

Divided into cortical lobes
Size of cerebral cortex is linked to intellectual ability
(between species)
Characteristics of the cerebral cortex
The Occipital Lobe
Mediation of fear

Seizures involving the amygdala involve intense fear
Damage leaves a person unable to learn a fear response through classical conditioning

Involved in remembering the emotional significance of an event

Damage leaves us unable to judge emotional component of facial expressions in others
– i.e. angry person perceived as calm or even happy

Memory formation – not memory storage

Damage leaves patient unable to form new long term memories
Deep within the temporal lobe- the amygdala
The temporal lobe Characteristics:
is primarily involved in with auditory perception
important role in memory (with hypocampus)
facial recgonition
emotional responses
Association Functions
The temporal Lobe
Motor and Sensory Cortex organisation
The Parietal lobe
The Occipital Lobe as an eye?
The Peripheral Nervous System
Two Great Revision web sites
Studies on cognitive processes of the brain
Bigger brains are smarter brains (only between species, sorry big heads don’t mean your smart!)

You only use about 10% of your brain

Sleep aids memory formation

You can grow new brain cells

Bad diets can cause brain damage

Thinking bad things can make you sick

You can be brain dead but remain alive

The brain is the most complex structure in the known universe

There is a you part of the brain – a bit that controls the rest

The brain is partly made of fat

No two nerve cells in your brain actually touch

Your brain uses electricity to think

Depression is a physiological disease
Each hemisphere of the cortex can be divided further into 4 lobes
(Frontal, Parietal, Occipital, Temporal)
FPOT (put the F*&%ing POT on)

These lobes are also responsible for specific behaviours
, i.e. the frontal lobes control emotional behaviour, planning etc.

These Lobes also receive and processes information from a particular sense.
Occipital lobes = visual information,
Temporal lobes= Auditory (sound)
Parietal lobes= somatosensory (body and skin)
Frontal lobes. This lobe is involved in initiating movement of the body
The Lobes of the cortex
The cerebral cortex is made up of two separate but linked hemispheres (halves)

Each hemisphere (left or right) is responsible for movement and sensation in the opposite side of the body.

Each hemisphere is also involved in specific functions i.e. the left side controls our ability to use and understand language

The two hemispheres are linked by a bundle of nerves (neurons) called the Corpus Callosum
The hemispheres of the Cerebral Cortex
The brain is the
control center
for all human behaviour, without understanding our brains and nervous systems we can never fully understand behaviour.

Some scientists argue that all human behaviour can be traced to biological functioning.

Our Brains are our most important organ, they make us who we are.

The bigger an organisms


cortex the more intelligent it seems to be – this is NOT true within species! E.g. Einstien

Learning and Memory involve physical changes in your brain! You will be different by the end of the lesson!
Adult brain weighs about 1.5kg
It has the consistency of jelly
If spread out flat it would cover about 6 pages of the age newspaper
You are born with all of the nerve cells you will ever have, about 100 billion
Your brain grows connections between nerve cells, making your brain more dense
Every single brain cell can form connections with around 10,000 other nerve cells
The Human Brain: Get a feel for it….
Bigger brains are smarter brains

You only use about 10% of your brain

Sleep aids memory formation

You can grow new brain cells

Bad diets can cause brain damage

Thinking bad things can make you sick

You can be brain dead but remain alive

The brain is the most complex structure in the known universe

There is a you part of the brain – a bit that controls the rest

The brain is partly made of fat

No two nerve cells in your brain actually touch

Your brain uses electricity to think

Depression is a physiological disease
Brain Myths Hit or shit?
These lobes cover both the left and right hemispheres – Note that
hemispheric specialization still stands (eg. Left hemisphere predominately involved in language)

Left frontal lobe – speech production – motor movement in frontal lobe
Left temporal lobe – speech comprehension – auditory info in temporal
The Lobes of the cortex
The Lobes of the cortex- Sketch
The corpus Callosum
The hemispheres of the Cerebral Cortex
More Highly Evolved?
Humans – the best brain...for us
Left controls Right

Right controls Left

No one knows why so don’t ask!

This diagram is from the back

Note sexy yellow budgie smugglers
The Cross over….
Hemispheric Specialisation
The soma or cell body
is the structure that determines whether the neuron will be activated and thus transmit (send) messages to other neurons.

A dendrite
(from the Greek work meaning 'tree') is a short, thin, widely branching nerve fibre that is specialised to detect and receive neural information.

