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World History Piece by Piece
Transcript of World History Piece by Piece
From Beginning to End
In what ways and with what impact was Latin America linked to the global economy of the 19th Century?
Did Latin America follow or diverge from the historical path of Europe during the 19th Century?
LATIN AMERICAN IMPORTS:
Peter the Great
Chosen by reps 50 years after Ivan the Terrible as Russia was torn by landed nobles
Romanov Dynasty ruled for 300 years
created new education system for nobles
Adopted European styles, shaved their beards
Built St. Petersburg as a "Window to the West"
Also established ports along the Baltic
Czar Nicholas II and the end...
Clung to the idea of autocracy...
Failed to tame working-class radicalism
Failed to bring social stability
Dissolved the elected "Duma" and instituted new system to benefit nobility
People had limited voice in political matters...HOWEVER,
Culturally Russia contributed to the world (Tolstoy, Chehkov, ballet, composer Tchaikovsky
Economically, Urbanization occurred rapidly and industry was encouraged with tariffs to protect local goods as well as foreign investment, 1891 Russia began the Trans-Siberian Railway by 1904 the longest in the world CHANGE OCCURRED QUICKLY
The Russian Kingdom:
Began as a group of slavs...Scandinavians known as the Rus were "invited" to be their protectors (862 CE)
Capital Novgorod primarily then moved to Kiev
Princess Olga (945-955) first ruler to become Christian
Prince Vladimir made official Christianity 989 (Greek Orthodox)
Russia prospered with its ties to the Byzantine Empire as the "Third Rome" yet with a distinct Slavic culture (ie...Cyrillic alphabet)
Ottoman Sultan Muhammad
Conquers Constantinople 1453
(Signifies the end of the Byzantine Empire)
1200's Russia was invaded by ________.
Russia was a collection of small, indep kingdoms
Mongols forced each one to pay tribute
Russian Princes in the Golden Khanate were allowed to remain in power so long as they were loyal
Kiev suffered terribly by Mongol invasions
1240-1480 Moscow became the new capital
Ivan I- tax collector for the Mongols..."Ivan Moneybags" or "Great Prince" by the Mongols
Head of the church moved to Moscow
Princes gradually bought, conquered, tricked and married their way to expansion
By the 1400's, Moscow was the strongest of the Mongol states
Russia becomes an empire...
Ivan III (1462-1505)- first to call himself czar after marrying niece of last Byzantine Emperor
Freed Russia of Mongol yoke
Remade the Kremlin with bigger walls, palaces and churches
Tripled the territory of Russia and became the first leader of a united Russia...he became subsequently known as
Ivan the Great
Ivan the Terrible
Struggles for power between Russian nobles (Boyars) and the growing power of Czars like the feudal struggles of Europe
Overcame boyar treachery to declare himself czar and marry into the Boyar family of Romanov
Good period...defeated Mongols, developed a code of law, and sought to increase trade thru the Baltic
Terrible period...Anastasia dies and he turns on Boyars
Kills his own son/heir during this reign of terror
Invasion of Napoleon:
Czar Alexander I refused to stop selling grain to Great Britain despite Napoleon's threat
Napoleon invades w his "Grand Army" of 400,000
Napoleon returns with 10,000 in the cold Russian winter
Death of Alexander I in 1825 led to 100 years of turmoil for Russia.
Cause & Effect
Oppression of serfs
Autocracy of czars
Defeat in Crimean War
Rise of Marxism
Defeat in Russo-Japanese War
Nicolas II indecision
Strikes and riots
Abdication of Nicholas II
Failure of provisional gov't
Growing power of Soviets
Return of Lenin to Russia
Bolshevik takeover under Lenin
Harsh peace treaty w Germany
Russian economy in ruins
Est. of communist state
Victory of Red Army in Civil War
New Economic Policy
Formation of USSR
Dictatorship under Communist Party
Russia struggled to reform...
More than 80 of people were serfs (almost worse than slaves in Russia) of large landowners
Failed to industrialize
Czar had the power to eliminate serfdom as the absolute ruler, or autocrat, of the nation
Alexander I moved toward ending it but then died
...led by vets of the Napoleonic wars who were also witnesses to the ideas of revolution...
Nicholas I brutally put down the revolt, never forgot and ruled with an iron fist for 30 years
Suppressed hundreds of revolutions BUT
Lost the Crimean War (1853-1856) w/ GB and France
Showed weakness of Czar and Russia's lack of technology in Industrial Age
1861 he freed the serfs (Lincoln)
In debt nobles benefited most
Serfs were free but still tied to land through taxes, "mir communities"
He also expanded education, rights to trial
They still paid poll taxes
Death penalty for their class
Bound to land
Little enough land to support family w/ growing pop.
censorship for educated
Nihilism arose and the czar was assassinated.
return to iron fist rejection of reform
secret police and greater censorship
"autocracy, orthodoxy, nationality"
pogroms, riots against jews were rampant
believed in peasant overthrow of the czar.
land dist and an elected democracy
Marxists...society should share the wealth
led by an urban working class, not peasants
devoted every waking hour toward revolution
split in SD's caused by Lenin's eagerness to act despite the urban working class' unpreparedness
Begin the revolution and institute a "dictatorship of the proletariat" until the people are ready
BOTH GROUPS were of little threat initially as they were constantly in jail or exile
Czar Nicholas II made serious mistakes...
Russo-Japanese War 1904
...imperial competition over Korea and Manchuria led to war in which Russia was smacked down
Revolution of 1905
Sunday, Jan 22 of 1905
Strikes led to the creation and rejection of the Duma...
World War I would end Romanov rule once and for all...
WWI Ended Romanov Rule...
WWI begins w the assassination of
Archduke Franz Ferdinand
Czar Nicholas II goes to war (bad idea)
Before 1914 was over, 4 mil Russians died
Badly outmatched by the Germans
The Influence of
Nicholas moved to the front line leaving Czarina Alexandra his wife to run the government
Alexandra was influenced by a mysterious Siberian peasant who they believed cured their son of hemophelia.
He arranged jobs for his friends and urged her to ignore calls for reform
Nobles assassinated Rasputin as a result
By 1916/17 food, fuel and supplies were scarce and most of the Russian soldiers had fallen...the ranks were filled with draftees.
A Provisional Gov't tried to rule...
With continual strikes and a distrust of Alexandra who was German, Nicholas abdicated in 1917.
The Duma took over to elect leaders, but they were conservative and largely ignored.
The Power of the Soviets...
Soviets (councils) made of workers from Petrograd, who were socialists, many of which were recently released from prison/exile.
Soviets were not unified though, so they let the Provisional Govt try
The Provisional Govt Failed...
Why? They continued the war like idiots...though they had some okay reasons.
The Germans then launched their own secret weapon to hasten the end of the war...
lead a Second Revolution...
Lenin had big plans for his return other than pulling Russia out of WWI...
A SOCIAL REVOLUTION
Despite its small size, its discipline and unification allowed the Bolshevik Party to exert enormous
Bolsheviks quickly became the majority as they halted a military attempt to seize Petrograd...the Russian people were clear...
NO return of the czar
END Russian involvement in WWI
"Peace, land, bread" -Lenin
Bolsheviks had won control of the Soviet
Lenin took control..
The Bolshevik Red Guard seized the Provisional Govt on Oct 24th, 1917, the next night...
"We shall proceed to construct the Socialist order"...
All farmland to be divided among the peasants
Signed a truce with Germany
Gov't took control of all factories
Elections in November went to the SR's so the Bolsheviks forcibly closed them...the first democratically elected body in Russia ended in a day
Lenin wanted a
"Dictatorship of the Proletariat"
Bolsheviks lost more popularity with the
Treaty of Brest Litovsk
...which lost 1/4 of Euro-Russia and many factories within.
Civil War divided Russia...
Bolshevik opponents soon formed a
to counter the
...several Western Nations even sided with them #Murica
1918-1920 Civil War
15 million Russians died (hunger, war, flu pandemic)
Victory eventually went to the
Led by the second in charge to Lenin,
were less organized and threatened to return peasants land
Economy was in ruins
Trade at a standstill
Factories were destroyed
Skilled workers were forced to return to farms
Lenin Restored Order..
Kronstadt revolt March 1921
Sailors at this naval base revolt demanding democratic rights
Bolsheviks brutally crush it
The New Economic Policy (NEP)
Temporary compromise w capitalism
Farmers allowed to sell their surplus instead of ceding it to the govt
Could buy and sell goods for profit
Private ownership of some small businesses
Encouraged foreign investment
New name, new party...
Lenin created self-governing republics to acknowledge the many different natl groups.
The Bolsheviks gave this system a new name, the
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), or the Soviet Union!
The Communist Party
...was the new name of the Bolsheviks
To protect from foreign invasion, they also moved the capital back to Moscow
The 1928 production had returned to preWWI levels
Struggled to Succeed Lenin...
organizer of the 1917 takeover
Founder of the Red Army
BUT had many enemies within the party and was feared as he might become dictator
Secretary of the Communist Party
Born in Georgia, 1879
"Man of Steel" vs Djugashvili
Cold, hard and impersonal, quiet
Worked behind the scenes to appoint many of his people into key positions in the communist regime
He used the allies to exile Trotsky in 1929 and stood alone atop the Communist Party
Like Lenin, Trotsky believed in a "world" revolution that would spread...
Stalin believed in
"socialism in one country"
The rest of the world could wait.
"We are 50 or 100 years behind the advanced countries...We must make good this lag in 10 years. Either we do it, or they crush us."
Industrial Revolution in 1928
The Five Year Plan
- all economic decisions are made by the government
Tapped Resource rich Siberia
Limit consumer goods while investing heavily in mines, railroads and energy
Targets set specifically high
Govt decided who worked, where and how long enforced by secret police
Results were remarkable that in 1933 he set new plans
Electricity increased by 800%
Steel went from 4 mil to 18 mil tons per year
An Agricultural Revolution in 1928..
Far more brutal than the IR plan
Govt abolished more than 25 million private farms
-large units worked by 100s of families
More food, fewer workers, with modern machinery
Between 5 and 10 million peasants died for protesting
Millions more shipped to Siberia
By 1938, 90% of all peasants lived on collective farms but farms were producing at an incredible rate
USSR became a
Stalin stayed in power bc fear to speak out
It was "total" control over the lives of the people while not allowing any dissent
Religion, Communists, foreigners or their friends, and even the secret police if they did not arrest enough people were ALL targets
YET his swift and harsh policies allowed the Russians (Soviets) to become a modern state...one that found a better standard of living, education, science, technology and the biggest reason for the downfall of the Nazis in WWII.
