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APUSH Units 1 & 2

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Noelle Toxqui

on 1 September 2014

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Transcript of APUSH Units 1 & 2

Unit 1 and Unit 2
1491-1607 and 1607-1754

Colliding Worlds
1450-1600

The Native American Experience
American Experiments
1521-1700

Spain's Tribute Colonies
The British Atlantic World
1660-1750

Colonies to Empire, 1660-1713
Growth, Diversity, and Conflict 1720-1763
New England's Freehold Society
The Transformation of North America
1450-1700
British North America and the Atlantic World
1660-1763
Western Europe
The Edge of the Old World
West and Central Africa:
Origins of the Atlantic Slave Trade
Exploration and Conquest
Plantation Colonies
Neo-European Colonies
Instability, War, and Rebellion
Imperial Wars and Native Peoples
The Imperial Slave Trade
The Northern Maritime Economy
The New Politics of Empire, 1713-1750
Diversity in the Middle Colonies
Commerce, Culture, and Identity
The Mid-Century Challenge:
War, Trade, and Social Conflict, 1750-1763
1. When Europeans arrived, about 60 million people occupied the Americas.
2. Native Americans' cultures ranged from centralized empires to nomadic tribes of hunter-gatherers.
3. Native American cultures varied significantly based on the region.
4. Regional trade networks allowed different groups to share resources. Some rare and valuable objects traveled through the continent. Powerful leaders often had a disproportionate share of wealth.
5. Most Native North Americans were animists who believed that the natural world was suffused with spiritual power. Ideas about war, though, varied widely.
1. Kings and nobles ruled society, and men governed families in
patriarchies
. In many regions, land was given to the eldest son in a practice known as
primogeniture
.
2.
Most Europeans were peasants
, whose survival meant constant
labor
. Constant
poverty
corroded family relationships.
3. Expanding
trade networks
and ideas of
civic humanism
brought by the
Renaissance
helped transform European society in the 14th and 15th centuries.
4. Major religious events, such as the
Crusades, Protestant Reformation,
and
Counter-Reformation
changed Europe. Calvin's idea of
predestination
influenced European
Puritans
.
1. Empires, kingdoms, and mini-states existed throughout
Western Africa
, where resources were abundant and leaders were powerful.
2. West Africans enjoyed by trans-Saharan and coastal trade.
3. Although Islam spread to Africa, most West Africans acknowledged
multiple gods
and
spirits
in the earth, animals, and plants.
1. The
Age of European Exploration
began to connect Europe to the rest of the world.
2. African slaves became a commodity of exchange. The Portuguese became early leaders in the
slave trade
, which was also popular among trans-Saharan traders.
3. Major 16th century incursions included
Columbus
and the
Caribbean
, the
Spanish
invasion of the
Americas
, and
Cabral
and
Brazil
.
1.
Spaniards
settled in
Mesoamerica
and the
Andes
, where they controlled resources like gold and silver and monopolized Native American labor.
2. The
exchange of ideas, goods, people, resources, and diseases
between the
colliding worlds
of Africa, Asia, Europe, and the Americas became known as the
Columbian Exchange
.
3. The Protestant Reformation, the defeat of Philip II's Spanish armada, and the growing English economy under Elizabeth I all contributed to the
weakening influence of the Spanish
in the New World.
1.
Jamestown, VA
was settled under King James I in
1607
. The men who came hoped to find gold but instead
faced disease, famine, and death
. By 1611, fewer than half of the 1,200 colonists survived.
This guy thought he would be getting gold in Jamestown...

FYI: This movie is very inaccurate.
2.
Jamestown
colonists interacted with the Native American population under Powhatan. They found success from
cash crops like tobacco
and had a representative government known as the
House of Burgesses
.
Comparing Fact & Fiction
3. Under King Charles I,
Lord Baltimore
brought
Catholics
to
Maryland
. The
Act of Toleration
in 1649 brought freedom of religion to both Protestants and Catholics.
4. Life on plantation colonies was
harsh
. Some came as
indentured servants
, who were often
exploited
by their masters. The growth of the
tobacco
industry brought the increased reliance on
African slave labor
.
1.
France
became an expansive center for fur trading and missionary work.
2. The
Dutch
settled in
New Netherland (New Amsterdam)
and also found success in fur trading. The colony fell under
English
control and was renamed
New York.
3. Although the Five Nations of the
Iroquois
suffered as a result of colonization, they found some success in New York.
4a. The
Pilgrims
were religious separatists that left the Church of England and arrived in
Plymouth, MA
on the
Mayflower
. The
Mayflower Compact
was a self-governing document. Soon
Puritans
also came to America.
4b.
John Winthrop
became the first governor of the MA Bay Colony and wanted it to be a
"city upon a hill."