An axon
is a single, tube like, fluid-filled extension that transmits messages from the soma to other cells in the body including other neurons, muscles, organs and glands. Encased in a white fatty substance that helps speed un transmission called myelin sheath.

At the end of each axon are branches called
axon terminals.
Each axon terminal has a small knob-like swelling at the tip of it called a terminal button / synaptic knob

synaptic knob
is a small structure like a sac that stores chemicals called neurotransmitters which assist in the transmission neural information from one neuron to another
100 billion neurons
10,000 connections for each neuron
The gap between neurons is called the synapse.

 When the neural impulse reaches the end of each axon, the terminal buttons
releases chemicals called neurotransmitters

A neurotransmitter is a chemical substance that is manufactured by the neuron. It contains ions that travel across the synapse to the receptors on the dendrites of the receiving neuron

Sometime the neurotransmitter triggers or activates a neural impulse on the connecting neuron. At other times, the neurotransmitter inhibits or prevents the connecting neuron from firing

When the neurotransmitter has done its job it is either taken back by the terminal buttons or disposed off.
Synaptic transmission
A neuron is a cell that sends and receives information in the form of neural impulses (neural impulses are tiny pulses of electro chemical energy)

Sensory and motor neurons do not share the same tracts to and from the brain, they follow separate but adjacent paths

Sensory (feeling) neurons – afferent
Motor (Moving) neurons – efferent
Interneurons – connecting (enable the spinal reflex, sensory communicate with motor)
Neurons –building blocks of the Nervous System
The spinal cord is the cable like colum of nerve fibers that extends from the back of the brain to the lower back.

- Encased by the vertebrae bones
- is the super highway for all information / messages
- Transmission occurs through neural (never) tracks
- coming to (afferent - sensory neurons/pathways)
leaving (efferent - motor neurons/pathway)
Links the Brain to the PNS
Left – work Right –play
Cell body (soma)
Axon Terminals
Terminal Buttons
The Parts of a Neuron
An Action Potential
Spinal Cord:
Connections and Neurons

Human Nervous System
The human nervous system is a complex combination of neurons. It enables us to gather information from
the body.
It has two major divisions.
The Central Nervous System (CNS)
and the
Peripheral Nervous System (PSN).
The CNS has two main parts.
The brain
(organises, intergrates and interprets information) and
the spinal cord
(connects the brain to the PNS)
There are 3 main areas/categories of cortical functioning.
Sensory Cortex areas
Motor Cortex areas
and association cortex areas

What do you think these each do?
Sensory Cortex areas: Responsible for receiving and processing information from our senses.

Motor Cortex areas: receives, processes and sends information about voluntary bodily movements.

Association cortex areas: integrate sensory, motor and other information (involved in complex mental abilities, such as thinking and problem solving)
Learning Activities 4.1 pg 173
Q1ab, 2, 3
Ext 4,6 L.A. 4.2 Q4
In class pg 177 fg 4.10, 4.11, 4.12, 4.14
- In you Notes
Located at front of the parietal lobe next to the primary motor cortex:
Receives info from senses (touch, pressure, temp)
Information about muscle movement
Position of limbs
Greatest area of the cortex devoted to the most sensitive areas (face muscles etc)
Left Hem recieves info from right body, Right Hem recieves info from left
Primary somatosensory cortex
Phantoms in the brain
In class sketch pg 181 fg 4.16 and 4.17 into your notes
Why is it all wrinkled?
By wrinkling itself it can create more surface area. When spread out the cerebral cortex would cover 7 text books (open)
PAC in each lobe receives & processes sound from BOTH ears

Each PAC has specialist areas that receive and process features of sound
Frequency (pitch)
Amplitude/Intensity (loudness)

Verbal sounds mostly left hemisphere
Non verbal (music) mostly right

Deep within temporal lobe (MEDIAL TEMPORAL LOBE) two important structures
Crutcial roles in memory formation. If damaged memory issues.
Primary auditory cortex
Sketch pg 184/5 fg4.20, 4.21, 4.22
Learning Activity 4.13 pg 200
In class Q5, 6
In books Q1,2, ext 3, 4
The man who lost his body
Occipital Lobes Characteristics:
Almost exclusively devoted to the sense of Vision.
Damage can produce blindness even if they eyes and neural connections to the brain are normal.
Major area is the primary visual cortex.

