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Ch. 4 Languages in Contact: Multilingual Societies and Multilingual Discourse

Chapter 4 (Languages in Contact: Multilingual Societies and Multilingual Discourse) of An Introduction to Sociolinguistics (Wardhaugh & Fuller 2015)

Tiffany Judy

on 17 September 2018

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Transcript of Ch. 4 Languages in Contact: Multilingual Societies and Multilingual Discourse

Definition: generally, a stable situation in which a community has two codes, each with their own function(s)
Multilingualism as a Societal Phenomenon
Definition: ? (see p. 83)
Accommodation & Audience Design
Multilingual Discourse
Types of code-switching:
(1) Intersentential code-switching: occurs at the sentential or clausal boundary
Ch. 4 Languages in Contact: Multilingual Societies and Multilingual Discourse
"I speak Spanish to God, Italian to women, French to men, and German to my horse."
--Charles V
Discussion Questions
(1) How can the H variety be used to limit the (economic, educational, etc.) mobility of certain sectors of the community?
ThAnk you!
(cf. Ferguson's definition (1959, p. 336) on page 90 and Fishman's definition (1980, p. 3) on page 94)
High Variety (H)
Low Variety (L)
Political speeches
News broadcasting
Low prestige work
Familial conversations
Soap operas
Religious writings
Full expression
Friendly conversations
Grammars, dictionaries, etc.
Borrowed words
Basic phonology
Formal lectures
(3) In what ways can bilingualism/multilingualism be regarded as problematic?
Outcomes of languages in contact:
language shift (possibly, language death)
language maintenance
Spanish (H), Guaraní (L)
7% monolingual Spanish
90% L1 Guaraní
How and why does Spanish persist as the H variety?
(2) In your society/community, is monolingualism, bilingualism or multilingualism preferred/valued? Why?
Definition: switching from one code to another or mixing more than one code in an utterance
(2) Intrasentential code-switching: occurs inside the clausal or sentential boundary
(3) Intraword code-switching: occurs inside a word at a morpheme boundary
(4) Tag-switching: occurs in tag-phrases and/or tag-questions
(b) Do you have a pen? Ahtaadj.
(a) Ele tem uma housinha preciosa.
he has a house-DIM precious
(c) It's a nice day, hana?
isn't it
(d) Won o arrest a single person
they neg
(e) Mi piace l'inglese, but I prefer Italian.
to me pleases English
(f) I'm just really tired, sabés?
Why "code-switch?"
maintain neutrality
Is "code-switching" constrained?
Yes, but in what way?
Myers-Scotton (1993, 2002) Matrix Language Frame
MacSwan (2014) constraint free approach (MP)
Social constructional approach (Bailey 2001, 2005; Reyes 2005; Mahootian 2005, 2012)
Additionally, Le Page (1997, p. 28) claims "we do not necessarily adapt to the style of the interlocutor, but rather to the image we have of ourselves in relation to our interlocutor."
In what situations do you accommodate?
Examples of Paraguayan Spanish sayings influenced by Guaraní:

Linguistic landscapes and identity
the conscious or unconscious adaptation of one's language to converge on or diverge from that of others in the speech act
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