Puritans
believed in
predestination
and sought to inspire religious reform and work hard for salvation.
4c.
Roger Williams
made waves when he advocated toleration and wanted to have separation of church and state.
After being banished, he founded Rhode Island.
4d.
Anne Hutchinson
believed in only a "covenant of grace" and that God revealed divine truth to individual believers. Thought to be a heretic, she was also
banished and went to Rhode Island
.
4e. After the English Civil War and the eventual restoration of the English monarchy, Puritans tried to create a godly republican society in America.
4f.
Witchcraft hysteria
reached a peak in
Salem in 1692
. About twenty people were executed. The causes are still debated.
4g. Many New England Puritans owned land, and most men had a vote in the town meeting. Even ordinary farmers had some political power.
1. In the
Puritan-Pequot War
, New England colonists allied with other Native American groups against the Pequot.
Metacom's War (King Philip's War)
, was the most devastating war between the New England colonists and the Native Americans.
2. Poor Southern farmers and servants resented the exploitation by wealthy planters. Nathaniel Bacon led a rebellion (
Bacon's Rebellion
) in colonial
Virginia
in 1676 against
Governor Berkeley
.
1a. NC and SC colonists refused to live in the feudal society envisioned by proprietors.
NC
and
SC
relied upon a few thousand slaves to work their
coastal plantations
.
1b. William
Penn
founded
PA
as a refuge for
Quakers
. Quakers believed in pacifism, some gender equality (!), religious freedom, political equality (for landowning men), and peaceful relations with Native Americans.
2a. England passed a series of
Navigation Acts
, meant to help them
control colonial trade and enforce mercantilism
. Some acts were violated, and
conflicts
arose
between
the
colonies and England
(particularly
MA
)
2b. King James II formed the
Dominion of New England
after
revoking the charters
and
abolishing the legislative assemblies
of CT, RI, MA, and Plymouth. The Dominion was subjected to an
authoritarian model of colonial rule
.
3. After England's
Glorious Revolution
put
William and Mary
in power as
constitutional monarchs
, colonists rebelled and overthrew the Dominion. Although a Board of Trade continued mercantilism, the
colonies had substantial autonomy
(for awhile...).
1. England's
Second Hundred Years' War exposed Native American
communities to
danger
and also
gave them leverage
. Native Americans sometimes participated when the imperial warfare reached the colonies, and both England and France sought to ally with them.
2. Britain acquired a great deal of land in The
Treaty of Utrecht
(1713), bringing a period of peace to eastern North America and increasing Britain's commercial supremacy.
1. Britain's West Indian plantations under the
South Atlantic System
brought
massive profits
and
drove the slave trade
.
2a. The slave trade hardened class divisions in Africa. Since most of the Africans sold into slavery were men, new imbalances changed the dynamic of family life in Africa.
2b. African slaves endured the
Middle Passage
, or the transatlantic journey.
Slave ships
were overcrowded, and the passengers suffered from disease, starvation, and even death.
3. Though even the
most extreme punishments
of slaves were
permitted by law
, slaves in VA and MD worked under better conditions than slaves in the West Indies.
Women
were
encouraged to reproduce
. In
SC
, where slaves were outnumbering the white population, there was more
oppression
.
4a. Some slaves were able to maintain
families
, but the
fear of separation or death
was intense. Slaves built communities, carrying elements of their African heritage with them.
4b. The
institutions of slavery rested on fear,
so
planters exerted control
as "tyrants," often relying on
violence
and
brutality
and prohibiting slaves from even simple rights like learning how to read. Although
some slaves rebelled or ran away
, they did so at their own
risk
.
4c. In the 1739
Stono Rebellion
, a group of
slaves
plundered six SC plantations and killed >20 colonists before the
rebellion
was suppressed.
1. Transatlantic commerce expanded, leading to the creation of American
port cities
and smaller coastal towns.
2. Wealthy merchants dominated the social life of seaport cities. Artisans and shopkeepers were the middle class. Laborers made up the lower class.
1. The colonies began having more
assemblies
. Although assemblies had to be responsive to the people wishes to some extent, assemblymen were overwhelmingly members of the
