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APUSH Units 1 & 2
Transcript of APUSH Units 1 & 2
1491-1607 and 1607-1754
The Native American Experience
Spain's Tribute Colonies
The British Atlantic World
Colonies to Empire, 1660-1713
Growth, Diversity, and Conflict 1720-1763
New England's Freehold Society
The Transformation of North America
British North America and the Atlantic World
The Edge of the Old World
West and Central Africa:
Origins of the Atlantic Slave Trade
Exploration and Conquest
Instability, War, and Rebellion
Imperial Wars and Native Peoples
The Imperial Slave Trade
The Northern Maritime Economy
The New Politics of Empire, 1713-1750
Diversity in the Middle Colonies
Commerce, Culture, and Identity
The Mid-Century Challenge:
War, Trade, and Social Conflict, 1750-1763
1. When Europeans arrived, about 60 million people occupied the Americas.
2. Native Americans' cultures ranged from centralized empires to nomadic tribes of hunter-gatherers.
3. Native American cultures varied significantly based on the region.
4. Regional trade networks allowed different groups to share resources. Some rare and valuable objects traveled through the continent. Powerful leaders often had a disproportionate share of wealth.
5. Most Native North Americans were animists who believed that the natural world was suffused with spiritual power. Ideas about war, though, varied widely.
1. Kings and nobles ruled society, and men governed families in
. In many regions, land was given to the eldest son in a practice known as
Most Europeans were peasants
, whose survival meant constant
corroded family relationships.
and ideas of
brought by the
helped transform European society in the 14th and 15th centuries.
4. Major religious events, such as the
Crusades, Protestant Reformation,
changed Europe. Calvin's idea of
1. Empires, kingdoms, and mini-states existed throughout
, where resources were abundant and leaders were powerful.
2. West Africans enjoyed by trans-Saharan and coastal trade.
3. Although Islam spread to Africa, most West Africans acknowledged
in the earth, animals, and plants.
Age of European Exploration
began to connect Europe to the rest of the world.
2. African slaves became a commodity of exchange. The Portuguese became early leaders in the
, which was also popular among trans-Saharan traders.
3. Major 16th century incursions included
invasion of the
, where they controlled resources like gold and silver and monopolized Native American labor.
exchange of ideas, goods, people, resources, and diseases
of Africa, Asia, Europe, and the Americas became known as the
3. The Protestant Reformation, the defeat of Philip II's Spanish armada, and the growing English economy under Elizabeth I all contributed to the
weakening influence of the Spanish
in the New World.
was settled under King James I in
. The men who came hoped to find gold but instead
faced disease, famine, and death
. By 1611, fewer than half of the 1,200 colonists survived.
This guy thought he would be getting gold in Jamestown...
FYI: This movie is very inaccurate.
colonists interacted with the Native American population under Powhatan. They found success from
cash crops like tobacco
and had a representative government known as the
House of Burgesses
Comparing Fact & Fiction
3. Under King Charles I,
Act of Toleration
in 1649 brought freedom of religion to both Protestants and Catholics.
4. Life on plantation colonies was
. Some came as
, who were often
by their masters. The growth of the
industry brought the increased reliance on
African slave labor
became an expansive center for fur trading and missionary work.
New Netherland (New Amsterdam)
and also found success in fur trading. The colony fell under
control and was renamed
3. Although the Five Nations of the
suffered as a result of colonization, they found some success in New York.
were religious separatists that left the Church of England and arrived in
was a self-governing document. Soon
also came to America.
became the first governor of the MA Bay Colony and wanted it to be a
"city upon a hill."
and sought to inspire religious reform and work hard for salvation.
made waves when he advocated toleration and wanted to have separation of church and state.
After being banished, he founded Rhode Island.
believed in only a "covenant of grace" and that God revealed divine truth to individual believers. Thought to be a heretic, she was also
banished and went to Rhode Island
4e. After the English Civil War and the eventual restoration of the English monarchy, Puritans tried to create a godly republican society in America.
reached a peak in
Salem in 1692
. About twenty people were executed. The causes are still debated.
4g. Many New England Puritans owned land, and most men had a vote in the town meeting. Even ordinary farmers had some political power.
1. In the
, New England colonists allied with other Native American groups against the Pequot.
Metacom's War (King Philip's War)
, was the most devastating war between the New England colonists and the Native Americans.
2. Poor Southern farmers and servants resented the exploitation by wealthy planters. Nathaniel Bacon led a rebellion (
) in colonial
in 1676 against
1a. NC and SC colonists refused to live in the feudal society envisioned by proprietors.
relied upon a few thousand slaves to work their
as a refuge for
. Quakers believed in pacifism, some gender equality (!), religious freedom, political equality (for landowning men), and peaceful relations with Native Americans.
