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Art History Course Green Hill Part One
Transcript of Art History Course Green Hill Part One
He was overshadowed first by the advent of a new style by Perugino and Francesco Francia and then totally eclipsed with the establishment of High Renaissance style, with the paintings of Michelangelo and Raphael in the Vatican. From that time Botticelli's name virtually disappeared until the reassessment of his works and reputation - a process which has gathered momentum since the 1890s. 1462 - 1522 1445 - 1510 Primavera, also known as Allegory of Spring,
is a tempera panel painting
Painted ca. 1482 The Birth Of Venus 1486 Massacio Giotto Born 1266/7
near Florence, Republic of Florence, in present-day Italian Republic
Died January 8, 1337 (aged about 70)
Florence, Republic of Florence, in present-day Italian Republic Born December 21, 1401
San Giovanni Valdarno, Republic of Florence
Died 1428 (age 26)
Rome, Papal States Uccello Paolo Uccello (1397 – 1475), Brunelleschi Filippo Brunelleschi 1377–1446 Della Francesca Fra Filipo Lippi VENICE Tintoretto Titian line and design Colour, atmosphere and drama. The Flagellation Medieval Renaissance Allegory with Venus and Cupid
1540-1545, oil on wood
(146 x 116,2 cm) Bronzino The picture is likely to be that mentioned in Vasari's 'Life of Bronzino' of 1568: He made a picture of singular beauty, which was sent to King Francis in France; in which was a nude Venus with Cupid kissing her, and on one side Pleasure and Play with other Loves; and on the other, Fraud, Jealousy, and other passions of love. Venus and Cupid are identifiable by their attributes, as is the old man with wings and an hourglass who must be Time (not mentioned by Vasari). The identity of the other figures, and the meaning of the picture remain uncertain.
The howling figure on the left has been variously interpreted as Jealousy, Despair and the effects of syphilis; the boy scattering roses and stepping on a thorn as Jest, Folly and Pleasure; the hybrid creature with the face of a girl, as Pleasure and Fraud; and the figure in the top left corner as Fraud and Oblivion. The erotic yet erudite subject matter of the painting was well suited to the tastes of King Francis I of France. It was probably sent to him as a gift from Cosimo I de' Medici, ruler of Florence, by whom Bronzino was employed as court painter. Bronzino was also an accomplished poet. The picture reflects his interest in conventional Petrarchan love lyrics as well as more bawdy poetic genres. The National Gallery Baroque Classical Greek & Roman Europa and the Bull - Red-Figure Stamnos, Tarquinia Museum, circa 480 BCE Europa and the Bull, Roman Wall Painting
House of Fatal Love, Pompeii, c. 1st c. CE Detail: Europa and the Bull, Asteas, Paestan circa 340 BCE, formerly Getty Museum, now Italy The Story of Europa Titian Durer Rembrandt Veronese Perseus
Andromeda Allegory of Love
National Gallery Venus and Adonis The deposition
of Christ 1549 St John The Baptist
preaching 1562 Paolo Veronese
(1528–1588) Giorgione 1400 1560 FLORENCE Line and design Uccello Donatello Before the Renaissance
Gothic and Romanesque Giovanni Pisano
Head of the Archangel Michael
Marble with traces of gilding, on a modern porphyry base LORENZETTI, Pietro
(b. ca. 1280, Siena, d. 1348, Siena) The Last Supper
Lower Church, San Francesco, Assisi Nicola Pisano Northern Influence Germany Durer Albrecht Durer, the German Painter, visited Venice, he met Giovanni Bellini, the leading Venetian Painter. Bellini was then in his vigorous eighties, still painting magnificently and still open to learning new techniques and methods from younger painters. He was very kind to Durer - praising him 'highly before several nobles' and commissioning a painting from him, a gesture that no doubt helped the young Durer's career. Albrecht Durer wrote of this meeting - "...and they tell me he is a very honest man, so that I am most favorably disposed to him. Though very old he is still the best in painting here." Lucas Cranach Duccio Duccio di Buoninsegna
(c. 1255-1260 – c. 1318-1319) Christ and the
Woman of Samaria Leonardo Michelangelo The Artists' Books The Patrons The Medici Family According to Salviati's Zibaldone, Cosimo stated: "All those things have given me the greatest satisfaction and contentment because they are not only for the honour of God but are likewise for my own remembrance. For fifty years, I have done nothing else but earn money and spend money; and it became clear that spending money gives me greater pleasure than earning it."
