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The Six Stages That Led to the Holocaust
Transcript of The Six Stages That Led to the Holocaust
Stage 3: Emigration
Jews are encouraged to leave Germany. With the beginning of World War II in 1939, the Nazis apply their racial laws to the countries they invade and occupy. Thus, Jews in these territories also tried to emigrate outside of the Third Reich.
Steps 5 and 6: The Final Solution
Deportation and Mass Murder
Stage 1. Definition
Jews are defined as "other" through legalized discrimination.
categorizing people into fixed categories based on (supposed) bloodlines
The Nuremberg laws defined who was a Jew and who was not a Jew.
Cartoons, books, movies, and posters portrayed Jews as different from (and inferior to) their Aryan neighbors.
Step 2: Isolation
Once individuals are labeled as Jews, they are separated from mainstream society.
Jews were not allowed to do the following:
attend German schools or universities
go to public parks or movie theaters
join the Hitler Youth Movement (which all Germans were obliged to join)
Jews were excluded through social practices
Many Germans stopped associating or "being friends with" Jews.
Jews and non-Jewish Germans were not allowed to join the same clubs
Jews were excluded through the economy
Jews were excluded from civil service
Jewish businesses were taken over by Germans
Jewish doctors had their licenses taken away
Why do we sometimes label groups as "other" or different from ourselves?
Why do we sometimes segregate or isolate groups that we label different from ourselves?
How did the Nazis encourage Jews to leave Germany and other occupied countries?
Many Jews such as artists and academics left Germany when they were no longer allowed to work in the universities.
Through discriminatory laws:
Jews were allowed to obtain exit visas so long as they left behind their valuables and property
Through new immigration
Kristallnacht (or the "Night of Broken glass") was a series of organized attacks on Jewish synagogues, buildings, and stores.
This encouraged many Jews to leave the area.
Stage 4: Ghettoization
Jews are forcibly removed to segregated sections of Eastern European cities called ghettos.
Ghettos were walled off areas of a city where Jews were forced to live
Jews were not allowed to leave their ghetto without permission from Nazi officials
Non-Jews were not allowed into the ghettos
Conditions in the ghettos were crowded and filthy
Many families were forced to share one small apartment.
There was limited access to proper waste disposal
Jews had to give up property and valuables
Food was scarce
What are some reasons why many Germans allowed their Jewish neighbors to live in the Ghettos?
Why do we sometimes allow those who we think are "different" to be treated unfairly?
Jews are transported from ghettos to concentrations camps and death camps.
The Nazis built the first concentration camp in 1933.
At first, they detained opponents of the Nazi party.
Later, they built more camps where they could imprison "enemies of the state" such as Jews, Gypsies, and homosexuals.
Many concentration camps functioned as labor camps--inmates worked until they starved or died of disease
Death camps, also called "extermination camps," were designed for the purpose of killing large numbers of people in the most efficient way possible.
Because these camps were located away from major cities, victims had to be transported by train (or cattle car.)
Most rides lasted several days.
Thousands of people died en route to camp.
It is estimated that the Nazis murdered approximately 11 million innocent civilians during World War II.
The Nazis and those who worked with them killed children, women, and men.
Methods of Mass Murder
People were killed through shooting, suffocation in gas chambers, and imprisonment in labor and death camps.
Conditions in the camps were such that many prisoners died from disease, such as Typhus, malnutrition, or overwork.
Two-thirds of the entire Jewish population was killed by Nazis
How did the choices made by ordinary people contribute to the deaths of millions of innocent children, women, and men? What could have prevented these crimes from taking place?