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Idiots Guide to Intelligence

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Lucy Zhang

on 23 January 2013

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Transcript of Idiots Guide to Intelligence

Idiots Guide to Intelligence By: Lucy Zhang & Rosie Welles Mental retardation Projective Tests Asks people to respond to vague things to uncover their innermost needs, feelings, personality. Thematic Apperception Test When someone is shown a group of pictures and asked to give the characters emotions and weave them into a story Personality: Evolution of Intelligence Family Studies Extremes of Intelligence how someone consistently behaves. tests that have someone report their own thoughts about their personality. a test that aids in identifying psychological disorders. Measures 10 personality traits. Shows profiles indicative of of specific orders. Raymond Cattell, measures basic dimensions of normal personality with 16 source traits. only 5 traits dimensions necessary: neuroticism, extraversion, openness to experience, agreeableness, and conscientiousness. Myers Briggs: Self-Reporting Inventory: Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory: 16F Personality Inventory: NEO Personality Inventory: Types of Tests:
Mental Ability Intelligence measures your overall mental ability
tests for potential (like aptitude tests)
is a type of aptitude test Aptitude measures your ability in a specific field
intelligence tests are a type of aptitude tests These measure potential! Achievement this tests a person's mastery of any subject, intellectual or physical This tests what
you already know! it is widely suggested that gifted children ought not be selected only on the basis of IQ, but they usually are for the convenience of schools
Lewis Terman took lots of kids with and IQ average of 150 and studied them; he noted that they were above average in health, social skills, and physicality as well as intelligence
Winner noticed a big difference between 'profoundly gifted' children with an IQ of 180+, and moderately gifted children with an IQ of 130-120 (profoundly gifted children had much more social issues on average than moderately gifted ones) twin studies: give lots of support for genetic factors of intelligence (identical twins have greater intelligence similarity than regular siblings, because they have greater genetic similarity) adoption studies: this gives lots of support to genetic because adopted children resemble their biological parents' in intelligence, though they weren't raised by them. Environmental Influence that children who aren't raised in stimulating environments will experience a drop in their IQ's as they age, since the other children will be progressing and they won't be. Flynn Effect: the gradual increase in performance on IQ tests throughout the past 70 years (attributed to the improvement of standardized schooling) Reaction Range: though environment determines one's actual intelligence, the reaction range determines the window in which that IQ will fall with genetic information (made by Sandra Scarr) Cultural Differences in IQ Scores Arthur Jensen felt that any average differences in IQ between races was based off of mostly heredity and genetic makeup Socioeconomic Disadvantage as an Explanation Extraversion (E) – (I) Introversion
Sensing (S) – (N) Intuition
Thinking (T) – (F) Feeling
Judging (J) – (P) Perception Dichotomies: Stereotype Vulnerability as an Explanation measures psychological preferences in how people perceive the world and make decisions stereotype vulnerabilty: a feeling of intellectual worthlessness that can occur in the education of someone whose ethnicity is stigmatized as being unintelligent when someone is told they are dumb because of their race, they will often believe it. Biological Indexes and Correlates of Intelligence Fast is Smart Jensen tested reaction time and found a correlation between good reaction time and a high IQ
inspection time tests how long it takes for a subject to notice differences in images (for accuracy) Big Brain Big IQ Rorschach Test People are given 10 inkblots and are encouraged to elaborate on what they see in the inkblots there is a small positive correlation between brain size and IQ
this suggests huge advantages for those who support genetics providing the majority of intelligence Smart People Get Older there is a positive relationship between age and IQ
this suggests that mental health is a difficult thing that smart people are better suited for in the long run Triarchic Theory on Intelligence three facets of intelligence 1830ish 1970s Practical intelligence the ability to problem-solve relevant things Creative intelligence the ability to problem-solve in a new way and think of new things Galton Analytical intelligence Nature vs. Nurture Success and intelligence is inheritable. uses abstract, objective thinking and judgement 1900s GARDNER'S 10 INTELLIGENCES Binet Simon 1. Logical/Mathmatical ability to understand patterns and reasoning 2. Linguistic a sensitivity to the rhythm and sound of words and the many uses of language 3. Musical Mental age: intelligence of someone with whichever chronological age. ability to understand the emotion of music as well as the subtleties of rhythm, pitch, and tone 4. Spatial ability to see the 3D world with precision and change things within one's own perception of the world 5. Bodily-Kinesthetic ability to understand how one's body is moving through space and how to handle objects in the same space Terman Stanford-Binet 6. Interpersonal the understanding of others' moods and temperaments, as well as how to respond to them The SAT’s & ACT’s are called Standardized Tests. Standardizing makes test results comparable and useful. Test Norms: information about scores on tests compared to other scores on that same test 7. Intrapersonal ability to assess one's own emotions, strengths, and weaknesses 8. Naturalist Metal age Chronological Age x 100 Made IQ comparable across age differences ability to understand and organize the organisms and processes of the natural world = 9. Existential Wechsler Created an IQ test for Adults ability to be sensitive to the idea of bigger questions surrounding our existence in the universe 10. Moral 1950s ability to recognize the sanctity of human life and the dedication to retain such beliefs Included Non-Verbal Intelligence Creativity! Convergent v Divergent Thinking Percentile Score: the percentage of people who score at or below the score that you achieved. If you score 80 percentile, you did better than 80 percent of the population of test takers. Nice! convergent thinking narrows down your options to one (academic thinking) divergent thinking expands your possibilities outward from one (it works, but isn't that creative) Reliability: how consistent a test is. If you got an 75 on the test once, you should get another 75 if you take the test again. Creativity and Intelligence Woodcock Johnson Test (WJIII) not really related- they are conceptually different Creativity and Mental Illness It may be administered to children and adults. Covers a wide variety of cognitive skills. there is a somewhat common correlation between the two, especially when it comes to clinical depression Validity: how closely a test measures what it was supposed to measure. Content Validity: the extent to which the content of the test is a sample of the material it is supposed to cover The Three Validities Construct Validity: evidence on how well a test measures abstract things (independence or introversion). Criterion-Related Validity: making a link between the score on the test on a particular trait and that same trait by some other measure. children born in poorer neighborhoods often have less parental attention, access to literature, and pressure to excell in school, and often have lower IQ's as a result. IQ Today IQ is more of a measure of standard deviation than a real measure of IQ. Normal Distribution aka The Bell Curve Standard Deviation: how spread apart from the norm IQ doesn't determine success in the work force, although more intelligent people may acquire better jobs, they don't necessarily keep them or excel in them. Cumulative Deprivation Hypothesis: Mild 51-70 Moderate 36-50 Severe 20-35 Prfound <20 Causes: Fetal Alcohol Syndrome
Down Syndrome
Phenylketonuria
Hydrocephaly
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