Congress of Vienna
Sought to restore the boundaries of Europe following the conquests of Napoleon Bonaparte
among the other great powers of Russia,
Prussia, Great Britain and France.
3 Goals of Metternich:
Strengthen countries surrounding France
Restore a balance of power
Restore royal families to the throne
of 39 states was formed initially dominated by Austria
come to dominate politics...
- belief in constitutional, or even absolute monarchy
- approval of early reforms of French govt. by an elected, but limited parliament
- Support of democratic govt and ideas of change
differed in that it was the only constitutional monarchy
CONGRESS OF VIENNA WAS A TRIUMPH OF CONSERVATISM
...belief that a persons greatest loyalty is to the
Spain & France ONLY NATION-STATES
Balance of Power Broke Down...
in 1853 (GB/France vs Russia) due to competing interests w/ the weakening Ottoman Empire
Italy and Germany (
Otto von Bismarck
The 5 big of the CofV became GB, Russia, France, Germany, Italy and Austria
Dominated Early Japan:
Divided into clans
Descended from the same lineage
Each controlled a territory
The Yamato Emperors
Initial clan chiefs who became the first Emperors
No real power...each clan rival could produce new emperors
The Yamato rulers claimed the
as their ancestor
Various other gods/goddesses of nature and other spirits become important
"the way of the Gods"
earliest Japanese religion
- nature god, divine
Koreans migrated into Japan around 500 bringing with them this new Chinese religious tradition _______________....it peacefully coexisted with Shinto.
Prince ___________ Taishi:
607 sent a group of scholars to China (
) ...during the ___________ dynasty.
Japanese adopted Chinese writing, landscape painting, architecture, everyday arts such as cooking, tea drinking, gardening, & hairdressing
Shotoku drew up a plan of govt based on Confucianism, legalism, Buddhism and the examination system known as the ____________________.
Nara, first capital of Japan was modeled on Ch'ang-an.
Japanese nobility still superceded exam sys however
Heian "Golden" Age (794-1185)
794 Emperor Kammu changed capitals from Nara to Heian (Kyoto)
"dwellers among the clouds" nobles who lived lavishly mostly outdoors; poetry
women were held in high esteem unlike in China (Lady Murasaki Shikibu who wrote _____________ around the year 1000.
divided the land...
Between 1000-1200, centralized govt gave way to feudalism
Lords were served by
living by the code____
Lords were paid taxes by the peasants
Shoguns ruled puppet Emperors
was given the title
"supreme general of the Emperor's army"
powers of a military dictator
Emperor still lived at Kyoto but the Shogun resided in the military HQ at
Shogunates lasted until 1868
Were able to turn back the Mongols in 1274 & 1281
Japan turned to
Following the Kamakura Shogunate, local lords ruled over their independent territories, they were known as
__________ which means "great name"
Age of the Country at War (1467-1568)
Europeans reached Japan
were welcomed...then the Dutch, who often played the Daimyo against one another (silk4guns)
St Francis Xavier baptized 100's.
Observing Japanese changes hygiene practices in Euro
Strong leaders restore order...
The Final 3 Daimyo
Used firearms to suppress large armies, entered Kyoto victorious in 1573
"sword hunt" 1588- all peasants give up their swords
Strict social class barriers
Tokugawa Shogunate (#'s 22, 23, 24, 25)
Ruled and provided stability 1603-1868
Total Policy of Isolationism
1614 Christianity banned
Spanish conquest of Philippines leads to banning of all Euro merchants except ______
200 Years of peace/stability but lack of progress in science, tech and military.
Response to Imperialism...
Stay isolated and not change like China?...
Or change isolationist ways?
Commodore Matthew Perry 1853
By 1860, United States sign a treaty with Japan to open up trade...
US was equipped with steal ships, high powered weapons
Japan feared that they would succumb to Euro rule w/o changes
1868, the last of the Tokugawa shoguns was overthrown
New leaders ruled in the name of the Emperor Mutsuhito (15 years old)
The name for his reign was Meiji or
Politically, feudalism ended and a Constitution was adopted in the model of Germany in which real power was in the hands of a small group of people to build a powerful nation
...like Shotuku...led missions to Europe to study their ways
1872 the firts railroad was built connecting Tokyo to the port of Yokohama
By 1914, Japan had more than 7,000 miles of track
Coal went from .5 mil tons to 21 mil between 1875 and 1913
Japan's govt took an active role in supporting large companies building factories (Russia)
Sold local products like silk to avoid foreign dependence
How else did Japan modernize during the Meiji Restoration? (#26)
Modernized its army (Germany) and its navy (Great Britain)
Japan was now strong enough to re-negotiate the "unequal treaties" it signed in the 1850's
By 1899, Japan regained its "economic" territory and sought to move out themselves
Japanese first took advantage of
new independence from China
Japan also sought to expand to iron and coal rich
View of Japanese Imperialism in Taiwan/Korea? (#27)
Russia alarmed by Japan's encroachment on Siberia
Japan won/lost easily?
Japan controlled economic interest in Manchuria
Western powers recognized Japan as only formidable Asian nation
Japan will continue to grow as a sleeping giant until WWII
Strong Bonds of Unity...
Group over individual
fixed role birth to death similar to India
Elderly had privileges and power
owned all the goods/possessions
final approval of marriages
oldest women controlled younger women
Women were treated as inferior
married off b/w 13 and 16
expected to bare sons
Family closely linked to religion
ancestors thought to have power to bring help or misfortune to family
spirits, not gods, only through the side (patriarchy)
First loyalty was to family...the ruler of the Chinese people was like a supergrandfather and therefore held supreme loyalty
Mandate of Heaven- a just ruler with authority from heaven...replaced when unjust (rebellion/civil war)
This leads to an effective dynastic cycle
Shang 1500-1027 b.c.e.
Zhou 1027-221 b.c.e.
Qin 221-206 b.c.e.
Han 206 b.c.e-220 c.e.
Sui 589-618 c.e.
Tang 618-907 c.e
Song 960-1279 c.e.
Yuan 1279-1368 c.e.
Ming 1368-1644 c.e.
Ching (Manchu) 1644-1912
First Civilization of China which formed around the Yellow River or "China's Sorrow"
Sharply divided social classes- nobles vs peasants (separate artisan class)
Oracle Bones- animal bones/shells w/ symbols that priests used to foretell future
each symbol=idea...many are similar to Chinese today (continuity)
unifying...despite your dialect...the written word was the same
Disadvantage- literacy was difficult with the number of characters
Longest dynasty of China but crisis befell them
in 771 b.c.e and thus began the "Age of the
Warring States" where kings ruled localized lands.
3 solutions were offered to restore order, harmony and respect...
social order and good gov't could be restored around 5 Basic Relationships:
Ruler & Subject; father & son; husband & wife; older brother & younger brother; friend & friend
Filial Piety, respect for parents/elders
Rulers should be kind and virtuous in return
only the natural order is important
nothing in nature strives for fame, power or wisdom
follow the Tao, or the way
Withdraw from society and live close to nature
Highly efficient and powerful govt was key
Rich rewards for obedient
Harsh punishments for disobedient
LEGALISM will win
Qin Dynasty 221-206 BCE
Qin Shi-Huangdi or "First Emperor"
Came to power through conquest, legalist
Ended the Age of Warring States
Begun the building of the Great Wall
Gave China their form of govt that would last 2000 years
Doubled the size of China w his ruthless tactics
Nobles were relocated to the capital
created 36 new districts
Burned all books to prevent dissension
United empire by building series of roads
Set uniform standards of law, money, weights & measures
Shi-Huangdi's son was just as harsh but less able and would fall to a peasant leader from the land of Han...
While Qin Dynasty was ruthless, it established a strong and enduring legacy.
Han Dynasty 206 b.c.e-220 c.e.
"the people of Han" considered as a time of glory, unity and peace
revoked many Qin legalist policies
Barbarians rarely threatened during this time
Confucian policies become highly entrenched in Chinese society
Wudi "Martial Emperor"
Fought back Xiongnu and extended borders south at the same time
Proclaimed Confucianism the official set of beliefs for the govt
124 b.c.e found a national university and founded the Examination System
Conquests to the West also enabled overland trade...
Linked China to new Empire ______________
Silk was the desired commodity and therefore the road bacame known as the SILK ROAD
Fall of Han
Peasants alway suffered most during these times and would flee to the mountains and form secret societies of bandits who would revolt
2 times the Han Fell...
8 c.e. & 220 c.e.
Both were due to cruel and corrupt officials
Both were aided by peasant rebellions led by generals who sought power themselves
Spread of Buddhism
First via the newly established Silk Road
Then appealed to the struggling peasant class
Following the fall of the Han...it appealed strongly to everyone
Sui Dynasty 589-618 c.e. Reunited China
No true emperor ruled for 250 years after the fall of the Han
Xiongnu entered China from beyond the Great Wall
Chinese nobles fled to the south
581 Sui Wendi took over the north then conquered south
China was once again united
Sui (2) Emperors lay the foundation for the Golden Age
Wendi heavily patronized Buddhism during reign
Yangdi completes the job of reunification by building the Grand _______
Rebuilt the Great Wall
Too many died during these projects and so...?
Tang Dynasty 618-907 c.e.
Ushered in a Golden Age making China the richest in the world
Reconquered much of territory lost under the Han
Took control of Korea and Vietnam forcing payment of tribute
Lowered taxes and redistributed the land of the wealthy
Further patronized Buddhism
Lowered taxes further
Solidified control of Korea
Revived examination system of Confucius and expanded it to peasants
The group of those that passed were lesser than nobles and came to be known as scholar-___________
Tang lost power
Rising taxes, costs of govt to maintain a large empire and periods of famine weakened Tang
Additionally, in 751 a new Muslim threat defeated China soundly
Battle of _______________
Xenophobia and the __________ Rebellion ends it.
Song Dynasty 960-1297 C.E. Moves South...
An able army leader declared himself emperor in 960.
Tang Dynasty was already very weak
Song military never fully recovered from Tang defeat at Talas River
Marked 500 years of decline for the Chinese military
Never regained lands lost to the West
Tartars, Xiongnu and other pastoralists came from the north
China responded with the __________ System of sending "gifts" to appease them.