Primary visual cortex
Sketch fg 4.26 pg 187
Association areas
Are just if not more important....
Association areas function to produce a meaningful perceptual experience of the world, enable us to interact effectively, and support abstract thinking and language.

parietal, temporal, and occipital lobes - all located in the posterior part of the cortex - organize sensory information into a coherent perceptual model of our environment centered on our body image.
frontal lobe or prefrontal association complex is involved in planning actions and movement, as well as abstract thought
Read pg 199 Box 4.7
Frontal Lobe Case study
In class
L.A. 4.5 pg 182
Read box 4.3 on pg 185
Learning Activities
Balloon Time!

LA 4.7 pg 190
Class discussion Q3
Q1 Ext 2
The earliest evidence for Hemispheric Specialisation came from observations of people who had strokes affecting one hemisphere but not the other
Left Hemisphere
Right Hemisphere
LH behavioral functions:
receives sensory input from the right side of body
controls voluntary movements for the right side
controls the internal organs (involuntary movements) on the right
RH behavioral functions:

recieves sensory input from the left side of body,
controls voluntary movements for the left side
controls the internal organs (involuntary movements) on the left
In class pg 192 LA 4.9
Class Discussion Q3
Q2 (in note books)
If you find this interesting you should look at pg 193-5, completing LA 4.11 with family.
SAC and Exam:
- Broca's Aphasia
- Wernicke's Aphasia
- Spatial Neglect
- Split brain studies
Split-brain studies
Revision Activity
Early split brain research by Michael Gazzaniga
Split brain surgeries involves surgically cutting the corpus callosum (and other nerves connecting the hemispheres)

The effect is that the two hemispheres do not directly communicate (share information)
Sperry and Gazzaniga tested the functioning of each hemisphere independently of the other in split-brain patients.

The results - blocks the interhemispheric transfer of perceptual, sensory, motor, gnostic and other forms of information in a dramatic way.

This allowed Gazzaniga and Sperry to gain insights into hemispheric differences as well as the mechanisms through which the two hemispheres interact
Initially with cats then monkeys then humans

The procedure worked well as a "cure" for patients who suffered from severe epilepsy and did not respond to anti-epileptic drugs.

It was soon discovered that patients who had a commissurotomy had some interesting difficulties.

Patients were not able to communicate information from one hemisphere to the other, almost as though they now
had two separate brains.
Sperry also argued that just b.c the CC was severed didn't mean there were two brains. He argued the combined (using other cues) to create consciousness.
Research methods
ethical principles
associated with the study of the brain and states of consciousness, as outlined in the introduction to the unit.

Ethical principles and research methods in brain research
In class pg 263 LA 4.31 Study 2
UN home learning
pg 262 L.A. 4.3 Q1, 2
- SAC 2 weeks. Prep and Plan
- 2 Public holidays coming up - use well
Frontal Lobotomy
Autonomic function – sympathetic and parasympathetic
Connected to internal organs, not consciously controlled. Keeps us alive – automatically.

Sympathetic branch
controls arousal, fight or flight response / fires us up. Release of adrenaline, heart up, breathing up etc.

calms back down, keeps at stable level. Digestion resting etc.
The word
soma means body!

Motor information from the brain. Voluntary movement

Sensory information to the brain. Sense data from skin, body etc.

Afferent (nerves/pathways)– to the brain
Efferent (nerves/pathways)– from the brain

S.A.M.E. – sensory nerves are afferent, motor nerves are efferent
The Somatic Branch
Central NS is includes the brain and the spine
Peripheral NS includes everything outside of the CNS!!!!!
It is sympathetic arousal!
In response to a real or imagined threat
Physical or psychological danger
Sympathetic: Fight or Flight
Question 1: Identify the two divisions of the peripheral nervous system.

Question 2: Which neuron carries information to the CNS?

Question 3: Which division of the peripheral nervous system is responsible for transferring sensory information to the brain?

Question 4: Identify the technique used to control involuntary bodily functions generally regulated by the autonomic nervous system.

Question 5: Does the parasympathetic nervous system control activity of the body’s organs immediately or gradually?

Question 6: Which division of the autonomic nervous system is responsible for goosebumps?

Question 7: What is the name of the balanced state of normal bodily functioning?
Quick quiz - Write the answers
Autonomic nervous system
Some of these autonomic responses can be controlled voluntarily, others with the help of

This involves using information about internal bodily activity to exert control over that process.