He was a patron and confidante of Fra Angelico, Fra Filippo Lippi, and Donatello, whose famed David and Judith Slaying Holofernes were Medici commissions. Cosimo's patronage enabled the eccentric and bankrupt architect Brunelleschi to complete the dome of Santa Maria del Fiore (the "Duomo") which was perhaps his crowning achievement as sponsor.
In the realm of philosophy, Cosimo, influenced by the lectures of Gemistus Plethon, established a modern Platonic Academy in Florence. He appointed Marsilio Ficino as head of the Academy and commissioned Ficino's Latin translation of the complete works of Plato (the first ever complete translation). Through Ficino and others associated with the Academy, Cosimo had an inestimable effect on Renaissance intellectual life. Gentile Bellini Procession of the True Cross in Piazza San Marco Giovanni Bellini (c. 1430–1516) Agony in the Garden St Jerome in the Desert St. Francis in Ecstasy, 1480
Oil and tempera on panel
Frick Collection, New York Jacopo Bellini
(c. 1400 – c. 1470) Virgin and child (c. 1429–February 23, 1507) Andrea Mantegna (1431 - 1506) Agony in the Garden (San Zeno)
tempera on panel (71 × 94 cm) — 1457-1459 Samson and Delilah 1505 Parnassus 1496-1497 Minerva Expelling the
Vices from the Garden of Virtue
circa 1500-1502 Isabella d’Este’s Studiolo
The fashion of studioli, or private studies, small rooms reserved for intellectual activities, spread in the 15th century in the Italian courts, bathed in Humanist culture.
Isabella d’Este, who married Francesco II in 1490, rapidly decided to create a studiolo in a tower of the old Castello di San Giorgio. The work on this project lasted more than twenty years.
She entrusted Mantegna with the first two canvases of the cycle, Parnassus (1497) and Minerva (1502), but considering his work out-of-date, she turned to the most famous painters of the new generation. In vain she solicited Giovanni Bellini, Leonardo da Vinci and Francesco Francia but, in 1505, she obtained only the disappointing painting by Perugino. Lorenzo Costa, appointed court painter at Mantegna’s death (1506), completed the decoration with two canvases delivered between 1506 and 1511. Mantua The Gonzaga Family The Book of Hours Bathsheba from the book of
hours belonging to Louis XII The Aesthetic Anatomy of Human Proportion 1528
A few months after his death, Vier Bücher von menschlicher Proportion by German artist Albrecht Dürer was published in Nuremberg. This work, written, illustrated and designed by Dürer, with woodcuts on virtually every page, was the first book to discuss the problems of comparative and differential anthropometry. In his study of the subject Dürer was influenced by the classic aesthetic treatises of Villard de Honnecourt, Vitruvius, Alberti and da Vinci; however, Dürer’s study of the different human physiques—fat, thin, tall, short, baby, child and adult —was entirely original.
Unlike his Italian contemporary, Leonardo da Vinci, who published nothing and obscured his manuscripts through mirror-writing, Dürer lived and worked in the world of printing and engraving. The son of a goldsmith, Durer’s godfather was Anton Koberger, who left goldsmithing to become the leading printer and publisher in Nuremberg. At the age of 15 Dürer was apprenticed to the leading artist in Nuremberg, Michael Wolgemut, whose workshop produced a large quantity of woodcuts. Throughout his career Dürer embraced the latest and best reproduction techniques, and may have derived more income from the sale of engravings and woodcuts than from painting.