Bribes eventually failed to stop them
1126 Tartars invaded as far as the Yellow River and took the capital Kai-feng
Song Emperors from then on ruled only the south from the new capital Hangzhou
Golden Age still prospered in the South
Selling of rice, tea, fish thrived throughout the capital
Copper coins gave way to the first paper money
Silk & porcelain traded for high profits south to the Malay Peninsula, west to India, the Persian Gulf and the coast of Africa
New technology came from China
Printing and moveable type
Song Dynasty also rejuvenated their philosophic code ____________________.
Song Dynasty collapsed eventually in the 1200's to the _________.
Mongol Empire 1200-1350 c.e.
Ruled the largest land empire in history
People of the Steppe
supported huge herds of horses, cattle, yaks and sheep
Home to many nomadic tribes: Huns, Avars, Turks, Tartars, Xiongnu, Uighurs, Mongols, Seljuks
ALL follow same basic way of life
live on horseback
follow huge herds
Camp at night in huge circular tents called _______
Fierce warriors by horse with bow
Temujin (Genghis Khan)
1173 Temujin becomes minor chieftain of a Mongol clan
The next 20 years he fought for power among other clans
After conquest, anyone not taller than a cart axle was killed
1206 Temujin united all the clans and was declared Khan
Genghis Khan= "ruler of all between the oceans"
1206-1227 Genghis conquered most of Asia
Brilliant organizer (10,000/1000/100/10)
Intelligent (use of spies before engaging new enemies)
Cruel (use of terror to influence surrender)
GK died in 1227
1227-1279 Four Khans Ruled the Empire
Overthrew the Abbasid Dynasty Il-Khanate
Conquered Kievan Rus ________________
Third Khan ruled the steppes ______________
All 3 owed loyalty to the Great Khan ruling China...
Defeated Song Dynasty ________________
Kubilai Khan Ruled China from Khanbalik (Beiijing)
Yuan Dynasty 1260-1294 c.e.
Unlike most Khans...Kubilai spent most of his time in China
He enjoyed time in luxury and was "fattened" by it
Failure to Conquer Japan:
1281 Kubilai sent 2 fleets of 150,000 warriors against Japan
largest seaborne invasion force until WWII
Japanese fought for 53 days to a standstill
Suddenly, the sky darkened and the Japanese ___________ put an end to the invasion
Mongol Empire assured safe travels via trade routes along the silk road
Secured the exchange of news via a postal trade network known yams
Unfortunately, that safety allowed the passage of Black Death
Encouraged cultural diffusion with the displacement of foreign elites
Marco Polo was a foreigner at the court of Kubilai Khan
Europe had now been exposed to the "marketable" appeal of China that would have future ramifications when Europe came calling
1295-1333 Mongol Empire weakened
Seven Mongols schemed to the throne before it was all over
China suffered under famines and revolts
1368 Ming T'ai-tsu declares himself emperor
Ming = brilliant
Ming Dynasty 1368-1644
Ming Dynasty brought peace...
China was divided into 2 major geographic zones"
Rice growing zone
Followed the Yangtze River and centered on the seaports of the East China Sea
1st Ming Emperor resided at new capital Nanjing
Traditional "heartland" of China (Confucius/Han)
2nd Ming Emperor Yongle ruled from Peking (Beijing)
Set up like a traditional walled city
An inner wall surrounded an Imperial City for govt business
Inside that was yet another walled city...Forbidden City
Ming looked to the past:
China's tradition has always been to progress by small adjustments, not by great changes. (Think how this worked during the Age of Imperialism)
Scholar-gentry return to power / Restored the examination system
Opened elementary schools in many cities (printing)
Commissioned an encyclopedia as well but it was never printed
Created highly centralized gov't
Great power was given to court eunuchs
Restored land to cultivation, constructed waterworks and planted trees
Emperor Yongle commissioned a massive fleet in 1405
Abruptly stopped in 1433 as a waste of resources
Ming Dynasty Collapsed:
Same story...corruption/high taxes but no $ famine
Once again foreigners would invade...?
Qing Dynasty 1644-1912
Manchu Armies entered a weakened Ming Empire
Like true Imperialists...
Could hold govt positions without taking the exam
Intermarriage between Manchus and Chinese forbidden
Chinese forced to braid their hair as sign of inferiority
Turned conquered territory into backward region with no settlement
Use of local elites to govern informally (Court of Colonial Affairs)
Did not try to assimilate conquered peoples
Expansion was a reaction to competing interests (Russia)
Often imitated Chinese ways
Imperialism threatened China...
Qing Dynasty China in the 1800's was indeed an empire but...
China had NOT industrialized
China thrived off its agricultural base
Small workshops did provide enough goods the Chinese needed
Self-sufficient...so no real need for trade with Europeans
Any and all trade with Europeans took place at the Port of Canton for decades...all other ports banned
Euro products perceived as inferior
One product provided the key to European access...___________
British East India Company smuggled in opium
Chinese appealed to Queen Victoria with no avail
Opium War of 1839
Fought mostly at sea
British gunboats destroyed Chinese cannons of the 1300's
Treaty of Nanjing
Beginning of a century of humiliation
Right to trade at 4 Chinese ports besides Canton
British citizens enjoyed extraterritorial rights...?
China had to pay for the opium it destroyed
1st of many unequal treaties establishing...
foreign spheres of influence
Them before China
A Revolt Weakened Southern China
By 1850, Qing Dynasty was losing total control
Bankruptcy under the unequal treaties
Population was increasing rapidly as food declined
1852 the Yellow River flooded and millions starved
Taiping Uprising 1850-1864...
Hong Xiuquan proclaimed himself younger brother of Jesus and wished to est. "heavenly kingdom of great peace"
called for racial equality
Hoped to industrialize
Took Nanjing by force and established their "kingdom"
The conflict took nearly 20 million lives...it was suppressed by gentry landowners, the imperial army and the help of the _____________...
Who at the same time was winning a 2nd Opium War
opening more ports
opening interior waterways
Allowing entry of foreign missionaries
1860's & 1870's Chinese responded thru "self-strengthening" program
Confucian policy w/ limited borrowing from west
Efforts at improving examination system
Restoration of rural social and economic order
establishment of some modern arsenals
foundation of a few industrial factories
telegraph system instituted
Conservatives largely sought to protect their own interests
1885 China was defeated by the French
1895 China was defeated by the Russians
1898 China was defeated by the Germans
1899 U.S. declared an "open door" policy
China was open to all merchants
China couldnt be colonized
Nationalism Grew in China:
1900- The Society of Righteous and Harmonious Fists
secret societal groups formed to combat the "foreign devils" and the foreign Qing Dynasty
Boxer Rebellion arose in Peking and kept it under siege for months
an army of 8 imperial nations arrived to defeat the Boxers
While defeated, it started a similar cry to that of Russia before its revolution...
1911- Chinese Nationalists overthrew the Qing Dynasty
Nationalist People's Party
Founder and leader Sun Yat-sen
Overthrew the Qing Dynasty and became 1st President of the Republic of China
3 Principles of the People:
Nationalism (end to foreign control)
people's rights (democracy)
people's livelihood (form of Marxist socialism and land reform)
Much like in Russia, Civil War broke out (during WWI)
Peasants suffered the most
Warlord armies terrorized the countryside
Roads and bridges fell, crops destroyed
Famine set in
Treaty of Versailles
China sided with Germany:(
Euro powers got to keep their Chinese territory and Japan kept their new lands
1st generation Western style educated Chinese rose up in protest
May 4th Protests
Nationalist movement, not yet a revolution
A young school teacher from the countryside spoke out,
"What should we fear? We should not fear the militarists! We should not fear the capitalists! What is the greatest force? The greatest force the union of the popular masses!" -Mao Zedong
H i m i l a y a s
H I N D U K U S
2500 b.c.e. Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro
First cities in Indus Valley
Roads running N/S & E/W
Took careful planning suggesting strong central govt
Well organized govt based on city/building planning
Cleanliness emphasized (garbage/bathhouse)
Wheat/ barley cultivated
Cotton for cloth
Domesticated cattle, pigs, goats, fowl, cats, dogs
Evidence of trade with Mesopotamia
Kilns for pottery, gold, silver, copper, bronze, lead
Decline of Indus Valley Civilization
1750 b.c.e. cities fell into decay
Rivers changed course
Exhausted soil (overgrazed/overfarmed)
Invasions...evidence of violence in Mohenjo Daro
Who could've invaded?
_______________ 1500 b.c.e. nomads from central Asia "the nobles"
nomadic herders, literate, cultured (priests who memorized long hymns and poems)
Early form of sanskrit (continuity)
Some Indians fled, some remained as slaves
Cultures blended to form "Hinduism"
Hinduism shaped Indian Culture
Earliest sanskrit hymns were Aryan
The Vedic Age
Aryans brought a rich collection of myths & gods
Everything in nature was holy
Aryan priests could sing from memory many hymns
each suited to a different ritual
hymns were gathered into 4 collections called VEDAS
weren't written until 1400 c.e. tho date back to 1500 b.c.e.
Rig-veda most important
history of India following the Aryans
Upanishads 400 b.c.e
Interpretation of Vedic hymns
What is the nature of reality? What is morality? Is there eternal life? What is the soul?
One true reality is Brahman, the mighty spirit that creates & destroys. Brahman is one, yet expresses itself as Many.
Brahman- unifying and all-powerful spirit
Atman- one aspect of Brahman...self/soul
Nothing that lives, ever dies entirely.________
Castes Structured Indian Society
Divisions developing during the Vedic Age were closely related to the Hindu world view...
