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Participation Motivation

KIN 247: A very brief intro to psychological principles underlying participation motivation and the foundation for exercise psychology
by

Sean Mullen

on 6 February 2014

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Transcript of Participation Motivation


Are these theories useful?


Need for self-determination (autonomy)
Desire to be self-initiating in the regulation of personal behavior
Need to demonstrate competence
Desire to interact effectively with the environment
Experience mastery
Need for relatedness
Desire to feel connected to other people
Social support/interactions
SDT Needs
Strategies for Enhancing Exercise Identities:
People behave in ways that are consistent with their self-definitions (current, past or future)
Regular exercisers tend to be those who feel exercise is both descriptive and important to their self-image
Self-Schema Theory
Self-efficacy beliefs and social factors interact to influence the self-monitoring of one’s own behavior, its effects, and its determinants
Social-Cognitive Theory
Strategies for Strengthening
Self-Efficacy Expectations
Physiological responses/Affective states
Instruction on accurate and positive interpretation of heart rate, perspiration, muscle soreness, general fatigue
Strategies for Strengthening
Self-Efficacy Expectations
Verbal persuasion
Providing information and orientation seminars for participants
Developing social support networks to encourage participation (buddy system)
Provide a telephone hot line or e-mail reminder system for frequent absentees
Strategies for Strengthening
Self-Efficacy Expectations
Vicarious learning
Showing videotapes of successful models
Providing frequent leader or expert demonstrations
Use participant modeling
Use cooperative activities in groups or with partners
Mastery Experiences
Gradually increasing speed, grade, or duration on treadmills
Gradually increasing load, repetitions, or sets in weight lifting
Strategies for Strengthening
Self-Efficacy Expectations
From Theory to Intervention
Stages of Change
Pre-contemplation
Contemplation
Preparation
Action
Maintenance
Behavior change is not a quick process but a gradual progression through a series of stages
Trans-theoretical Model
Theories Used to Help Explain Exercise Behavior
Self-determination theory
Meeting needs and intrinsic motives are key

Exercise self-schema theory
Exercise needs to be reflective of an important to self-image

Social-cognitive theory
Self-efficacy an important predictor of participation

Trans-theoretical model
Stages of exercise behavior and matching interventions to those stages
Example of a BAD Theory of Exercise Behavior
Woman exercises
2X/week on average
Temporary reduction in activity throughout the year
Resumes habitual exercise regimen
Exercise Participation Motivation
< 25% of adults exercise enough to accrue health benefits
Being older, African-American, poor, female, less educated, overweight all related to sedentary behavior
Wanting to exercise and actually becoming and remaining active a very different story
Many barriers to exercise
How we think about ourselves and our abilities influence our behaviors
The Sport Commitment Model (Scanlan et al., 1993)
Offers a framework for understanding participation and transitions.
5 factors influence sport commitment:
Sport enjoyment – fun!
Involvement alternatives - choices
Personal investments – time, $$
Social constraints – perceived obligations
Involvement opportunities – what you’ll miss
All Types of Motivation the Same?
Motivation is a global term for a complex process:
Physical educators motivate students
Coaches motivate players
Exercise leaders motivate participants
Athletic trainers motivate clients
Today's Objectives:
Become familiar with major motivational theories applicable to physical activity context
Learn difference between stage vs. continuum theories
Be able to translate theory-to-practice!
Psychological Principles of Participation Motivation
Individuals who exercise for reasons reflective of low self-determination are less likely to adhere to an exercise regimen compared to someone who exercises for the inherent pleasure involved
Personal motives must meet basic human needs
Self-Determination Theory
Self-Schemata
Exerciser schematics
Described as exercisers and rate this self-identification as crucial to self-image
Nonexerciser schematics
Described as nonexercisers who consider descriptor to be a significant to their self-image
Aschematics
Described as nonexercisers but don’t consider perception to be important to self-image
Participation Motivation
What motivates children to participate in sport?
Having fun
Fitness benefits or joy of PA
Affiliation needs
Skill improvement/need for achievement
Why do some discontinue?
Activity no longer fun
Fails to fulfill needs for achievement
Conflicts with other activities
Poor coaching/negative experiences
Participation Motivation
What motivates individuals to participate in sport?
Motivation Can Vary Across Contexts
Why do people initiate involvement in sport and exercise?
Why do people continue participation?
Why do people discontinue participation?
Why do some people exert more effort than others?
Affect
Cognitions
Behavior
Self-Efficacy
Vicarious Experience
Social Persuasion
Physiological/Affective States
Past Performance
Diagram of SCT (Bandura, 1986)
Extrinsic Motivation
Conceptual Diagram
of SDT Motives
determination
-
self
Low
determination
-
High self
EXTRNSIC MOTIVATION
Amotivation
External Regulation
Introjected Regulation
Identified Regulation
Integrated Regulation
Intrinsic Motivation
None
Gain reward, avoid punishment
Sense of obligation
Achieving personal goals
Confirming sense of self
Pleasure, satisfaction
Dr. Sean Mullen
Possible Selves
"Clothing Makes The Self"

Intrinsic Motivation
As needs are met...
Full transcript