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Araneae - spiders

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ingi agnarsson

on 7 October 2015

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Transcript of Araneae - spiders

Spiders
(Order Araneae)

Synapomorphies:

Abdominal appendages modified as spinnerets

Silk glands and associated spigots

Cheliceral venom glands

Male pedipalpal tarsi modified as secondary sexual organs


Loss of abdominal segments (all possible sister taxa are segmented)
Araneae
> 43,000 species, estimates exceed 100,000
~400 myo
Produce silk - up to 7 types of silk produced by adult females

Nearly all are predators - a few species feed on plants

Most have venom (~350 uloborids don’t)

~ 200 are potentially dangerous
Spider facts…
More spider facts…
Although most have 8 eyes, they have poor eyesight (a few exceptions)

Very sensitive to vibrations

Digestion is internal and external
Many spiders secrete digestive fluids that liquefy their prey
Spiders consume only liquid food
Mygalomorphae (tarantulas, trapdoor spiders, etc.)
Opisthothelae
Araneomorphae (most spiders; orb weavers, jumping spiders, etc.)
Mesothelae
Suborders:

Mesothelae
Mygalomorphae
Araneomorphae
Major Groups w/in Araneae
Single family: Liphistiidae

Only spider with external signs of segmentation

Tube-dwellers; sit and wait predators; construct rudimentary trap doors

89 species - rarely seen

0.25% of spider diversity
Mesothelae
Mygalomorphae (tarantulas, trapdoor spiders, etc.)
Opisthothelae
Araneomorphae (most spiders; orb weavers, jumping spiders, etc.)
Mesothelae
Suborders:

Mesothelae
Mygalomorphae
Araneomorphae
Major Groups w/in Araneae
Mygalomorphae
~1,000 species

Have 4 or 6 spinnerets
Theraphosa blondi – lgst spider by leg span (150g; leg-span of up to 12 inches)
LARGE siders




Earth tigers; bird-eating spiders; barking spiders; whistling
Tarantulas and relatives
Mygalomorphae (tarantulas, trapdoor spiders, etc.)
Opisthothelae
Araneomorphae (most spiders; orb weavers, jumping spiders, etc.)
Mesothelae
Suborders:

Mesothelae
Mygalomorphae
Araneomorphae
Major Groups w/in Araneae
20 – 25 species (out of 43,000 spider species) spread across 9 families
Anelosimus eximius forms colonies of up to 50,000 individuals
Social Spiders
“fish” for moths out of the air

Swing a line of silk with a sticky blob at the tip

Mimic the pheromones of moths
Bolas Spiders
unusual Araneidae spiders

Fling a sheet of web at passing prey
DEINOPIDAE
Ogre-faced Spiders

Makes a cob-web aimed at 'pedestrian prey'

As we'll hear about later, females typically eat males during mating
Cobweb spiders - Theridiidae

Also called nursery web spiders

Can catch tadpoles, minnows, etc. out of the water

Spontaneous male death!!!
Fishing Spiders
40,000 species
Araneae: Spiders
Sticky spiral
Scanning electron micrograph showing spider spinnerets
Sticky silk
Male and Female Spiders
Female pedipalp
Male pedipalp
Epigynum
Male pedipalp
Female
Male
Spider Venom
Spider Evolution: Mesothelae
Orb Weavers & relatives
Proportion of Spider Diversity: 0.25%
Segmented Abdomen
Endemic to East Asia
“RTA-clade”
“Primitive” Araneomorphs
Araneomorphae
Mygalomorphae
Araneae
Mesothelae
Spider Evolution: Mygalomorphae
Proportion of Spider Diversity: 6%
Parallel fangs
Four book lungs
Tarantulas, Baboon Spiders, Trapdoor Spiders, Sidney Funnel Web
Araneomorphae
Mygalomorphae
Araneae
Mesothelae
Proportion of Spider Diversity: 93%
Opposing fangs
Cribellum (repeatedly lost)
Usually Two book lungs
Typical spiders
Araneomorphae
Mesothelae and Mygalomorphae
Spider Evolution: Araneomorphae
Orb Weavers & relatives
“RTA-clade”
“Primitive” Araneomorphs
Araneomorphae
Mygalomorphae
Araneae
Mesothelae
Loxosceles, the brown recluse spider
Spider Evolution: Araneomorphae
Orb Weavers & relatives
Proportion of Spider Diversity: 8%
“RTA-clade”