4 different groups:
created from the Gods mouth
priestly class/highest group
created from God's arms
rulers and warriors
created from Gods legs
created from Gods feet
servants or slaves
In reality, there were numerous jati associated with each varna
People of each group had specified occupation, ate only with eachother and married only within their own jati
Higher castes were purer
Lowest group = untouchables
karma= ethical law of cause and effect
do your dharma or duty...gain access to upper castes
Buddhism Spread under Mauryan Rulers
563 b.c.e Siddartha Gautama is born...
to wealth and high status
affected by witnessing suffering of those in the country
Realized life was an endless cycle of pain and only way to end it was seeking wisdom
At age 29, Gautama left his cushy life
Joining a band of wisdom seekers he experienced the pain of life (hunger for example)
He left to seek other ways and Enlightenment came to him
Buddha= the enlightened one
4 Noble Truths:
Everything in life is suffering and sorrow
Cause of pain is self-centered desires
End pain by ending desires
Overcome desires by following 8 fold path
8 Fold Path
Treate all with love and kindness
500 b.c.e end of the Vedic Age
For a 1000 years no single group united the Indian people
512 b.c.e Persian King Darius conquered NW India
Centralized control first time since Aryans
unity and order BUT high taxes
326 b.c.e. Alexander the Great
left a legacy of Hellinistic Culture
322 b.c.e. Chandragupta revolted and made himself ruler of the Ganges
United all of Northern India (Mauryan Dynasty)
Ruled by force and fear
Extensive use of spies
237 b.c.e. inherited the throne and ruled ruthlessly too
After a vicious victory, Ashoka filled w remorse
Decided to rule according to Buddhas law
"peace to all beings"
Ashoka ordered huge stone pillars to be erected,
policies of Buddhist righteousness
Sent many missionaries to neighboring lands
Buddhism spread largely as a result
After Ashoka, a return to disunity
However, it was able to survive
India flourished under the Guptas:
500 years of disunity followed the Mauryan Empire in 180 BCE
Waves of invaders from Persia and Afgahn followed
Southern Indian remained peaceful and separate
Gupta Dynasty 320-467 CE...
Hindu Prince Chandra Gupta was crowned king of upper Ganges valley
Beginning of yet another Golden Age!
The Poet King Samudra Gupta
extended kingdom to mouth of the Ganges "exterminator of all other kings"
Chandra Gupta II
Both a man of learning and a conqueror
Empire stretched across northern India from sea to sea
For 500 years it would be united under one government
Written records were rare due to Hindu view of life from past to present
Celebrated oral history more "itihias"- so it was told (very accurate but no dates)
Chinese monks recorded that free hospitals and safe travel were supported
Science & Learning advanced
Brahmins attended school from 9-30 at "free universities"
- cowpox injections helped stopped the spread of epidemics
- Sterilized their cutting tools; set broken bones; plastic surgery
- first to use system based on ten; concept of zero, infinity
Kalidasa wrote great drama
Shakuntala...story of a king who develops amnesia
Compared to Shakespeare...though no tragedies written
Each scene centeredaround rasas or 8 pure emotions
Huns destroy the Gupta Empire
During the 400's, like the Roman Empire, the Huns ravaged India
600's Gupta Empire disappeared completely
650-1250 Northern India was in turmoil
Rajputs built new kingdoms
Warlike tribes from central Asia passed thru Hindu Kush mtns
800/900's Rajput Warrior-kings took over and eventually converted to Hinduism and joined the Kshatriya
"Feudal India"- like knights or samurai with an honor code
Women has some property rites but were still inferior to men (Sati)
Brahman, Shiva and Vishnu rise to importance in Hinduism
Buddhism almost ceased to exist as a separate faith...worshipped in Hindu temples
Buddha was now an incarnation of Vishnu
Hindus vs Muslims:
"probably the bloodiest story in history"
700's- Hinduism was nearly the oldest religion, Islam the newest
712- Muslims began invading India (same time as Spain)
Mahmud of Ghazni
Invaded every year for plunder...left legacy of hatred
Muslim sultans rule Delhi:
1191- Turkish Sultan Muhammad Ghuri
The first year he lost
The second he took revenge, destroyed city after city
Destroyed the university and ruled from Delhi
Delhi Sultanate (1200-1526 CE)
Muslim Turks ruled northern India for 300 years
Treated Hindus as conquered people, only in the Deccan to the south did Hindu kingdoms survive
However brutal, Turkish power may have saved them from the Mongols
Tamerlane (Timur the Lame)
1398 after terrorizing Russia, Mesopotamia and Asia Minor, Tamerlane took Delhi.
He massacred Hindus and Muslims alike (Mongolish)
After his death in 1405, nothing remained of his empire though
Delhi was rebuilt but a return to feudal Rajput days returned
Babur (tiger) a Turkish-Mongol conqueror took India
He used canon and firepower
Delhi Sultanate was overthrown
Established the Mughal (Mongol) Empire
Mughal came to represent wealth and power "mogul"
Akbar enlarged the Mughal Empire
Akbar = "most great" though his real name was Muhammad
1556-1605 Akbar the Great
Challenged the Rajputs early in his reign and added much of the Deccan South to his empire
To unify his empire, he invited Rajput rulers to serve in high govt offices
Married a Rajput princess as well
He removed the special tax on Hindus, _________________
Taxes were even adjusted for famine, and other situations
He embraced all religions and even tried to combine them into one (fail)
Splendor disgused a weakening empire...
Jahangir "world-grasper" 1605-1627
Misnamed as he was addicted to wine and opium
His wife, a Persian Princess, Nur Jahan, probably the most powerful woman in India's history, saved India from her husband
Shah Jahan 1628-1658
Builder of the Taj Mahal...dedicated to the love of his life
Mughal Empire was wealthiest at this point but only for the top
However he was very cruel toward his enemies as was his predecessor and that would weaken the empire
1630 The Dutch entered India seeking trade...
Both tried to make India an Islamic state
Went back on the policies of Akbar
1669 He ordered the destruction of Hindu Temples
The Jizya returned as well
Hindus were banned from serving in high govt positions again
Hinduism and Islam...
ALL earlier conquerors of India had absorbed into the Hindu System but Islam's monotheism kept it distinct
However Hindus adopted many Muslim practices such as purdah?
Veils were adopted as well
Islam was especially attractive to...?
Guru Nanak tried to blend the two religions into _________
Eventually they militarized due to persecution
Europeans reached India's coast...
1500's the ____________ dominated Indian coasts
But they were no threat to Mughal rule....yet!
The British Dominated South Asia
Industrial Revolution turned Britain into giant workshop that needed raw materials to run
India provided those materials as well as a market of 300 million people to buy the goods
British Expanded Control...
1600's British East India Company est ports at Bombay, Madras, Calcutta
Kept under control by Mughal Empire
1700's Mughal Empire weakened and again India was ruled by separate local rulers knowns as Maharajas
1757- The Company was the leading power in India governing directly/indirectly
Company ruled India without interference and with its own army + the sepoys
The Sepoy Mutiny...
1857 The Sepoy army turned against the British East India Company...Why?
Sepoys took Delhi and quickly took back much of Northern India
The Company, aided by the British Army and Hindus, esp _________ who feared return of the Mughals took back control
Maharajas also remained loyal to the British
India after 1857...
In 1858 the British govt took direct control of India
A Viceroy or British Governor-general took orders from London
Maharajas that stayed loyal were allowed to remain "independent"
British created roads, bridges, irrigation to open new land, telegraph lines, railroads and government buildings.
They even fought in 2 Afghan wars to create a buffer between Russia and India in 1878
By 1885, the British took control of Burma to the East to check French advancements in Siam, Laos, Cambodia and Vietnam
Beginning of Indian Nationalism...
1885 The Indian National Congress (INC) formed followed by the Muslim League in 1906
At first their demands were small...soon they were asking for Independence!
Indians Organized for Independence
By 1900, Great Britain ruled almost all of India, it's presence was felt for more than 200 years.
Great Britain boasted of the many improvements...Indians were not impressed
These improvements came from their taxes
They were still treated as second-class citizens
Many upper class Indians were now Western educated...
...these ideas should apply to India they argued
The INC and Muslim League sought change
The INC wanted "swaraj" or self-rule
Initially they moderate in their demands...wanting only equal opportunity in the Civil Service.
Gradually, they wanted greater control of their own govt
Radicals eventually sought an end to cooperation w/ GB
But they were a minority of lawyers, doctors, teachers, and journalists
325 million people...only 8000 college grads...INC
Gandhi led the Independence movement...
Studied law in GB...moved to S. Africa
Developed a sense of injustice witnessing Brit oppression thru unfair racial laws
Born Hindu...Gandhi adopted many aspects of various religions...formed 4 principles:
Live simply, never seeking material rewards
Be tolerant of the religious belief of others
Spend life in the service of others
Battle injustice in all its forms but never by resorting to violence
1914 Gandhi returned to India to join the indep. movement
He also sought to reform the injustices of the caste system
called the untouchables...harijans or "people of God"
Gained an enormous following...people called him Mahatma
While Indians fought for GB in WWI, Gandhi worked in an ambulance and earned a medal for bravery...in return for India's help, they were promised more "swaraj"
Tensions rose after WWI...
Anti-British terrorism resulted from failed GB reforms
GB passed the Rowlatt Act
Right to jail protestors w/o trial for 2 years
Gandhi responded by calling for days of fasting and prayer in spring 1919
British responded by massacring peaceful protestors inevitably uniting India
Gandhi then urged NO cooperation with GB whatsoever
GB passed the Govt of India Act to sooth tensions
created an Indian legislature for domestic affairs
GB still retained foreign affairs and nat'l security policy
Gandhi and other leaders rejected the offer
Gandhi knew they couldn't defeat them w/ force so he preached
satyagraha, or civil disobedience "hold fast to the truth"
He also urged Indians to boycott, or refuse to buy British goods
They also refused to pay GB taxes, obey GB laws and courts
Hindus and Muslims drifted further apart
After two years of protest...some that erupted into violence...Gandhi called off the protest in 1922.
He was then arrested and sentenced for 6 years...tho only held for 2
Hindu and Muslim hatred grew
One God vs manifestation of many
All equal before God vs caste system
Muslims ate beef sacred to Hindus and Muslims ate pork sacred to Hindus
Hindus drank alcohol vs Muslims who did not
Hindus complained of prayer 5x a day vs Muslims complaint of music
Both competed for urban jobs
More than 90 riots resulted in the death of many on both sides
1906 When the Muslim league formed...GB encouraged them to suppress dissension
By 1930, the Muslim League was calling for a separate nation
Indians Called for Full Independence...
1935 GB finally granted the Govt of India Act giving Indians home rule
Domestic affairs was not enough
Not popular with Muslims either who still wanted a separate nation
They had already chosen a name..Pakistan "land of the Pure"
India & Pakistan became Independent
The end of WWII turned public opinion against Imperialism
Independence was inevitable...but could it be done without bloodshed?
Independence brought paritition...
British Prime Minister Clement Atlee worked with INC leader Jawaharlal Nehru and Muslim League leader Muhammad Ali Jinnah
Muslim League demanded a partition, the division of British India into two nations
At first GB was opposed but after months of rioting they commissioned a boundary committee
Pakistan would be like an elephants ears that would hang from the body of India
Hastily drawn boundaries made little economic sense
1947 independence was declared
As Gandhi has feared, a bloodbath followed as many Muslims tried to flee to each side
Gandhi himself fell to the violence shot to death by an untouchable
Nehru sought to modernize India...
