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Liberalism

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Shaylyn Kirchmayer

on 2 October 2012

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Transcript of Liberalism

Liberalism A collection of ideologies all committed to the individual as the foundation for society. Liberalism has faith in human progress and tends to favor decentralized power, both political and economic affairs, and respect for the sovereignty of the reasoning individual. Principles of Individualism 10 Historical Liberalists Timeline Of Liberalism 10 Anti-Liberalists

A principle in liberal democracies that states that every individual is equal before the law and all citizens are subject to the law The Protestant Reformation
beginning 1517 1700s
Common to collectivists ideologies which can have different meanings depending on the person or the ideology. Governments may try to foster economic equality through tax policies and by ensuring that all people earn equal wages for work of similar value. Principles of Collectivism The Renaissance (14th- 16th century)
Growth of Secularism (a doctrine that rejects religion and religious considerations)
Awareness of individualism
Humanism The enlightenment (18th century)
Age of reason (acceptance of the power of human reason)
The worth of the individual
natural and inalienable rights
democratic values
authority rests with the people 1800s American Revolution (1776) French Revolution (1789) The Industrial Revolution (18th to 19th century) Power of market
Individual reward for initiative
Freedom to pursue personal wealth
Individual responsibility for success or failure
Progress, inventiveness, innovation, efficiency 1900s Liberalism: A movement born out of the ideas of the Enlightenment
(Political Parent)
and the Industrial Revolution (Economic Parent) Individual Rights and freedoms an important feature of liberal democracies
freedom of religion
freedom of association
right to life
liberty
security of the person Economic freedom The freedom to buy what you want and to sell your labour, idea, or product to whomever you wish Self- Interest One's personal interest or advantage Competition An instance of competing or contending with other (for supremacy, a position, or a prize). It is seen as an incentive for individuals and groups to work harder and more efficiently Private Property Owned by an individual, including real estate, other forms of physical possessions, and intellectual property. The right to the protection of private property is central to liberalism Co-operation Public Property Collective Interest Collective Responsibility Adherence to Collective Norms Economic Equality Working together to the same end; a principle emphasized by collectivist ideologies Land, buildings, or vehicles that is not owned by one individual. It is owned by the state or the community, and managed according to the best interests of the community. Set of interests members of a group have in common. Individual members may have individual interests, these interests are often better addressed by making them a common set of interests that the group can address together. Holding a whole group or collective responsible for the actions of individuals (or individual groups) within the group or collective. Faithful observance of the norms or standards imposed on members of a group as a condition of membership in the group. These norms can relate to conduct, values, or appearance. 1400s Rule of Law Aristotle Athens, 384 BC - 322 BC
the idea that the best government provides an active and "happy" life for its people.
firm supporter of private property Thomas Hobbes 1588-1679
He starts evolving people's thinking on different types of government rather than having a monarchy
People are bad and need security more than freedom as a result he favors a dictatorship Baruch Spinoza Netherlands, 1632–1677
Defended the value of separation of church and state as well as forms of democracy John Locke 1632-1704
Believe people are naturally good and where the true source of power not the king whom had the "divine right to rule"
Government should protect life, liberty, and property
Believed in a Leviathan Charles De Montesquieu 1689-1755
Inspired by the systems of government
Believed in separation of government- Legislature, executive, judiciary Voltaire France, (1694–1778)
Believes in religious toleration and freedom of thought
The best ruler was an enlightened monarch who studied the science of government and protected basic rights of the people Jean- Jacques Rousseau Geneva, Switzerland 1712-1778
People are inherently good but have been corrupted by society
"Man is born free; and everywhere he is in chains"
will of the people was absolute authority
Citizens and Government made social contracts in which people consent to be governed Denis Diderot France, (1713–1784)
Supervised in the publication of the encyclopedia (1751-1772)
Encyclopedia brought new ideas to enlightened thinkers
Learned societies informed people of new ideas through public lectures and published reports. John Stuart Mill Adam Smith 1806-1873
Protection in individual freedom and promotion of individual decision making
Individuals should be able to act as she/he wants as long as it does not infringe upon the rights of others
Free speech Published the wealth of nations
If people worked first and foremost for them selves everyone- including the state- would be better off
Government role should be limited to maintaining the rule of law (ensure contracts are followed; provide public works- primary education and road maintenance)
A free market would lead to a stronger economy that would benefit most people in society
laissez faire: the doctrine that government should not interfere in commercial affairs The opposition to the political philosophy of liberalism Lenin Joseph
Stalin Adolf
Hitler Benito
Mussolini Quddafi Mao Tse-Tung 1893-1976
China
Communist Francisco Franco Spain, (1892-1975)
Fascist President Kim Jong Il North Korea
Born 1941; In office 1994-2011 chronic famines
Communist President Saddam Hussein (born in 1937)
Iraq 1979-2003
Iran-Iraq War, Kurdish genocide
one party state
Iraqi leader who waged war against Iran; his invasion of Kuwait led to the Gulf War
at the age of 20 he joined the revolutionary pan-Arab Ba'ath Party-an ideology mixing Arab nationalist, pan-Arabism, Arab socialist and anti-imperialist interests Czar Nicholas II Russia (1894-1917)
Came from a ruling family; Divine Right of Kings
Monarch
He received autocracy from his father
changes in Russia were dangerous; Nicholas dismissed ideas of constitutional government and democracy as 'senseless dreams'. (1922-1952)
USSR (1924-1952)
Communist
Stalin discovered the writings of Vladimir Lenin and decided to become a Marxist revolutionary, eventually joining Lenin's Bolsheviks in 1903 Germany (1933-1945)
Fascist
Hitler became obsessed with German nationalism from a young age.[27] He expressed loyalty only to Germany, despising the declining Habsburg Monarchy and its rule over an ethnically-variegated empire Italy (1883-1945)
Fascist
Early political views were heavily influenced by his father, Alessandro Mussolini, a revolutionary socialist who idolized 19th century Italian nationalist figures with humanist tendencies USSR (1917-1924)
Russian communist revolutionary, politician and political theorist
Lenin gained an interest in revolutionary leftist politics following the execution of his brother in 1887 1942-2011
He was profoundly influenced by major events in the Arab world and the Arab nationalist movement.
He admired Egyptian President Gamal Abdel Nasser and looked to him as a hero during his rise to power in 1952 1500s to 1600s By,
Shaylyn Kirchmayer
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