Toward the end of his life Dürer wrote and illustrated three treatises which he also designed for the press. These included a treatise on fortification, a treatise on mensuration which introduced to Northern Europe techniques of perspective and mathematical proportion in drawing, painting, architecture and letter forms, which Dürer learned in Italy, and a work on the proportion of the human body. The last work, issued shortly after Dürer’s death, was the first work to discuss the problems of comparative and differential anthropometry. Because Dürer copied one of Leonardo’s anatomical drawings of the upper limb into his Dresden Sketchbook we know that on one of his visits to Italy Dürer must have viewed at least some of Leonardo’s anatomical drawings. However, unlike Leonardo who explored both the surface and the interior of the human body, Dürer appears to have limited his interest in the human figure to the surface.
Dürer held that the essence of true form was the primary mathematical figure (e.g., straight line, circle, curve, conic section) constructed arithmetically or geometrically, and made beautiful by the application of a canon of proportion. However, he was also convinced that beauty of form was a relative and not an absolute quality; thus the purpose of his system of anthropometry was to provide the artist with the means to delineate, on the basis of sheer measurement, all possible types of human figures. The first two books of Dürer's work deal with the proper proportions of fat, medium and thin adult figures, as well as those of infants. The third book discusses the changing of proportions according to mathematical rules, applying these rules to both figures and faces. The fourth book treats of the movement of bodies in space, and is of the greatest mathematical interest, as it presents, for the first time, many new, intricate and difficult considerations of descriptive spatial geometry. The whole work is profusely illustrated with Dürer's woodcut diagrams of figures. Choulant states that these include "the first attempts to represent shades and shadows in wood engraving by means of cross-hatching" (p. 145).
Like the Underweysung der Messung (1525), Dürer dedicated his book on human proportion to his friend, the humanist Willibald Pirckheimer. Pirckheimer provided a preface describing Dürer's debt to the Italians, alluding to Dürer’s visits to Giovanni Bellini and Andrea Mantegna, and explaining Dürer’s influence on Italian and European art.
Remarkably about 1500 pages of manuscripts by Dürer survive in Dresden, London, Nuremberg and Berlin. These include the manuscript for Book One of the Four Books on Human Proportion. Its pages number 1-89 and on the first page is written:
"1523 at Nuremberg, this is Albrecht Dürer's first book, written by himself. This book I improved and handed to the printer in 1528. Albrecht Dürer."
The so-called Dresden Sketchbook, with 170 pages of drawings, also includes a large number of preparatory drawings for the treatise on human proportion. Dürer's Sketchbook was published as The Human Figure by Albrecht Dürer. The Complete Dresden Virgin and child
Oil on Panel 1500-1509
The Courtald Collection
London Raphael The School of Athens 1509–1510
Dimensions 500 cm × 770 cm (200 in × 300 in)
Apostolic Palace, Vatican City Jan Van Eyck before c. 1395 – before c. 9 July 1441 Roger Van Der Weyden Dirk Bouts
born ca. 1415 – 6 May 1475 Heironymous Bosch 1450-1516 The Temptation
of St. Anthony Pieter Bruegel the Elder
c. 1525 – 9 September 1569 The Tower of Babel 1563 Hunters Return 1565 The Fall of Icarus Portrait by Bronzino The Tempest (c. 1508)
Gallerie dell'Accademia, Venice, Italy Pastoral Concert. Louvre, Paris. A work which the Louvre now attributes to Titian, c. 1509. The Adoration of the Shepherds - Giorgione - 1505
The National Gallery London Ginevra de Benci Lady with ermine The Last Supper The Creation of Adam
Rome Santa Maria delle Grazie
Milan The Seasons - Summer (1568, Ink on paper) Diana and Acteon
Oil on canvas National Gallery London Pieter Bruegel
the Younger 1564, Brussels, Belgium - ca. 1638, Antwerp The Harvesters 1565 (180 Kb); Oil on wood, 118.1 x 160.7 cm Portrait of Robert de Masmines.
c. 1425. Oil on wood. Robert Campin. (c. 1375 – 26 April 1444) Mérode Altarpiece The Annunciation
circa 1420-1440 Detail Cimabue
(c. 1240–1302) Verrocchio
Andrea del Verrocchio (c. 1435–1488) Madonna and child
c.1470 The Baptism of Christ. Uffizi, Florence.