Nehru served as Prime Minister for 17 years, Western educated follower of Gandhi
Emphasized democracy, unity and economic modernization.
Strongly against colonialism
Non-alignment...during the Cold War
These countries became known as Third World countries
Lack of industry
Agricultural based, with 80% of the pop living in poverty
Began to adopt new farming techniquesin the 1960's
Unequal distribution of land
Constantly growing pop
Conflict w/ China and Pakistan...
1962- Distracting from the problems above was the 1500 mile border with China
They went to war over a disputed portion of land
India also struggled with Pakistan over Kashmir
Settled on an uneasy peace in 1965
Indira Gandhi governed India
Nehru's daughter took over after hisdeath in 1966
She made economic progress
1970's industrial and agricultural production w/ pop slowing
1990 tho, 15% of world pop still lived in India
1974- first nuclear device
Sikhs assassinated her and her son,
He encouraged the electronic industry but was ultimately assassinated as well
A new political party emerged which led only to more Muslim/Hindu violence in 1992
Pakistan became 2 countries...
Both sides Islamic, but ethnically different
After civil war, east became Bangledesh
Civilization arose in the Fertile Crescent
Sumerians give rise to "civilizations"...
Complicated form of culture typically defined by...
By 3000 BCE the Sumerians had about a dozen
Uruk, Lagash, Umma
Centers of trade for larger areas
Scribes, merchants, teachers, priests,
Artisans- potters, metalworkers, weavers
Surplus due to irrigation projects as well as taxes on farmers freed specialized workers up and made others slaves...
First appeared in Sumer _____________
Writing was need for trade
Phonetic in Mesopotamia in China symbols =____________
wheel, plow, sailboat
metalworking copper, bronze, tin
long-lasting patterns of organization--> social classes
governments w/ official laws ruled by priests & kings
organized polytheistic religions...ziggurat temples
Sumerians faced geographic problems...
The water problem?
The defense problem?
The resource problem?
Irrigation, walls, trade
Newcomers contributed to civilization
creates the first Empire with Babylon as its capital
state in which a ruler controlled all of the lands
developed a single, uniform code of law
fell and for 700 years the Fertile Crescent broke into small kingdoms
Phoenicians invented the alphabet
1100 BCE- Phoenicians were the most powerful
, merchants and traders on the Mediterranian
Built many wealthy city-states
Began in the island city of Tyre near modern Lebanon
Rich from selling a purple dye from snails "royal purple"
Cedar trees provided lumber for ships
Poor in natural resources, they traded for all they needed
The greatest of these was Carthage in North Africa
900 BCE Phoenicians created the alphabet
They used 22 symbols to represent different sounds
Our alphabet consists of just 4 more letters
Literacy over the centuries became more widespread
Jews worked a single God..
2000 BCE a group of travelers left the Sumerian city-state of Ur
At Canaan (Palestine) Abraham and wife Sarah settled
The Jews settled and established monotheism
Not limited to geography, so God traveled with the people
1650 BCE drought and famine forced the Jews to Egypt
At first they had positions of honor...then they were slaves
1300-1200 BCE the Jews fled Egypt led by Moses
Teachings from God to Moses become the basis for the religious laws of Judaism...Covenant-promise between the Jews and God
Emphasized justice, morality and individual relationship 2 God
Building the kingdom of Israel...
Jews returned to Canaan, a territory occupied by the Canaanites
3 able kings united them to take on the Canaanites:
Built the Ark of the Covenant
922 BCE the kingdom split
Prophets carried out ethical monotheism
introduced the age of iron from Asia Minor and perhaps the Age of Empires..
The Assyrian Empire...
Came from the Northern part of Mesopotamia
They conquered using iron weapons with incredible organization
They displaced conquered peoples to prevent uprisings
850-650 BCE Assyrians conquered Syria, Palestine, & Babylonia, Egypt and North Africa (capital Nineveh)
The Chaldeans rebuilt Babylon...
600 BCE Babylon became the center of empire again
King Nebuchadnezzar built the hanging gardens of Babylon
Walls of Babylon were incredibly thick
7 tiered ziggurats were featured
Constellations marked the passing of time (calendar)
Zodiac was said to foretell the future and human destiny
Phases of the moon were accurately calculated
Formed the basis of astronomy/astrology for the Greeks later
Jews' Babylonian Activity
Nebuchadnezzar displaced conquered peoples as well...
Jews were among those displaced and sent as slaves to Babylon
Jews held fast to their religion despite separation from their homeland
550 BCE Persians used tolerance instead of coercion to extend from Indus to the Nile
- in just 11 years conquered all of the Fertile Crescent
Instead of displacement, he allowed local customs to continue
Allowed Jews to return to their land
Darius established the army of Ten Thousand Immortals
Darius divided the vast territory into regions
Practiced own religion, spoke own language, laws
Each region was governed by a ___________
Royal road and metal coins
Who was Gandhi?
Non-Cooperation Tree & Gandhi
What does the poster disclose about the role of religion, and particularly Hinduism, in the Indian nationalist movement? How might Muslims have responded to the Hindu religious imagery of the poster?
Hinduism played a prominent role as is revealed in the figures of Bharat Mata, Krishna and the Goddess of Unity
Muslims may have felt excluded or marginalized by the Hindu imagery
Muslims also may have identified with the fighting of bloody Muslims & Hindus in the lower left corner of the image
How does the poster portray Gandhi and his wife, Kasturbai, the woman in white sitting in front of the small red house? According to the poster, what kind of India was Gandhi seeking after independence?
Gandhi and his wife are portrayed in a peaceful scene. Gandhi is seated on a mat with books, while Kasturbai is seated at the threshold of what might be their house and is undertaking household tasks. Their peaceful existence underneath the tree of non-cooperation may be intended to foreshadow the future. This interpretation is strengthened by the wall that separates them from British repression with Muslim/Hindu sectarian violence
Gandhi sought an independent, united India that overcomes its political and religious differences. He envisioned an India where all people, including the leaders of the independence movement, could return to peaceful family life.
Gandhi, Mohandas K.
Usually referred to by his soubriquet “Mahatma” (Great Soul), Gandhi (1869–1948) was a political leader and the undoubted spiritual leader of the Indian drive for independence from Great Britain.
Gandhi was born in the province of Gujarat in western India to a pious Hindu family of the Vaisya, or business, caste.
Married at 13, had only a mediocre record as a student, & eagerly embraced an opportunity to study law in England at 18.
Returned as a shy and not very successful lawyer.
1893 he accepted a job with an Indian firm in South Africa, where a substantial number of Indians had migrated as indentured laborers during the 19th century.
While in South Africa, Gandhi personally experienced overt racism for the first time and as a result soon became involved in organizing Indians, mostly Muslims, to protest that country’s policies of racial segregation.
Developed a concept of India that included Hindus & Muslims alike
Pioneered strategies of resistance that he would later apply in India itself.
His emerging political philosophy, known as satyagraha (truth force), was a confrontational, though non-violent, approach to political action.
"Non-violence means conscious suffering. It does not mean meek submission to the will of the evil-doer, but it means the pitting of one’s whole soul against the will of the tyrant… [I]t is possible for a single individual to defy the whole might of an unjust empire to save his honour, his religion, his soul."
Indian National Congress (INC): 1885 Association of English-educated Indians—lawyers, journalists, teachers, businessmen—drawn overwhelmingly from regionally prominent high-caste Hindu families.
Its founding represented the beginning of a new kind of political protest, quite different from the rebellions, banditry, and refusal to pay taxes that had periodically erupted in the rural areas of colonial India.
The INC was largely an urban phenomenon and quite moderate in its demands.
Initially, INC well-educated members did not seek to overthrow British rule; rather they hoped to gain greater inclusion within the political, military, and business life of British India.
From such positions of influence, they argued, they could better protect the interests of India than could their foreign-born rulers.
The British mocked their claim to speak for ordinary Indians, referring to them as “babus,” a derogatory term that implied a semi literate “native” with only a thin veneer of modern education.
1920s & 30s: periodic mass campaigns that drew support from an extraordinarily wide spectrum of Indians—peasants and the urban poor, intellectuals and artisans, capitalists and socialists, Hindus and Muslims.
British responded with periodic repression as well as concessions that allowed a greater Indian role in political life.
Gandhi’s conduct & actions—his simple and unpretentious lifestyle, his support of Muslims, his frequent reference to Hindu religious themes—appealed widely in India and transformed the INC into a mass organization.
He did not call for social revolution but sought the moral transformation of individuals.
He worked to raise the status of India’s untouchables (the lowest and most ritually polluting groups within the caste hierarchy), although he launched no attack on caste in general and accepted support from businessmen and their socialist critics alike.
His critique of India’s situation went far beyond colonial rule.
“India is being ground down,” he argued, “not under the English heel, but under that of modern civilization”—its competitiveness, its materialism, its warlike tendencies, its abandonment of religion.
Almost alone among nationalist leaders in India or elsewhere, Gandhi opposed a modern industrial future for his country, seeking instead a society of harmonious self-sufficient villages drawing on ancient Indian principles of duty and morality.
Colonial India became independent in 1947 as 2 countries—a Muslim Pakistan & a mostly Hindu India governed by a secular state.
Dividing colonial India in this fashion was horrendously painful.
1 million + people died in the communal violence that accompanied partition, & 12 million refugees moved from one country to the other to join their religious compatriots.
Gandhi himself, desperately trying to stem the mounting tide of violence in India’s villages, refused to attend the independence celebrations.
He was assassinated in 1948 by a Hindu extremist.
The great triumph of independence, secured from the powerful British Empire, was shadowed by an equally great tragedy in the violence of partition.
What common features are found in empires?
controlled large _____ and _______
Usually brought together by ___________
Funded by wealth extracted from ____________
Stimulated exchange of ideas, culture, values
Local Identities and loyalties were replaced by an Imperial identity
ALL EMPIRES eventually _____________
Persian Empire lasted 200 years...
Tolerance and stability brought peace allowing cultures to be preserved and trade to flourish
Capital of Persepolis
Received trade from India to the Mediterranean
Source of royal power
Preserved the written language, learning, religion, culture and more
Unpredictability of rivers as well as doomed outlook on life ushered in a new philosophy
Concept of heaven and hell
Good vs. evil
Concept of a savior
The Gift of the Nile...