Describe the process of learning the biofeedback technique.
How could biofeedback be beneficial?
Use the image to fill in the gaps:

In this situation, the ___________ nervous system would be activated. This would _______ the activity of your visceral muscles. This might mean that your pupils _____, heart rate __________, and your adrenal glands ________ hormone secretion.
Sympathetic vs. parasympathetic
Sympathetic nervous system immediately increases the activity of visceral muscles, organs and glands at times of vigorous activity, stress or threat.
Parasympathetic nervous system gradually decreases activity of visceral muscles, organs and glands once the threat has been eliminated. It aims to maintain a balanced state of the body called homeostasis.
Divisions of the ANS
Use the image to fill in the gaps:

In this situation, the ______________ nervous system would be dominant. This would ________ the activity of your visceral muscles, maintaining a state of ___________. This might mean that your saliva glands _______ salivation, sweat glands ________ perspiration and your adrenal glands _____ hormone secretion.
Sympathetic vs. parasympathetic
The peripheral nervous system (PNS) consists of the nerves and ganglia
outside of the brain and spinal cord.

The main function of the PNS is to connect the central nervous system (CNS) to the limbs and organs.

2 main functions:
to carry information to the CNS
(internal/external enviornment, sensory organs
(afferent pathways)
to carry information from the CNS
to muscles, organis, clands
(efferent pathways)

The peripheral nervous system is divided into the
somatic nervous system and the autonomic nervous system.
The somatic nervous system, also carrys sensory information TO the CNS along sensory pathways
- is a network of nerves that connects the CSN to the bodies internal organs (such as the heart, stomach liver, and glands (adrenal and salivary).

It is 'automonous' b/c many of the features are not usually under voluntary control.
Learning Activity pg 5.3
Ext 2,4
Question 1: Identify the two divisions of the peripheral nervous system.
Answer: Somatic and autonomic.
Question 2: Which neuron carries information to the CNS?
Answer: The sensory neuron.
Question 3: Which division of the peripheral nervous system is responsible for transferring sensory information to the brain?
Answer: The autonomic nervous system.
Question 4: Identify the technique used to control involuntary bodily functions generally regulated by the autonomic nervous system.
Answer: Biofeedback.
Question 5: Does the parasympathetic nervous system control activity of the body’s organs immediately or gradually?
Answer: Gradually.
Question 6: Which division of the autonomic nervous system is responsible for goosebumps?
Answer: The sympathetic nervous system.
Question 7: What is the name of the balanced state of normal bodily functioning?
Answer: Homeostasis.
The parasympathetic NS is the system that dominated most of the time. It is involved in everyday functioning.

It brings us back down..slowely
Learning Activity 5.6 pg 228
- As a group
- we don't have the same control therefore the content of our consciousness is not as limited (eg...crying when drinking)

- Cant block out painful memories

- non sensical, illogical, disorgansed (eg dreaming eating a pee)
What are some examples of controlled processes?
Controlled processes
- conscious
- alert awareness
- mental effort
- effects performance of other tasks
What are some examples of automatic processes?

Is there a way your earlier example of controlled precess could become automated?
Automatic processes
- little conscious awareness
- minimum attention
- little mental effort
- Doesn't effect performance of other tasks
pg 106 Learning Activity 2.6 Class discussion
LA 2.7 fill in books (or write in)
pg 106 Learning Activity 2.5
Q 1, 3, 4a Ext 2, 4bc, 5
ASC Characteristics vary b/w ppl but have common characteristics
perceptual and cognitive distortions...
distorted sense of time...
change in emotional awareness...
Change in self control...
T/F Chapter Test in class
Chapter 2 test - Results due in one week.

Exam Questions
Question 1
Which one of the following is most likely to have the highest level of awareness?
A. dreaming
B. daydreaming
C. performing controlled processes
D. performing automatic processes
Question 5
The galvanic skin response (GSR) measures the
A. temperature of a person’s skin.
B. electrical conductivity of a person’s skin.
C. perspiration produced by a person’s skin.
D. perspiration and temperature of a person’s skin.
1) a0 b1
5) a1
c7 d7
Question 7 (4 marks)
Hannah was baking a cake for the first time. While waiting for the cake to cook, Hannah was daydreaming and accidentally burnt the cake.

Identify and explain two characteristics of daydreaming that may have contributed to the burning of Hannah’s cake.
Question 7
 Hannah would have had reduced awareness of the passage of time and thought that less time had passed than was really the case, therefore allowing the cake to overcook.

 Hannah may have reduced sensory awareness and may not have noticed the smell of the burning cake.

This question was well answered.