HAPLOGYNAE
Araneomorphae
Mygalomorphae
Araneae
Mesothelae
Ecribellate Spider
Cribellate Spider
Nephilidae
Uloboridae
Mysmenidae
Deinopidae
Araneidae
Spider Evolution: Orbiculariae
Orb Weavers & relatives
Proportion of Spider Diversity: 29%
Evolution of orb web
Orb web repeatedly modified
“RTA-clade”
“Primitive” Araneomorphs
Araneomorphae
Mygalomorphae
Araneae
Mesothelae
Cribellate Silk
Ecribellate Silk
CO
Spider Evolution: Araneomorphae
Orb Weavers & relatives
Proportion of Spider Diversity: 93%
Opposing fangs
Cribellum (repeatedly lost)
Usually Two book lungs
Typical spiders
“RTA-clade”
“Primitive” Araneomorphs
Araneomorphae
Mygalomorphae
Araneae
Mesothelae
What does your doctor (really) know?
Numerous spiders, and other arachnids, misidentified as brown recluse by doctors and pest control
Reported cases of brown recluse envenomation common in areas where the spiders do NOT occur
Brown recluse found (rarely) in 31 counties in Georgia. Nearly 1000 bites reported from >100 counties
Know your Brown Recluse (Loxosceles)
Orb-Web Construction
Theridiidae
Widow Spiders
Kleptoparasitic spiders
RTA
Orb Weavers & relatives
Proportion of Spider Diversity: 54%
Web building and web-less hunters
Some with good vision
“RTA-clade”
“Primitive” Araneomorphs
Araneomorphae
Mygalomorphae
Araneae
Mesothelae
Wolf spiders: Lycosidae
Heteropodidae
Crab spiders (Thomisidae) - Huntsman spiders (Sparassidae)
Thomisidae
Portia
Physical adhesion, enhanced by capillary forces of an extremely thin water film on substrate
Ventral surface of each hair splits into thousands of fine cuticular extensions (“end feet”); looks like broom

Scopula hairs allow massive amount of contact points between leg and surface
Scopulae – dense tufts of hair
Cupiennius – can hold 10x body weight on vertical glass
Other arthropods are the most common prey
But other prey includes
Fish
Frogs
Lizards
Snakes
Birds
Mammals
Etc.
Nearly all are predators
Primarily neurotosins:
latrotoxins - cause release of acetylcholin = muscles contract
Various others impact sodium and ion channels upsetting body function

Also necrotoxins: Brown recluse venom contains Sphingomyelinase D causing necrosis
Uloboridae – no venom glands
Scytodes
http://rbsuter.smugmug.com/Research/Spitting-Spiders/9167268_VzksX7#702164906_ckkzi
Pholcidae, the cellar spider
EASY to identify - curved tarsi, long legs
Scytodes - spitting spider
Spitting spider - six eyes, unique shape of prosoma, and silk 'spitting'
Spider Toxin Database - ArachnoServer
http://www.arachnoserver.org/mainMenu.html;jsessionid=BB2C613EBCFBABA36FA2566EA7066238
Atrax - Sidney funnel web spider
Phoneutria
Possibly, the most potent venom of all spiders

Very aggressive

Antivenom = no deaths reported in the last decade or so

(Rezac et al., 2008)
Dysdera oniscophagy
Tropical jumping spiders & Pseudomyrmex ants
Evarcha culicivora
Anopheles mosquitoes (vectors of human malaria)
Typical orbweavers
ARANEIDAE
Argiope - garden spider
ARANEIDAE
Araneus diadematus - garden spider
Orb weaving in several families: Araneidae, Tetragnathidae, Nephilidae, etc.
Araneidae: note body shape, relative leg lengths
Tetragnathidae: note slender body (in some), big chelicerae (in some)
TETRANATHIDAE
Tetragnatha - long-jawed orbweavers
Modified orbs
'realease' webs of THERIDIOSOMATIDAE and Hyptiotes
Modified orbs
Theridiosomatidae - tiny spiders, raised prosoma
Uloboridae - Hyptiotes
note body shape

HUGE posterior median eyes
Modified orbs
Redback Spiders
Small to medium sized, build cobwebs, legs without spines, tarsal comb
Cribellate spiral - Very costly, time consuming
~300 species

Sticky spiral - Cheaper, faster
~13000 species

Argyrodinae theridiid spiders steal prey from larger spiders

Their silver color attracts prey!