4,100 miles of river stretch from
___________ to ____________
Water flows from the "Mountains of the Moon"
Main source is Lake ___________________
The White and Blue Nile merged to form the Nile which fed Egypt...but the BLUE Nile bore the floods that brought a yearly renewal of life to the lower valley in Egypt.
first cataract lies 750 miles from the Mediterranean making boats impassable
five more lie to the south upstream
B/W the 1st cataract and the Med Sea lay 2 very different regions
Upper (to the south) skinny strip of land
Lower (to the north) began 100 miles before the Nile Delta
Farmers relied on the Nile's Floods
The gift of the Nile
Worshiping the Nile
Deserts shielded Egypt from attack
Farm villages joined in nomes
Menes united 2 kingdoms
Egypts Pharaohs ruled as gods
Religion glorified pharaohs in the Old Kingdom
The power of the pharaohs
Immortality for the pharaoh
the time of the pyramids
The First Illness brought ruin
Royal power returned in the Middle Kingdom
Projects for the public good
Afterlife for commoners
The Hyksos ruled during the 2nd Illness
Bronze Age- Ancient Greece
- Crete (2000 BCE- 1400 BCE)
Phoenecians? Seafaring and lots of trade
High form of culture and relatively egalitarian
Knossos capitol even had plumbing
Fall is unclear
Mycenaean Civilization- Southern Mainland Greece (2000 BCE-1200 BCE)
Mycenae heavily fortified
Proud, warrior-like society
fortunate enough to afford bronze...all others used stone and wood
more like piracy than anything
Homer- Illiad and the Odyssey(epics)
Greek Pantheon- human-like gods
arete- the heroic ideal; striving for excellence, courage and honor
All emerge out of the Dark Ages (Dorian Migrations)
Rise of the Polis:
After the Dark Ages 750 BCE
root of police, politics, politician
Refers to the city and its surrounding countryside
Largest was only 4,000 square miles (Sparta)
ALL citizens expected to share in discussion of the state..."Territorial Sovereignty"
Meetings held in the agora on a hilltop known as the _______________
5000-10000 citizens (NO women, foreigners, slaves)
Free and rational individuals made decisions
From Kings to Citizens:
Kings power passed to nobles after dark age...this type of govt is known as an _______________
The availability of _____ made every citizen a soldier o, hoplite.
Hoplites grouped together with shields and spears to form a ___________.
Sparta built an army state
Located in the Peloponnesus
725 BCE Spartans conquered Messenians
Treated them like slaves known as ________
Messenians rebelled and Sparta barely survives
RXN= Code of Lycurgus...laws of the state
Military service to the state until around age 50
Duty, service, strength, discipline over individuality, beauty and freedom of thought
Women exceptionally equal EXCEPT the vote
Athens turned to Democracy
Change occurred as a result of power struggle between rich/poor
Avoided Civil War thanks to...
Solon's Reforms 594 BCE
Cancelled all debts and freed the endebted
Encouraged farming of grapes, olives
Encouraged apprenticeship in the family
Allowed every male citizen to attend assembly
Citizens could bring charges against another
Cleisthenes Reforms 508 BCE
Council of 500- propose laws and advise assembly
Rome built on Palatine Hill
Centrally located b/w Alps to north and southern tip
Mare Nostrum...our sea- Mediterannean allows for smooth trade and military deployment in all directions
Tiber River flows into Medit. Sea
Much more fertile than Greece
Development of Rome from 3 Groups:
Earliest settlers, agrarian
Romulus and Remus
Greek culture and religion
Writing, architecture, religion
Early Romans est. a Republic
Ruled by Kings eary on
509 BCE Rape of Lucretia led to the overthow of the monarchy
Res publica "public affairs"- many groups vied for power
"Fathers of the founders"
Determined by birth
Farmers, artisans, merchants
free citizens w/ rights (vote)
NO marriage b/w the 2 classes
Roman Republic Spread its Power
Rome Built a Mighty Army:
All male citizens req. to serve; 10 years to hold political office
Legion- 6000 heavily armed soldiers divided into 60 more groups called centuries; superior to the phalanx due to flexibilty
509-265 BCE Rome battled for mastery of Italy
390 BCE- Sack of Rome by Gauls...Rome recovered rapidly and built an enormous wall making it the largest city in Italy
Rome would not be sacked again for another 800 years
War w/ the Greeks:
Greeks still controlled colonies in the South
King Pyrrhus of W. Greece able to defeat Romans but at great loss (Pyrrhic Victory)
Governing conquered territory
Latin neighbors near Rome considered full citizens
Further from Rome they gave 1/2 citizenship
Even further were allies...but with self-government
265-146 BCE Punic Wars (from the Latin Phoenicia)
After the fall of Greece, 2 major powers controlled trade in the Mediterannean:
Alexandria, Egypt (Ptolemies)
250,000 people (3x Rome)
Huge navy of 500 ships
Wealth paid for trained mercenaries
Large reserve of troops from conquered
More loyal troops in general
SPQR "Senatus populus que Romanus"
Patricians controlled the Senate while plebs= just people
494-287 BCE Plebs refused to fight in the Roman army
Gained access to political offices
More favorable laws
Debt enslavement ended
Class intermarriage allowed
First written law prevented Patrician abuse of power
12 Tablets of laws hung in the forum
ALL free citizens had a right to protection under the law
2 Consuls (monarchy) 1 year, 10 years bw terms, veto power
Senate (Aristocracy) served for life to provide stability
Assembly (democracy) eventually gained force of law
First Punic War 264 BCE-241 BCE
Despite the seemingly insurmountable odds...
Rome discovered a Carthiginian warship that washed ashore
They reverse engineered it
Revised it for army purpose
Crashed into their ships
Boarded & used their army
After 23 years in 241 bce...
Rome had defeated the Carthaginian navy
Rome gained the rich, grain growing Sicily
2nd Punic War-
Hannibal seeks revenge
241-218 BCE Rome and Carthage both had other interests
218 BCE- The peace was broken
Hannibal Barca, son of a military genius from the 1st Punic War was said to have been at the signing of the surrender of Carthage
With 50,000 infantry, 9,000 cavalry & 60 elephants he attempted to invade Italy from the north through the Spain, France & the Alps
Hannibal destroyed the Romans for the next 13 years...living offthe country Rome never challenged him in open battle...he could not conquer Rome's fortified city
He waited for years for help...none came
2nd Punic War cont-
Scipio and the Battle of Zama
Rome finally found a general to equal Hannibal
Scipio attacked Carthage itself forcing Hannibal to leave Rome and head home
Scipio thrashed Hannibal at the Battle of Zama in 202 BCE...(Hannibal survived and governed Carthage for 7 years before committing suicide to avoid capture by Rome)
ONE OF FEW BATTLES THAT COULD BE CONSIDERED A TRUE TURNING POINT
Carthage was allowed to keep its lands but nothing more.
Conquests to the East...
During the next 70 years Rome turned to the weakened East...
Antigonid Dynasty in Macedon
Ptolemaic Dynasty ruled Egypt
Seleucid Dynasty ruled Persia
Greece was nearest so Rome "freed" them in 197 BCE
Rome's rule often took the form of harsh coercion
133 BCE Rome was ivited by a dying king into Asia Minor as well
Rome stretched from Spain to what was the Persian Empire
3rd & Final Punic War...
146 BCE Carthage was destroyed...
No longer a threat but still prosperous
Senator Cato led the charge
Rome made an excuse to wage war
Burned the city down and sowed salt into the soil so that nothing would ever grow there again
Republican Government Collapsed in Rome
Military conquest led to many men leaving their farms to fight in the Roman legions...upon return, Rome was very different...
Hannibal destroyed many farms
Unable to rebuild, many sold to wealthy citizens
...huge slave run estates formed
...urban, landless class of poor people formed
Rich were corrupted by their wealth...
Slavery took many forms...
Low skilled, uneducated cheap...heavy labor
Educated, skilled and expensive...household
Uprising was a constant threat...
Gracchi attempted reforms...
The worst threat to the Republic were the citizens themselves...violent political rivalry
Tiberius and Gaius Gracchus
attempted reforms to fix the corrupt government
133 BCE Tiberius, Tribune of the plebeians, sought to give the proletariat land and limit the size of the estates
Killed by the Senate upon seeking reelection
123 BCE Gaius strengthened the position of Tribune and passed a number of laws to weaken the Senate and deal w/ unemployment
As a result, Gaius was also killed by the Senate
From Republic to Empire...
After the death of the Gracchi, military leaders sought control of the Republic...
Marius vs Sulla
Marius conquered germanic tribes
Marius was reelected consul 5x
Marius allowed landless poor to join
Armed by the govt and served 16 years
As a result, soldiers fought for any military leader that could offer arms, loot and food...not for the Republic
Marius & Sulla fought for control of Rome
Both imposed their laws on Rome
Both died peacefully but established a new pattern for gaining political power
The First Triumvirate
Among the enemies that Sulla sought to eliminate was
who skillfully bribed his way to freedom
Caesar had little money but through the game of politics and an investor,
Crassus the Rich
, he rose to power swiftly.
60 BCE Caesar, Crassus and
joined forces to cement political power
59 BCE Caesar was elected consul but left after a year to conquer
Caesar won his troops over by living as one of them
Triumvirate fell apart...Crassus died and Pompey turned on JC fearing his increasing popularity
Pompey, with Senate approval, ordered JC to disband and return to Rome
Crossing the Rubicon...
JC returned w/ the army in 49 BCE
JC chased Pompey all the way to Egypt where he was killed by the Pharaoh
44 BCE the Senate appointed JC dictator for ten years
Julius Caesar, Absolute Ruler...
As dictator, Caesar made several sweeping
Granted Roman citizenship to people outside of Italy
He expanded the Senate to 900 men for loyalty reasons and making it more representative of the empire
Made landowners substitute 1/3 of their slaves for free workers
Set up public works program to create jobs
Founded 20 new colonies to provide land to the landless poor
Created the Julian Calendar with 365 days and 1 extra day every 4 years...February became the shortest month bc it was deemed unlucky
Death of Caesar...
Ides of March
(March 15th) 44 BCE
Senators...even friends to Caesar, feared his abuse of the Republic traditions and that he might make himself king...assassinated Caesar.
The Second Triumvirate...
The Senate believed they had saved the Republic...