A common error was due to misreading of the question; Hannah was ‘waiting for the cake to cook’, thus responses referring to weighing or mixing ingredients were incorrect.
EEG Measures: Electrical activity of the brain

Used to detect, amplfy and record the electrical activity spontaneously generated by the brain during sleep and dreaming.

Important characteristics:
- Amplitute / Frequency
Responses Observed:
Change in body position
amount of tossing/turning
what happend when waking from night terror
responses with sleepwalking
Records kept of:
time when trying to fall asleep
time when sleep onset occured (belief)
number/length of waking up
time awake in morning
Two types
NREM: Non rapid movement sleep
REM: Rapid eye movement sleep
Characteristics (must know)
4 stages: NREM 1,2,3,4 (70/90mins)...
....then REM (5th stage)
Unique brain wave pattern for each stage
In full cycle of NREM and REM lsat for 80/120 mins.
4/5 Full cycles per night
Brain Waves
80% of our sleep
More NREM in 1st half of night than 2nd
PYs think NREM helps body recover, repair, remove waste, replenish neurotransmitters
eg Marathon runners
Use EEGs measuring brain waves to determine what stage (1-4) ppl in
Distinguised in terms of
FREQUENCY p/s (how squigly/straight)
AMPLITUTE (how high/low)

Start with Alert - to - Resting
Freq: High Amplitude: small
NREM - Stage 1
NREM - Stage 2
Characteristics: Truly asleep, less easily disturbed,
10-20 mins
Mainly Theta waves
Bursts of Sleep spindles (Higher Freq/Amp) and K complexes (Low Freq, High Amp)
Freq: medium-lower Amp: med/Higher
Phys changes: Continued decreases in HR, Temp, Muscle Tension, less movement

NREM - Stage 3
Characteristics: moderately deep sleep, less responsive to outside world, difficult to wake, when woken groggy
10 mins
Theta and Delta waves 20-50% of time
Freq: lower Amp: Higher
Phys changes: Continued decreases in HR, Temp,
Delta waves mark start of SLS (slow wave sleep)

NREM - Stage 4
Characteristics: Deepest sleep, very hard to wake, take up to 10 minutes to wake up
20 mins...then less each cycle
Delta waves dominate (over 50%)
Freq: lowest Amp: Highest
Phys changes: Lowest HR, Temp, Muscle Tension, almost no movement
Maybe no 3/4 stage towards the morning
When sleep walking/terrors occur (with 3 as well)

Characteristics: Rapid eye movement, when dreaming usually occurs 80%, sleeper paralysis - why,
5 – 10 mins
Brain waves irregular. - like Beta (which is same as awake)
Freq: relatively high Amp: low
Phys changes: Faster HR, RespR, Temp, BUT very low Muscle Tension
Called Paradoxial sleep. Brain adn Body active, but externally appears calm
Gets longer toward morning
Thought to assist memory formation

REM Sleep
Class Posters..L.A. 3.4 one each group
Time spent in REM/NREM is highly variable b/w ppl

REM changes occur across the lifespan.

newborn 16hrs total sleep 50% REM
infants 1-13 total sleep 25-30% rem
children/adolescence 9 hrs total sleep 20% REM
Adulthood total sleep 7hrs
At 90 stage 3/4 of sleep rarely experienced.
Our society doesn't account for this.

Need for sleep: Teenagers require about 9-10 hours of sleep. Due to the sleep wake cycle shift and society you do not get this.

You create a sleep debt – this compounds like a fine you haven't payed – it gets bigger and bigger!!!!
e.g. 90mins of missed sleep Mon to Fri leads to 7.5hrs.

As a result you try to catch up on the weekend! But then you go to bed later and compound the problem!

Research shows that less than 8 hours has a negative impact on cognitive function (learning and memory).
Physiological Review
Adolescence Vs Old ppl
Pg 152.
L.A. 3.6 as a class

L.A. 3.5
Q1, 2, 3a
Ext 3b,c 4a,b
Evidence For
- go to sleep tired
- people wake up feeling refreshed.
- people sleep longer when sick.