2a. England passed a series of
, meant to help them
control colonial trade and enforce mercantilism
. Some acts were violated, and
colonies and England
2b. King James II formed the
Dominion of New England
revoking the charters
abolishing the legislative assemblies
of CT, RI, MA, and Plymouth. The Dominion was subjected to an
authoritarian model of colonial rule
3. After England's
William and Mary
in power as
, colonists rebelled and overthrew the Dominion. Although a Board of Trade continued mercantilism, the
colonies had substantial autonomy
Second Hundred Years' War exposed Native American
gave them leverage
. Native Americans sometimes participated when the imperial warfare reached the colonies, and both England and France sought to ally with them.
2. Britain acquired a great deal of land in The
Treaty of Utrecht
(1713), bringing a period of peace to eastern North America and increasing Britain's commercial supremacy.
1. Britain's West Indian plantations under the
South Atlantic System
drove the slave trade
2a. The slave trade hardened class divisions in Africa. Since most of the Africans sold into slavery were men, new imbalances changed the dynamic of family life in Africa.
2b. African slaves endured the
, or the transatlantic journey.
were overcrowded, and the passengers suffered from disease, starvation, and even death.
3. Though even the
most extreme punishments
of slaves were
permitted by law
, slaves in VA and MD worked under better conditions than slaves in the West Indies.
encouraged to reproduce
, where slaves were outnumbering the white population, there was more
4a. Some slaves were able to maintain
, but the
fear of separation or death
was intense. Slaves built communities, carrying elements of their African heritage with them.
institutions of slavery rested on fear,
planters exerted control
as "tyrants," often relying on
and prohibiting slaves from even simple rights like learning how to read. Although
some slaves rebelled or ran away
, they did so at their own
4c. In the 1739
, a group of
plundered six SC plantations and killed >20 colonists before the
1. Transatlantic commerce expanded, leading to the creation of American
and smaller coastal towns.
2. Wealthy merchants dominated the social life of seaport cities. Artisans and shopkeepers were the middle class. Laborers made up the lower class.
1. The colonies began having more
. Although assemblies had to be responsive to the people wishes to some extent, assemblymen were overwhelmingly members of the
2. During the rule of both George I and George II, there was a
rise of American self-government
. Britain limited their supervision of internal colonial affairs in this strategy known as
5. There was a rise in
as the South evolved into slave societies. The southern elite started to provide more aid to poorer whites (to prevent another Bacon's Rebellion!).
colony was created to
protect Britain's trade/economic interests
. It served as a buffer between British and Spanish territories.
4. American merchants controlled a majority of their trade by the mid-1700s. Britain imposed
and other regulations on the colonists. Some conflicts eventually erupted between the two over these issues.
women beneath men
in both society and the household. They were told to serve men, and the importance of motherhood was stressed.
New England migrants
. Land was passed down to sons, and
women's property rights were subordinate
to those of the family line.
New England's population grew
, there was
less available land
, leaving families unable to give their children land. Some families chose to have smaller families and others moved out to the forests.
were the most
. Though some found economic prosperity, tenant families found it difficult to own land.
Immigrants flocked to PA and NJ
, where wealth was distributed more evenly. Land became scarce as the population grew.
tended to marry within their ethnic groups and
preserved their cultural identities
shaped the culture
of the Middle Colonies.
2b. Large groups of both German and Scots-Irish settlers came to the Middle Colonies.
3. New German immigrants clashed with Pennsylvania Quakers. There were attempts to form alliances between the Quakers, who were a minority by the 1740s, and other religious groups.
Quakers enforced moral behaviors through communal self-discipline
1. New developments in
networks brought people, produce, merchandise, and information to new areas.
Printed materials became uncensored
, allowing for the Enlightenment and Pietism to have a larger impact.
reached the colonies.
Two Treatises of Government
presented the ideas of
(life, liberty, and property) and the
people's power to change the government
Benjamin Franklin was the exemplar of the American Enlightenment
. He founded the
and was deist. He was also responsible for several inventions.
Not to be confused with this John Locke from the TV show, LOST...
This is John Locke
3a. German migrants brought
with them, sparking a
to the colonies, especially in New England.
throughout the colonies in the 1730s. Whitefield's dramatic speeches caught colonists' attention. The
of Great Awakening
because of the
rise of printed publications
Conflicts erupted between Old Lights (conservative ministers) and New Lights (Great Awakening evangelists)
. Conservative ministers didn't like the off-beat tactics of the evangelists.
Evangelists also upset government officials
since their beliefs undermined their authority.
5. A Presbyterian and Baptist revival spread throughout the colonies too. Baptists tended to anger the Southern gentry.
1a. Conflicts over overlapping French and British claims in North America, particularly in the Ohio Valley, led to the
French and Indian War
1b. During the war, the
of Union proposed that "one general government...be formed in America, including all the said colonies."
at the end of the war.
2. As British territorial gains spread after the French and Indian War (Seven Years' War), conflicts arose between new settlers and Native Americans.
3. Britain's economy expanded during the growth of their
. The British relied on more imports of American goods as their
grew. This revolution led to the debt of both consumers and colonists.
Nicholas Boylston, a merchant, was known for showing off his wealth.
4. As the population in the colonies grew, so did the struggle and demand for land.
affected nearly every colony.
5. As colonists sought out westward expansion, they faced restrictions and conflict.