But 2 Civil Wars
And Caesar's favorable changes
Shifted power from the Patricians to the people who now favored one man rule over the Republic
A third civil war soon broke out...
Octavian- JC's grandnephew and adopted son
Mark Antony- experienced general
Lepidus- a powerful politician
All formed a new triumvirate 43-33 BCE
They eliminated Caesar's enemies including
War between Octavian and Antony
Jealousy and violence ended the 2nd triumvirate just like the first and Lepidus was defeated swiftly by Octavian
Marc Antony, though married to Octavian's sister as a political gesture, fell for
Octavian convinced the Senate that Antony intended to rule Rome from Egypt
31 BCE Battle of Actium
Octavian defeats Antony's navy off the coast of Greece
Octavian and Cleopatra commit suicide later
Octavian became sole ruler...
Octavian was now like a king or emperor of Rome
But he recalled what had happened to Caesar
Instead of a crown, he took the title of "First Citizen"
27 BCE the Senate gave him the title of
meaning "exalted one"
Rome, as an empire and not a republic, was now ruled by one man
The Senate and assembly still performed its duties
They let the Republic die while pretending that it still lived.
The Pax Romana 27 BCE-180 CE
Peace within, not without
Rome was about the size of the US
The capital contained 1 million people
90 million in the empire
What policies did Augustus establish in order to stabilize trade throughout the Empire?
What policies did Augustus
establish in order to convert
Rome into a world capital?
What policies did Augustus establish
in order to stabilize the imperial gov't?
Problem of Succession
In A.D. 14, Augustus died at age 76,
power passed to the Julian emperors who were the descendants of Julius Caesar. How did succession work in the Roman Empire?
What were the ramifications of this method of succession??
The 5 Good Emperors
-Who were they & what
did they contribute?
How did the Empire maintain
the Pax Romana through such
When did the Pax Romana end?
A. Area conquered by Caesar, only territory
to conquer Rome until its fall.
B. Prize of the first Punic War
C. Enemy of Rome in the Punic War
D. Provided protection for Rome in the North
E. Settlements in the south of Italy
F. Peninsula directly East of Rome
G. Settlements in the North of Rome
H. City settled on Palatine Hill
I. Central avenue of trade for Romans
-common currency (denarius)
-ended X border taxes
-aqueducts carried water to cities
-Built temples like Greeks
-Marble to decorate
-Copied by many cities
-Created civil service
-Real work= plebs/slaves
-paid salary for jobs led to allegiance
How would the growth of a civil service
make up for the rule of bad emperors?
What was the Pax Romana?
Necessary work would continue despite the ruler
Began custom of
adopting heir, Trajan
Empire reached its
Hadrian as heir
gov't, chose Antoninus
Pius as heir
Edu and child welfare,
army declined, chose
Marcus Aurelius as heir
Faced dreadful disease &
invasion by barbarians.
End of Pax Romana.
Investigate the information on page 156.
Is there more or less evidence that support
this time as Pax Romana?
Stoicism vs. Epicureanism
"In the midst of it all,
you must take your stand,
yet always aware that a
man's worth is no greater
than the worth of his ambitions."
Go, he said, and tell the Romans that by heaven's will my Rome shall be capital of the world. Let them learn to be soldiers. Let them know, and teach their children, that no power on earth can stand against Roman arms. -Titus Livy
"The Gods are not to be feared;
death cannot be felt;
the good can be won;
all that we dread can be conquered."
"Happy is he who has discovered the causes of things and has cast beneath his feet , all fears, unavoidable fate, and the din of the devouring Underworld." -Virgil
"Remember, Roman, these are your talents:
To rule people by law, and to establish the ways
of peace, To spare the conquered, and to crush
the haughty." -Virgil
"Man is a free agent.
Virtue consists in
1) prudence 2) Temperance
3) Fortitude 4) Justice.
To which are opposed:
1) Folly 2) Desire 3) Fear
4)Deceit." -Thomas Jefferson
“There is no reason, I feel, to object when antiquity draws no hard line between the human and the supernatural: it adds dignity to the past, and, if any nation deserves the privilege of claiming a divine ancestry, that nation is our own; and so great is the glory won by the Roman people in their wars that, when they declare that Mars himself was their first parent and father of the man who founded their city, all the nations of the world might well allow the claim as readily as they accept Rome’s imperial dominion.”
Romulus was the first king of Roman followed by many others of whom the most famous were the Tarquins. The era of the kings ends with the infamous episode involving the rape of Lucretia. The Tarquins establish themselves not merely as kings, but as complete tyrants, no longer consulting the Senate for decisions and trampling over the common people.
“[A] king, they argued, was, after all, a human being, and there was a chance of getting from him what one wanted, rightly or wrongly; under a monarchy there was room for influence and favour; a king could be angry, and forgive; he knew the difference between an enemy and a friend. Law, on the other hand, was impersonal and inexorable. Law had no ears. An excellent thing, no doubt, for paupers, it was worse than useless for the great, as it admitted no realization or indulgence towards a man who ventured beyond the bounds of mediocrity.”
Golden Age of Augustus (Patriotism) vs. Silver Age post-Augustus (Criticism/satire)
Count it the greatest sin to
prefer life to honor, and for
the sake of living to lose what
makes life worth having.
It is not easy for men to
rise whose qualities are
thwarted by poverty.
The people that once bestowed commands, consulships, legions, and all else, now concerns itself no more, and longs eagerly for just two things - bread and circuses!
All things atrocious
and shameless flock
from all parts to Rome.
A bad peace is even
worse than war.
When the state is most
corrupt, then the laws
are most multiplied.
To plunder, to slaughter,
to steal, these things they
misname empire; and
where they make a
wilderness, they call it peace.
Temple of Athena Parthenos
What do the previous
images suggest about
For what purpose
did/do the buildings
Stoicism = Universal Law
12 Tables of the Republic
were meant only for the
citizens of Rome.
Stoicism led to the belief
in applying law to all men.
quote leads us to
Jefferson was an
No person could be judged guilty of a crime
until after the facts of the case were examined
All persons accused of crimes had a right to
face their accusers and defend themselves
before a judge
If there was a doubt, the person should be
Any unfair law could be set aside
The Fifth Amendment of the U.S. Constitution reads, in part, "No person shall be ... deprived of life, liberty, or property without due process of law ..."
Reasonable doubt/Burden of proof
"...and to be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation; to be confronted with the witnesses against him; to have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor." -6th Amendment
Civil Rights Act of 1964
Paul, bishop, pope, Gospel,
zealots, Petrine Doctrine
2. Explain the appeal of Christianity
within the context of the Roman
3. Effect = Spread of Christianity
Causes = ???
4. Assess the validity of the
following quote, "blood of the
martyrs became the seed of the
church" Use evidence from
packet to support.
-12 messengers that helped spread Christianity
-a church official that set moral standards & handled
finances...Peter was the first...he was also the first
father of the Christian church or the _________ and
established the rule for all other fathers of the Church
-Settled by Tiber R. 1000b.c.
-Shepherds on Palatine Hill
-Romulus builds wall 753 b.c.
-Settled S. Italy/Sicily
-Brought Greek ideas
-N. Italy 1200-800 b.c.
-From Asia Minor?
-System of writing (Greek)
-Ruled by kings first
-Roman Forum built at bottom
of Palatine Hill- political life
-509 b.c. Rome becomes republic
citizens vote to choose leader
-NOT a democracy
Auctoritas: "Spiritual Authority" The sense of one's social standing, built up through experience, Pietas, and Industria.
Comitas: "Humor" Ease of manner, courtesy, openness, and friendliness.
Clementia: "Mercy" Mildness and gentleness.
Dignitas: "Dignity" A sense of self-worth, personal pride.
Firmitas: "Tenacity" Strength of mind, the ability to stick to one's purpose.
Frugalitas: "Frugalness" Economy and simplicity of style, without being miserly.
Gravitas: "Gravity" A sense of the importance of the matter at hand, responsibility and earnestness.
Honestas: "Respectibility" The image that one presents as a respectable member of society.
Humanitas: "Humanity" Refinement, civilization, learning, and being cultured.
Industria: "Industriousness" Hard work.
Pietas: "Dutifulness" More than religious piety; a respect for the natural order socially, politically, and religiously. Includes the ideas of patriotism and devotion to others.
Prudentia: "Prudence" Foresight, wisdom, and personal discretion.
Salubritas: "Wholesomeness" Health and cleanliness.
Severitas: "Sternness" Gravity, self-control.
Veritas: "Truthfulness" Honesty in dealing with others.
-Gravitas: sense of importance
of the moment, responsibility &
-Strength, power, usefulness &
-Pater familias- "father of the
family" to which power of the
-FAMILY heart of Roman
-Materfamilias- women head
of the household, citizen with
rights to property and trial BUT
not the vote
of ancestors of Rome
-Held political office
-Free citizens but
no political office
-Lower class by birth
-All males served
-10 years service =
-More flexible than
-Read the 12 Tables and identify at least 3 of the laws that are relevant to today's laws and explain how.
-Identify 2 laws that you think are too cruel and explain why.
-Identify one law you believe is just bizarre and state why
3 relevant laws
2 cruel laws
1 bizarre law
Cicero, De Oratore, I.44: Though all the world exclaim against me, I will say what I think: that single little book of the Twelve Tables, if anyone look to the fountains and sources of laws, seems to me, assuredly, to surpass the libraries of all the philosophers, both in weight of authority, and in plenitude of utility.
Like Greece, Romans were ruled by one man with absolute power at one point in its history. Also like Greece, they overthrew the monarchy and established a government of the people. Contrary to the Greeks, the Romans established a government in which citizens voted for their leaders, or a Republic. Citizens could live their lives as their representatives made the decisions for them.
The Roman Republic had 3 branches much like the U.S. government today. The Consuls, resembling the executive branch, of which there were 2 as opposed to one, served as military commander, high judge and held veto power. The Senators served as the lawmakers in a legislative branch of which there were 300 members, equally split between the rich, land owning patricians and the common plebeians. They controlled the money similar to the U.S. Congress and wielded the most power in the Republic.
Despite the equal representation in the Senate, plebeians, seeking more power, created a tribune of 10 plebeians meant to lobby for more power to the masses. The last group consisted of the citizen assembly which was made up of mostly plebeians but not women, slaves and foreigners.
As a result of patrician knowledge of the laws, plebeians went on strike until the 12 tables was created, listing all of the laws of Rome. 500 years after the Republic was created, it fell and ceded power to the uncontrollable emperors that won the loyalty of the military and mob.