Physiological and Psychological purpose
Recovery from physical and mental exertion
Repair damaged cells
Replenish energy stores
Detox muscles
Memory formation

Eg Marathon running
Purpose of Sleep
Restorative functions of NREM and REM
NREM and REM have different restoring effects
NREM thought to be responsible for:
- restoring and repairing the body
- repair, growth of tissues occur during stage 3 and 4
REM thought to be responsible for:
- restoring the brain
- solidifying new memories
- more REM for babies/fetuses..thought to be linked to brain development
-provides excercise to groups of neurons that form circuits (important for memory, if they don't communicate the link will be lost)

Evidence for based on b'hav patterns and sleep-wake cycles of different species
Only limited evidence for either theory
Pg 164. L.A. 3.13
Q1a,b c 2a

T/F Chapter Test in class
Chapter 4 test - Results due in one week.

Exam Questions
Roles and Functions of Cerebral Cortex
The Cerebral cortex is involved with information processing activities such as:
Executive functioning (thinking, problem solving)
Sensorimotor functioning (sensation and voluntary movement)
Association Areas
In the front of the lobe (prefrontal cortex):
recieve/combine information from all other lobes
allow the preformance of complex mental functions
Other Association areas are involved in
control/expression of emotions

The frontal love has an executive function:
end point for a lot of neural tracks
coordinated other lobes
determines a lot of b'hav responses.
Class discussion L.A. 4.4 pg 178
Receive/Combine information from within lobe and other structures of brain.
Spatial reasoning (primarily in the right hemisphere)
- Enables us to sense the position of our body in space
spatial reasoning
Association areas
Play a role in:
- Memory (including linking emotions with memory)
- Perception (Object identification, Facial recognition)
- Different types of Long Term Memory
Semantic (facts)
Procedural (how to do things)
Episodic (life history)
Association areas:
Tying it all together

Interact with the Primary Visual cortex to:
Visual information

Interact with association areas in the frontal, parietal, and temporal (also with other information - memory, language, sounds)
Association areas:
Secondary Visual Areas
Specialised to respond to different features of visual information arriving there:
- Orientation
- Direction
- Edges
- Shapes
- Colour
- Motion
Sketch fg 4.27 pg 187
in your notes
LH cognitive functions:

(use and recgonition of words - Brocca's and Wernicka's)
Analytical functioning (breaking down ideas into parts - logical reasoning).

RH cognitive function:
Non verbal functions (spatial and visual thinking eg Jigzaw puzzle),
recognising faces (facial cues - non verbal language
locations of objects
music, artwork,
creative thinking,
2 Major Functions
Receive sensory information from the body
via the PNS
sending to the brain
ascending neural pathways for
somatosensory info
afferent pathways/neurons
(afferent means towards)
Send information from the brain to relevant parts of body
via the PNS
sending from the brain
descending neural pathways for
motor info
efferent pathways/neurons
(afferent means exit - from brain)
Spinal Reflex
Spinal Damage
When damaged sensory and motor information is lost

How bad depends on how high the damage occurs
Spinal cord can initiate simple responses

Called reflex or reflex arcs

Involuntary / occur automatically to certain stimuli

Eg. Hot plate
Learning Activities pg 197
Q1, 2a
Ext 2b,c 3
Studies of Aphasia
Aphasia refers to a language disorder apparent in speech/writing/reading (comprehension or production)
due to damage to brain areas specialized in these functions
fluent aphasia (speech fluent but diff in comprehension)
nonfluent aphasia - (difficulty speaking but comprehension relatively good)

Spatial Neglect
Learning Activity 4.14 pg 204
Ext 3,4
Sperry and Gazzaniga's study
Normal Brain
- Participants with objects flashed on the right visual field (so left hemisphere) could name they object.

- Participants with objects flashed onto the left visual field (so right hemisphere) could not name the object but could reach and identify it with their left hand.
Learning Activities pg 4.16 pg 208
In Class Q4
In Books Q1, 6a,b
Ext 3, 5,
Key Questions (what category do they belong to):
- Is the researcher demonstrating a genuine commitment to the research because of its potential value in advancing?
- Does the research respect the dignity of the child?
- What risks of harm could arise in the proposed research?

Clearly, brain research raises many important ethical questions
Learning Activity 5.1 pg 222
Ext 2,3,4
Learning Activity 4.5 pg 225
As a class
Learning Activity 5.5 pg 228
Q1, 2a, 3a
Ext 2bc, 3b, 4
Exam Questions
Revision on the go
Andrew Scott
a. Explain why there is a difference in the average response times for the right and left visual fields for
groups 1 and 2.
- 3 marks
b. What do the results of this research indicate about hemispheric specialisation and the processing of
verbal and non-verbal information?
- 2 marks
Exam Questions
T/F Chapter Test in class
Chapter 4 test - Results due MONDAY
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