colonial elite
.
2. During the rule of both George I and George II, there was a
rise of American self-government
. Britain limited their supervision of internal colonial affairs in this strategy known as
salutary neglect
.
5. There was a rise in
southern gentry
as the South evolved into slave societies. The southern elite started to provide more aid to poorer whites (to prevent another Bacon's Rebellion!).
3. The
Georgia
colony was created to
protect Britain's trade/economic interests
. It served as a buffer between British and Spanish territories.
4. American merchants controlled a majority of their trade by the mid-1700s. Britain imposed
tariffs
and other regulations on the colonists. Some conflicts eventually erupted between the two over these issues.
1.
Puritan society
placed
women beneath men
in both society and the household. They were told to serve men, and the importance of motherhood was stressed.
2.
New England migrants
from Europe
wanted farms/land
. Land was passed down to sons, and
women's property rights were subordinate
to those of the family line.
3. As
New England's population grew
, there was
less available land
, leaving families unable to give their children land. Some families chose to have smaller families and others moved out to the forests.
1a. The
Middle Colonies
were the most
ethnically diverse
. Though some found economic prosperity, tenant families found it difficult to own land.
1b.
Immigrants flocked to PA and NJ
, where wealth was distributed more evenly. Land became scarce as the population grew.
2a.
Migrants
tended to marry within their ethnic groups and
preserved their cultural identities
.
Quakers
overwhelmingly
shaped the culture
of the Middle Colonies.
2b. Large groups of both German and Scots-Irish settlers came to the Middle Colonies.
3. New German immigrants clashed with Pennsylvania Quakers. There were attempts to form alliances between the Quakers, who were a minority by the 1740s, and other religious groups.
Quakers enforced moral behaviors through communal self-discipline
.
1. New developments in
transportation
networks brought people, produce, merchandise, and information to new areas.
Printed materials became uncensored
, allowing for the Enlightenment and Pietism to have a larger impact.
2a. Europe's
Enlightenment
reached the colonies.
John Locke's
Two Treatises of Government
presented the ideas of
natural rights
(life, liberty, and property) and the
people's power to change the government
.
2b.
Benjamin Franklin was the exemplar of the American Enlightenment
. He founded the
Pennsylvania Gazette
and was deist. He was also responsible for several inventions.
Not to be confused with this John Locke from the TV show, LOST...
This is John Locke
3a. German migrants brought
pietism
with them, sparking a
religious revival
to the colonies, especially in New England.
3b.
George Whitefield
led a
Great Awakening
throughout the colonies in the 1730s. Whitefield's dramatic speeches caught colonists' attention. The
ideas
of Great Awakening
spread
more
quickly
because of the
rise of printed publications
.
4.
Conflicts erupted between Old Lights (conservative ministers) and New Lights (Great Awakening evangelists)
. Conservative ministers didn't like the off-beat tactics of the evangelists.
Evangelists also upset government officials
since their beliefs undermined their authority.
5. A Presbyterian and Baptist revival spread throughout the colonies too. Baptists tended to anger the Southern gentry.
1a. Conflicts over overlapping French and British claims in North America, particularly in the Ohio Valley, led to the
French and Indian War
.
1b. During the war, the
Albany Plan
of Union proposed that "one general government...be formed in America, including all the said colonies."
1c.
Great Britain
was
victorious
at the end of the war.
2. As British territorial gains spread after the French and Indian War (Seven Years' War), conflicts arose between new settlers and Native Americans.
3. Britain's economy expanded during the growth of their
industrial revolution
. The British relied on more imports of American goods as their
consumer revolution
grew. This revolution led to the debt of both consumers and colonists.
Nicholas Boylston, a merchant, was known for showing off his wealth.
4. As the population in the colonies grew, so did the struggle and demand for land.
Land disputes
affected nearly every colony.
5. As colonists sought out westward expansion, they faced restrictions and conflict.
Full transcript