Formative assessment: Based on the worksheet,"The Roman Government"
the structure of the Roman government using details from the w.s. and then
using the words at the end.
-Analyze the 12 tables and explain how they protect against abuse of power
-Draw similarities between the Roman and the U.S. government
Topic: College Readiness Standards
Van Doren on Greek Knowledge
What are the CRS for Reading?
Sequential, Comparative and Causes & Effect Relationships
Meaning of Words
Generalizations and Conclusions
For each question...What's the standard?
What was my answer to the question and why?
What is the ACTUAL answer and what evidence supports that it is the answer?
1. Main Idea...quote form
Disciple, apostle, messiah, martyr, bishop, pope, Jerusalem, Herod, Jesus, Gospels, Pontius Pilate, Paul (Saul), zealots, Masada, Petrine Doctrine, blasphemy
Rome's attitude toward MOST religions? Why did Judaism and Christianity NOT fit into the empire?
Jesus' religious ideas?
4. Roman Empire helped to spread Christianity? Attacked Christianity?
* According to the information in this document, why was Augustus Caesar a
* In light of his account, why was he able to come to power?
* What was Augustus' appeal to the Roman Senate and to the Roman people?
* How does Augustus' rise to power compare with that of Julius Caesar? What
are the similarities?
* Both Augustus and Julius Caesar obtained their positions during times of
political strife and uncertainty. What does this fact indicate about Roman society?
In summary, why were the Romans willing to sacrifice their Republican form of government and grant absolute power to one leader?
(Athenian philosopher) 342-270BCE
=free the body from pain & mind from fear
Avoid all excesses
; even pleasure
as the end
Wealthy Romans forgot the whole avoid excess thing and used it to
justify pursuing pleasures
= porch...the philosophy of
of Athens who gathered on a stoop near the marketplace
=virtue, duty, endurance
Universal Law; Divine Reason; Supreme Power
which governed the universe
Pain & pleasure are unimportant
Philosophy of the majority of wealthy families seeking to
maintain traditional Roman values
Stoics had great
influence in politics
Belief in human laws as reasonable and just
Many laws in the Golden Age of Rome show Stoic influence
"Remember Romans, these are your talents:
To rule people by law, and to establish the ways of peace,
To spare the conquered, and to crush the haughty." -Virgil "The Aeneid"
180 CE with the Reign of Commodus
Traditionally...Rome was supplied by:
Military protecting trade routes
Gold/silver collected as plunder
Enough grain to feed the entire population
ALL SOURCES OF SUPPLY DRIED UP!
Trade disrupted by barbarian raids
Elite wasted gold/silver to buy luxury goods from China, India and Arabia
Inflation occurred as coins contained less and less silver.
Overworked soil led to meager supplies of grain as well.
Goths repeatedly overran Romans near the Danube River
Persia defeats Valerian in 260 CE making the emperor a subject of Persia
Roman soldiers fought strictly for $, not patriotism
Barbarian were allowed to join for lower wages which showed little loyalty
LOYALTY was perhaps the key problem
citizens were now actively indifferent
Less and less $ came in from taxes and officials paid out of their own pockets for circuses and baths etc
If a local officials couldnt pay their taxes they would have to pay the difference leading to a reluctance in being an official
Armies only group actively interested in politics...many generals claimed the role of emperor but many were killed
Diocletian was one emperor who allowed the Empire to last another 200 years...
army leader and son of a slave
He instituted many reforms:
Doubled the Roman armies
price and wage controls to battle inflation
persecuted Christians to restore old Roman Gods
instituted ceremonies to increase prestige of Emperor
Divided the empire into East and West (east more wealthy)
Reforms not totally successful:
wages for troops added to already high taxes
price controls failed
Christianity continued to grow
Civil War broke out right after Diocletian
4 rivals competed for power...Constantine...
He is said to have won after witnessing a sign ( a cross made of light)
Constantine won "thanks to the power of the Christian God"
313 CE he ended Christian persecution
EDICT OF MILAN...Christianity became a religion approved by the emperor
395 CE Emperor Theodosius made Christianity the official religion
Eventually Constantine won power of both Eastern/Western Roman Empire...
330 CE he moved the capitol of the Empire to Byzantium (Greek city in present day Turkey) for 4 reasons:
Crossroad for trade (Bosporus) north of the Hellespont
Easy to defend
Either way there were now 2 empires...and both were Christian.
Barabian invasions took a century from 376-476 CE to topple Rome...
Many groups took part:
Ostrogoths, Visigoths, Franks, Anglos, Saxons, Burgundians, Lombards, Vandals
All groups had germanic languages
Long hair, gamblers, drinkers, fighters
Hated each other mostly
Terrified of the Huns
First half of 5th Century (400-500CE) Rome was sacked twice...
Visigoths 410 & Vandals 455
Attila the Hun...
Sacked 70 cities in the east...but not Constantinople
452 he advanced against Rome...halted by a Christian Bishop and the first Pope Leo I (plague? prestige?)
By 455 Roman Emperor in West was practically powerless
Most territories were being claimed by Germanic tribes
N. Africa- Vandals
Gaul- Franks, Burgundians, Visigoths
Britannia- Anglos and Saxons
Odoacer took control in 476 CE THE END!
NOPE...Byzantine Empire flourished for another 1000 years
Latin remained in the West as well as duh duh dunnnnn
"Apply the standard of civilization put forth by
(INTRO) to evaluate your reasoning for the fall of the Republic." THESIS Essay...
Growth of the Republic
Perfection of the Republic
THESIS- Why did the republic fall??
Going away from virtues
POWER hungry corrupt
?? Why did the Roman Republic fall??
Sea of Marmara
Founded by Constantine...Rome's 1st Christian Emperor in 330 CE
Situated at a major trade exhange
From Persia, Palestine, India, Southeast Asia, Europe & North Africa via the Mediterannean
From Europe overland to the West
From China and Persia overland to the East
From Scandinavia to the North
Located on the Bosporus
Peninsula of the Golden Horn
From here they controlled...
Greece, Asia Minor, Palestine
Syria and Egypt
Caesaropapism & Justinian
Byzantine Emperors of "New Rome" saw themselves as heirs to the power of Caesar Augustus
Senate still met in Constantinople
Emperor ruled absolutely though
Denied the authority of the Bishop of Rome
Emperor acted in Jesus' name
They even claimed authority over the old lands of Rome and attempted to reclaim them under one emperor...
Justinian ruled 527 to 565 CE
Procopius described him as "deceitful, devious, false, hypocritical, two-faced, skilled in dissembling his thought his thought, never moved to tears by either joy or pain...a liar always." ...yet he was a skillful emperor.
He launched 3 ambitious projects:
Reconquer lands to the west
Ended up destroying Rome and other territories were lost after his death
Hired Greco-Latin scholars to compile a law code
Corpus Juris Civilis
Basis for Byzantine Law for 900 years and influenced Europe long after
Massive building project in Constantinople...
Required being Christian & speaking Greek to be a citizen
300,000 people from all over the world
Safest city in the word due to high walls, moats along the sea
Marketplace known for luxury items:
Spices from India
Ivory and gold from Africa
Honey, timber and furs from Russia
Cork from Spain, tin/iron from England, wine from France
Silk from China
Imperial Palace was the center of govt
Symbol of Christianity
The Church Split into 2 Branches...
The Greeks of Constantinople debated religion the way they used to politics
They sold ICONS in the market
700's debate over icons boiled over after several emperors tried to get rid of them
iconoclasts- icon smashers
Pope in Rome supported icon use and EXCOMMUNICATED the Byzantine Emperor
Byzantine Emperor accepted them again and labeled iconoclasts as HERETICS
Roman Catholic (universal) vs Greek Orthodox (correct belief)
Vernacular vs Latin
Marriage of priests vs not
Pope vs patriarch
Split became offical in 1054 when the pope and patriarch excommunicated eachother
Byzantium faced many enemies
Following Justinians death in 565, plague swept through the empire
Lombards moved into Italy and won back much of the land Justinian had fought for
Avars invaded Greece and Macedon (Bulkan Peninsula)
Persians threatned from the East
Finally...a new enemy threatened the empire from the Arabian Desert.....
The Geography of Africa: 5 Major Regions
The Northern and Southern Coasts:
Narrow strips of ferile land
Support dense populations
Sahara in the North (Arabic "Sahra"=desert)
Atlantic Ocean to the Red Sea (size of the U.S.)
Mostly flat...traveled by camel caravan (1000) since 400Ad (2 months to travel)
90 habitated oases scattered throughout
Kalahari in the South
1/3 of Africa's land
The Dry Grasslands
borders the deserts
semiarid climate not suitable for farming but okay for grazing
Desertification always a high risk especially in the Sahel
As average rainfall increases, tall grass plains cover about 2/5 of Africa
Farming is possible but difficult due to strong dry periods after heavy rain stripped the minerals from the soil
Millet, an african grain/rice is grown here and supports the majority of Africas population
Inland from the Atlantic
Drenched, densely wooded
less than 1/5 of the land
Like the desert, a barrier to travel
Zaire River (2nd longest in Africa)
Home to the deadliest African creature
Niger River Valley Civs
Coastline provided few natural harbors
Kush Thrived on Trade
Early center of culture formed out of Ag Rev
Skilled farmers and metallurgists (iron)
Unique style of art
Emerged around the time of Greeks/Persians
Might be the origin of the Bantu Speaking People
Kingdom of Kush:
First major Kingdom of Sub-Sahara & Continuity of Egypt
Located in iddle region of Nile valley
Dominated by Egypt 2000-1000 BCE
Adopted idea of God-king
Asserted their independence beginning in 751 BCE
Kushite King Piankhi led army down the Nile (up) and conquered Egypt
Became Egypt's 25th Dynasty
Short lived as they provoked the wrath of the Assyrians
671 BCE the
clad Kushites fell to the
clad Assyrians and fled within 10 years
550 BCE the Kushite royal family moved the capital the the city of
Golden Age of Meroe (250 BCE- 150 CE):
located far enough away from Egypt to provide protection but on the Nile and close to the Red Sea to trade with the growing influence of Africa, Arabia and India
Meroe had an abundance of iron ore
quickly became and benefitted from the manufacture of iron weapons and tools
Merchants transported these goods on donkeys to the Red Sea
Traded them to merchants of India/Arabia for jewelry, fine cotton cloth, silver and glass.