Jumping spiders, crab spiders, wolf spiders etc
No division of labor, no caste system, multiple reproductive females per nest. Female biased sex ratios
SOCIAL
Many Anelosimus
species, some
Achaearanea &
Theridion
TOXIC
The Widows
(Latrodectus
spp.)
COMMON
The Common
House Spider
(Achaearanea
tepidariorum)
‘Celebrity’ theridiids
Among the most diverse spider families
112 genera, 2303 species
Cobweb spiders (Theridiidae)
and remain in natal nest to breed
lack reproductive castes
and brood care
prey capture and feeding
Colony members cooperate in nest building
Extreme ecological, behavioral and morphological diversity
The social spiders
RTA clade - mostly wandering spiders that have abndoned web use
Salticidae - Jumping spiders
Large anterior median eyes
Excellent vision
Many mimic ants

Pisauridae
Vampire Spider

Selects prey based on what the prey has eaten!

Eats human blood via mosquito
Some have turned to vegetarianism feeding on Acacia!
Perhaps the most intelligent of all spiders

Prey on other spiders using amazing stealth, plus aggressive mimicry

"I am prey"... "I am a potential mate" - "come to me..."
Note distinct eye pattern
Nephilidae - oL4 - leaves temporary spiral - leaves hub
Araneidae - oL1 - removes temporary spiral - hub bite out
Tetragnathidae - iL1 - removes temporary spiral - hub bite out
Crab like spiders, many Thomisidae can change color
Mygalomorphae vs Araneomorphae
Identifying spiders
Look at the chelicera
Common Entelegynae (Simple palps, no external female genitalia)
Pholcidae, the cellar spider
EASY to identify - curved tarsi, long legs
Scytodidae - Scytodes - spitting spider
Note shape of prosoma and 6 eyes
Modified Orbs - Scoloderus ladder web
Many spiders build 'ladder webs' but this is an extreme example
How to rid moths of their scales
A 'star web' cobweb of Achaearanea
A single line web of Phoroncidia
Ah H-web of Spintharus
Beautiful, funky world of spiders
Ground hunters, attach their egg sacs to their spinnerets, young crawl up on moms abdomen
Dysdera - woodlouse spider
Common mygalomorphs: Dipluridae, Theraphosidae
Wolf spiders: Lycosidae
Note distinct eye pattern
Ground hunters, attach their egg sacs to their spinnerets, young crawl up on moms abdomen
Agelenidae - funnel spiders, grass spiders
Resemble wolf spiders, but eye pattern 'normal'
Crab spiders (Thomisidae)
Crab-like body form, long legs 1 and 2
Jumping spiders (Salticidae)
Huge anterior median eyes
Typical orbweavers
ARANEIDAE
Argiope - garden spider
ARANEIDAE
Araneus diadematus - garden spider
Web spiders: third legs noticably shorter than others!
Araneidae: note body shape, relative leg lengths
Tetragnathidae: note slender body (in some), big chelicerae (in some)
TETRANATHIDAE
Tetragnatha - long-jawed orbweavers
Theridiosomatidae - tiny spiders, raised prosoma
Uloboridae - Hyptiotes
note body shape

Theridiidae - cobweb spiders
Slender legs, no leg spines, 'comb' on tarsus 4
Linyphiidae - dwarf spiders, money spiders
Small spiders, similar to Theridiidae, but more leg spines and no comb!
1. Check chelicerae (mygalomorph vs araneomorph)
2. Check eye pattern (Salticidae, Lycosidae)
3. Check other obvious features - weird prosoma shape? crab like? Extremely long legs? Curved tarsi? No leg spines?

To get your spiders to family level I suggest -

FIRST sort out the easy stuff (don't waste your first hour staring at something you have no idea what is...)

SECOND sort out the things you think you know (and ask)

THIRD, try the rest...
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