Verrocchio and Leonardo da Vinci David
Florence David Statue of Bartolomeo Colleoni
cast by Leopardi Christ and St. Thomas
Florence) Madonna with Saints John
the Baptist & Donatus
Lorenzo di Credi Donato di Niccolò di Betto Bardi
(circa 1386 – December 13, 1466), Paolo Uccello (1397 – 10 December 1475),
born Paolo di Dono Painter
Mathematician Profile portrait of Dante, by Sandro Botticelli Dante Alighieri,
author of The Divine Comedy Ovid 20 March 43 BC – AD 17/18 Literature Plato Aristotle Giovanni Boccaccio 1313 - 1375 Lady Fortune (an aspect of Fortuna) spins her Rota Fortunae in the illustration on this recto (from a 1467 edition of Boccaccio's De Casibus Virorum The Symposium Ethics Marsilio Ficino (Latin name: Marsilius Ficinus) (Italian pronunciation: [marsiljo fitino]; 19 October 1433 – 1 October 1499) was one of the most influential humanist philosophers of the early Italian Renaissance, an astrologer, a reviver of Neoplatonism who was in touch with every major academic thinker and writer of his day, and the first translator of Plato's complete extant works into Latin. His Florentine Academy, an attempt to revive Plato's school, had enormous influence on the direction and tenor of the Italian Renaissance and the development of European philosophy. Bronzino
1502-1572 Bronzino, Agnolo di Cosimo - Venus, Cupid, Folly, and Time - Renaissance (Late, Mannerism) - Oil on wood - Mythology - National Gallery - London, UK
Bronzino, Agnolo di Cosimo (1502 - 1572)
Venus, Cupid, Folly, and Time
Date: ca. 1545 Adoration of the Magi 1481 and 1482 French Emblem Piero della Francesca
(c. 1415 – October 12, 1492) c. 1455–1470 Venice: atmosphere, drama colour Florence A version of an oft-told ancient Greek story concerns a contest between two renowned painters. Zeuxis (born around 464 BC) produced a still life painting so convincing, that birds flew down from the sky to peck at the painted grapes. He then asked his rival, Parrhasius, to pull back a pair of very tattered curtains in order to judge the painting behind them. Parrhasius won the contest, as his painting was of the curtains themselves. Prehistoric Still life, Pompeii, c. 70 AD Roman wall-painting from the House of Julia Felix, Pompeii: still-life with eggs and game, The Venus of Willendorf
24,000 and 22,000 BCE Cave Painting
Lascaux in France (c. 15,000 BCE) Chalandriani Variety Female Figure
Early Cycladic II, about 2300-2200 B.C.MarbleTampa Museum of Art. Gift of The Sahlman Family 2005.10 Greek Bronze Age Early Bronze Age sculptors of the Cycladic Islands in the Greek Aegean Sea created simple, abstract female figurines from native white marble. The original meaning of the statuettes is not known; they have been found both in tombs and in village homes. The austere elegance of these figures was an inspiration for several modern artists working in the early twentieth century. Classical Philosophy Early Painting Classical Art Laocoön and his sons, also known as the Laocoön Group from ca. 200 BC.
Oil and tempera on canvas, The Birth of Venus
Uffizi Gallery 1486
Tempera on canvas Venus Mars and Cupid
1490 Piero di Cosimo 1495-1505. Sandro Botticelli c1445-1510